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ships in the English feet, yet scarce were there 22 or 23 among them all, which matched 90 of the Spanish ships in the bigness, or could conveniently assault them. Wherefore the English ships using their prerogative of nimble steerage, whereby they could turn and wield themselves with the wind which way they listed,3 came often very near upon the Spaniards, and charged them so sore,4 that now and then they were but a pike's length asunder: and so continually giving them one broadside after another,5 they discharged all their shot both great and small 6 upon them, spending one whole day from morning till night in that violent kind of conflict, until powder and bullets ? failed them. In regard of which want 8 they thought it 9 convenient not to pursue the Spaniards any longer, because they had many great advantages of the English, namely, for the extraordinary bigness of their ships, and also for that they were so nearly conjoined, and kept together in so good array, that they could by no means be fought withal one to one. The English thought, therefore, that they had right well acquitted themselves, in chasing the Spaniards first from Calais, and then from Dunkirk, and by that means to have hindered them from joining with 10 the Duke of Parma's forces, and getting the wind of them, to have driven them from their own coasts.

“ The Spaniards that day sustained great loss and damage, having many of their ships shot through and through,11 and they discharged likewise great store of 1 en grandeur.

maints quolibets (low jokes) ren2 Simply, agilité.

voyés coup sur coup.– LA FON3 Obsolete, for 'wished,' 'liked.' TAINE, page 33. 4 Use attaquer rudement.

6 tous leurs boulets et tout leur 5 et à force de leur lâcher (or plomb. upon them ;' p. 22, n.!. tirer) des bordées coup sur coup. 7 projectiles (missiles).—' failed,' There is a misconception to be after 'until ;' see page 299, note 3. guarded against, here: coup is not 8 Give to the whole of this old used exactly for coup de canon English style a modern French (firing of a gun), though it might construction. be said to mean that, indirectly, 9 See page 249, note 9. in this particular case; the idiom- 10 'to join with,' rallior (a atic expression coup sur coup (one naval term). after another') may be said of 11 traversés ; or, percés de part almost anything, as, e.g., “ Après en part,

ordinancel against the English ; who, indeed, sustained some hindrance, but not comparable to the Spaniards’ loss : for they did not lose either one sbip or person of importance, although Sir Francis Drake's ship was pierced with shot about forty times.”

It reflects little credit on the English government? that the English fleet was so deficiently supplied with ammunition, as to be unable3 to complete the destruction of the invaders. But enough was done to ensure it. Many of the largest Spanish ships were sunk or captured in the action of this day. And at length the Spanish admiral, despairing of success, fled northward with a southerly wind, in the hope of rounding Scotland, and so returning to Spain without a farther encounter with the English fleet. Lord Effingham left a squadron to continue the blockade of the Prince of Parma's armament; but that wise general soon withdrew 5 his troops to more promising fields of action. Meanwhile the lordadmiral himself and Drake chased the vincible: Armada, as it was now termed, for some distance northward ; and then, when it seemed to bend away from the Scotch coast towards Norway, 10 it was thought best, in the words of Drake, “ to leave them to those boisterous and uncouth northern seas.”

The sufferings and losses which the unbappy Spaniards sustained in their flight round Scotland and Ireland, are well known. Of their whole Armada only fifty-three shattered vessels brought back their beaten and wasted crews to the Spanish coast which they had quitted in such pageantry and pride.—(CREASY, The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World.)

i firent également force décharges foto combats that promised d'artillerie'; force, used thus ad- (page 55, note 8) more glory.' verbially, means 'plenty of.'

to chase,' as a naval term. 2 Il revient peu d'honneur au donner chasse à. gouvernement anglais, du fait. 8 vincible ; a new (French) word,

3. 80 deficiently .... as to be little used as yet. unable ;' turn, 'too deficiently.. s'éloigner: - Scotch coast ; see .. to be able.

page 309, note 9. 4 Simply, dans cette journée (in jo en se dirigeant vers la Nor. this battle). 5 Use remmener. wége.

THE BATTLE OF ASSYE (INDIA). [Extracted from the Duke of WELLINGTONs Despatches.]

TO THE GOVERNOR GENERAL.

Camp at 1 Assye, 24th Sept., 1803. I was joined by Major Hill, with the last of the convoys expected from the river Kistna, on the 18th; and on the 20th was enabled to move forward towards the enemy, who had been joined, in the course of the last seven or eight days, by the infantry under Colonel Pohlman, by that belonging to Begum Sumroo, and by another brigade of infantry, the name of whose commander I have not ascertained. The enemy's army was collected about Bokerdun, and between that place and Jaffierabad.

I was near Colonel Stevenson's corps on the 21st, and had a conference with that officer, in which we concerted a plan to attack the enemy's army with the divisions under our command 4 on the 24th, in the morning; and we marched on the 22nd, Colonel Stevenson by the western route, and I by the eastern route, round the bills between Budnapoor and Jaulna.

On the 23rd, I arrived at Naulniah, and there received a report that Scindiah and the Rajah of Berar had moved off in the morning with their cavalry, and that the infantry were about to follow, but were still in camp 5 at the distance of about six miles from the ground on which I had intended to encamp. It was obvious that the attack was no longer to be delayed ; and, having provided for the security of my baggage and stores at Naulniah, I marched on to attack the enemy.

I found the whole combined army of Scindiah and the Rajah of Berar encamped on the bank of the Kaitna i Use de here, not d.

30, note 15. 2 dont je ne sais pas encore le 4 nos ordres. nom du commandant.

5 Use the past participle of 3 was, had ;' see page 1, camper, note 3, page 55, note 8, and page

Drake and Fenner were the first English captains who attacked the unwieldy leviathans : then came Fenton, South well, Burton, Cross, Raynor, and then the lord admiral, with Lord Thomas Howard and Lord Sheffield. The Spaniards only thought of forming and keeping close together, and were driven by the English past Dunkirk, and far away from the Prince of Parma, who in watching their defeat from the coast, must, as Drake expressed it, have chafed like a bear robbed of her whelps. This was indeed the last and the 3 decisive battle between the two fleets. It is, perhaps, best described in the very words of the contemporary writer as we may read them in Hakluyt.4

“Upon the 29th of July in the morning, the Spanish fleet after the abovementioned tumult,5 having arranged themselves again into order, 6 were, within sight of Gravelines, most bravely and furiously encountered by the English ; where they once again got the wind of the Spaniards ; who suffered themselves to be deprived of the commodity of the place in Calais road,' and of the advantage of the wind near unto Dunkirk, rather than they would change 10 their array or separate their forces now conjoined and united together, standing only upon their defence.11

And howbeit 12 there were many excellent and warlike13

"It was for the English a precious now be the word, here. opportunity of giving the attack, 6'having put itself again (de and of preventing for ever (page nouveau) in order of battle.' 220, note 7) the Spaniards from 'were,' &c. ; see page 41, note 7. letting loose (lâcher) the flotilla of 7 "There ;' put within sight of the duke—the prince-of Parma Gravelines' last, and put à full (Parme) against England (see page stop after 'Gravelines.'' 22, note 1); and that opportunity 8 'to get the wind of,' gagner le was admirably used (mise à profit).' vent (or, le dessus du vent) d.

1 d se former et à serrer la ligne grade, in this sense ; and turn, (a naval term).-The military term 'the road of C . is, serrer les files. Dunkerque. 10 (rather than change (de, be

3 'the should not be repeated, sides que, before the verb). as both adjectives qualify the same 11 We should sa

how noun : this case is the reverse of 'and standing only upon the dethat at p. 192, n. 9, and p. 238, n. 1. fensive.

4 Simply, Mais laissons parler 12 although.' un écrivain contemporain,

13 .warlike,' in this case, bien 5affray' (échauffourée) would armés en guerre.

ships in the English fleet, yet scarce were there 22 or 23 among them all, which matched 90 of the Spanish ships in the bigness, or could conveniently assault them. Wherefore the English ships using their prerogative of nimble steerage,2 whereby they could turn and wield themselves with the wind which way they listed, came often very near upon the Spaniards, and charged them so sore,4 that now and then they were but a pike's length asunder: and so continually giving them one broadside after another, they discharged all their shot both great and small6 upon them, spending one whole day from morning till night in that violent kind of conflict, until powder and bullets? failed them. In regard of which want 8 they thought it 9 convenient not to pursue the Spaniards any longer, because they had many great advantages of the English, namely, for the extraordinary bigness of their ships, and also for that they were so nearly conjoined, and kept together in so good array, that they could by no means be fought withal one to one. The English thought, therefore, that they had right well acquitted themselves, in chasing the Spaniards first from Calais, and then from Dunkirk, and by that means to have hindered them from joining with 10 the Duke of Parma’s forces, and getting the wind of them, to have driven them from their own coasts.

“ The Spaniards that day sustained great loss and damage, having many of their ships shot through and through,11 and they discharged likewise great store of i en grandeur.

maints quolibets (low jokes) ren2 Simply, agilité.

voyés coup sur coup." -LA FON3 Obsolete, for wished,' 'liked.' TAINE, page 33. 4 Use attaquer rudement.

6 tous leurs boulets et tout leur 5 et à force de leur lâcher (or plomb.—'upon them;' p. 22, n. ?. tirer) des bordées coup sur coup. 7 projectiles (missiles). -' failed,' There is a misconception to be after 'until ; see page 299, note 3. guarded against, here : coup is not 8 Give to the whole of this old used exactly for coup de canon English style a modern French (firing of a gun), though it might construction. be said to mean that, indirectly, 9 See page 249, note 9. in this particular case; the idiom- 10 'to join with,' ralling (a atic expression coup sur coup ('one naval term). after another') may be said of 11 traversés; or, percés de part almost anything, as, e.g., “ Après en part.

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