but a few servants and stragglers of the army. The interruptions which the English troops met with,2 threw them a little into disorder;: when the moon arising, showed them the Scottish army, which they had supposed to be retreating, drawn up in complete order, and prepared to fight.4 The battle commenced 5 with the greatest fury; for Percy and Douglas were the two most distinguished soldiers 6 of their time, and each army trusted in the courage and talents of their commanders, whose names were shouted on either side. The Scots, who were outnumbered, 9 were at length about to give way, when Douglas, their leader, caused his banner to advance, attended by his best men 10. He himself,11.shouting his war-cry of “Douglas !” rushed forward, clearing his way with the blows of his battle-axe, and breaking into the very thickest of the enemy.12 He fell, at length, under three mortal wounds.13 Had his death been observed 14 by the enemy, the event would probably 15 have decided the battle against the Scots; but the English only knew that some brave man-at-arms had fallen.16 Meantime, the other Scottish nobles pressed forward, and found their general 17 dying among several of his faithful esquires and pages, who lay slain around.18 A stout priest, called William of North Berwick, the

i quelques trainards (or, traî. 12 Turn, "Then, shouting (use neurs) et quelques valets d'armée. pousser, here) his .... &c., he

? "the obstacles which he pre- rushed forward himself into the sented to the march of the English very thickest of the enemy (dans troops.'

le plus fort de la mêlée), clearing 3 put some (quelque, here) dis- his way with the blows of (se frayorder in their ranks.

ant un passage avec) his battle4 when,' &c. ; turn, and it was axe.' at the moment that (see page 18, percé de trois coups mortels. note 10) they thought the Scotch 14 See page 29, note 8.-'death' in full retreat, that by the moon- ... 'observed,' événement ... shine (à la clarté de la lune) they connu. saw them drawn up in complete 15 'it (il, here, not ce, which order, and prepared to fight (rangés means “it' in the sense of that'en ordre de bataille et les attendant i.e., that thing, mentioned before) de pied ferme).' 5 Use s'engager. “is probable that it would.

6 celebrated captains.' chefs. 16 brave chevalier venait de mor

8 étaient répétés à grands cris de dre la poussière. chaque. 9 * inferior in number.' 17 s'étaient élancés sur les pas de

11 under the escort of his best leur général qu'ils trouvèrent. warriors.'

18who,' &c., massacrés autour 11 See page 86, note 1

de lui.

chaplain 1 of Douglas, was protecting the body of his wounded patron with a long lance.2

“How fares it, cousin ?” said Sinclair, the first Scottish knight who came up to the expiring leader.

“ Indifferently,” 4 answered Douglas ; “but blessed be 5 God, my ancestors have died 6 in fields of battle, not on down beds. I sink fast ;8 but let them still cry' my warcry, and conceal my death from my followers.10 There was 11 a tradition in our family that 12 a dead Douglas should win a field,13 and I trust it will be this day accomplished.” 14

The nobles did as he had enjoined ; they concealed the Earl's body, and again rushed on to the battle, shouting, “ Douglas ! Douglas !” louder 15 than before. The English were weakened by the loss of the brave brothers, Henry and Ralph Percy, both of whom 16 were made prisoners, fighting most gallantly,17 and almost no man of note 18 amongst the English escaped death or captivity.

Sir Henry Percy became the prisoner of Sir Hugh Montgomery, who obliged him for 19 ransom to build a castle for him at Penoon in Ayrshire.20 The battle of Otterburn was disastrous to the leaders on both sides--Percy being made captive, 21 and Douglas slain on the field.22 It has been the subject of many songs and poems, and the great historian Froissart says that, one other action only excepted, it was the best fought battle of that warlike time.23—(W. Scott, Tales of a Grandfather.)

i aumônier is more used, in this 17 after prodigies of valour.' sense, than chapelain; see, be 18 distinction. 19 for his.' sides, page 27, note 2.

20 dans le comté d' Ayr. 2 de son maître,armé 'une lance. 21 prisonnier ;-the word captif 3 Comment cela va-t-il.

is only used in poetry and in ele4 Pas trop bien. 5 grâce d. vated style, in the sense of any

6 See page 66, note 12.- in, prisoner: in ordinary style, it is here, sur 7 lits de plumes. said exclusively of prisoners re8 Je sens que je m'en vais.

duced to slavery, according to the 9 pousser. 1o to the soldiers.' custom of the ancients. 11* is.' 12 "which says that.' 22 champ de bataille ; or, to

13 a Douglas will gain a battle avoid the awkward repetition of after his death.'

bataille, put dans le combat. 14 See page 104, note 12.

23 it was that in which (ou) one 15 See page 116, note 9.

fought best on both sides (de part 16 See page 56, note 1.

et d'autre) in those times of wars.



It was on Saturday, the 20th of July, that Lord Effingham came in sight of his formidable adversaries. The “invincible" Armada was drawn up? in form of a crescent, which from horn to horn 2 measured some seven miles. There was a south-west wind ; and before it the vast vessels sailed slowly on.3 The English let them pass by; and then, following in the rear,4 commenced an attack on them. A running fight 5 now took place, in which some of the best ships of the Spaniards were captured ; many more received heavy damage ; while the English vessels, which took care not to close with? their huge antagonists, but availed themselves of their superior celerity in tacking 8 and maneuvring, suffered little comparative loss. Each day added not only to the spirit, but to the number of Effingham's force.

Raleigh justly 10 praises the English admiral for 11 his skilful tactics.12 He says, “ Certainly, he that will happily perform a fight at sea, must be skilful in making choice of vessels to fight in ; he must believe that there is more belonging to a good man-of-war, upon the waters, than great daring ; 13 and must know that there is a great deal

1 Use aligner, here (a naval 7 to close with, joindre; or, term), notranger (a military term). en venir aux prises (aux mains, as

3 'from one horn to the other.' well, if speaking of men) avec. -'to measure,' in this sense, avoir. 8 à virer de bord; or, dlou. --some,' environ, or, à peu près. voyer.

3 The vast vessels sailed slowly relatively but few losses.' on, having the wind behind them 10 avec raison, in this sense. (ayant le vent en poupe) which blew

11 de. from the south-west. We say, 12 Use the singular. likewise, in the same sense, avoir 13 doit savoir choisir ses vaisseaux (and also filer-'to sail on') vent (or, ses bâtiments de guerre); qu'il arrière (i.e., lit., 'to have to soit bien persuadé qu'un combat sail on with the wind right aft- naval exige quelque chose de plus astern ').

que de l'audace. Some persons 4 par derrière.

still use vaisseau de guerre, but 5 'Un combat en chasse,

this expression forms now a kind Ö many others.'

of pleonasm, as vaisseau alone

of difference between fighting loose, or at large, and grappling. The guns of a slow ship pierce as well, and make as great holes, as those in a swift. To clap ships together, without consideration, belongs 3 rather to a madman than to a man of war.”

The Armada lay off 4 Calais, with its largest ships ranged outside. The English admiral could not attack them in their position without great disadvantage, but on the night of the 29th he sent eight fire-ships among them, with almost equal effect to that of the fire-ships which the Greeks so often employed against the Turkish fleets in their late war of independence. The Spaniards cut their cables and put to sea 5 in confusion. One of the largest galeasses 6 ran foul of another vessel and was stranded.8 The rest of the feet was scattered about on the Flemish coast, and when the morning broke,10 it was with difficulty and delay that they obeyed their admiral's signal to range themselves round him near Gravelines. Now was the golden opportunity for the English to assail them, and prevent them from ever letting loose Parma's flotilla against England ; and nobly was that opportunity used. 11

implies a war-ship, whilst navire is remain in the singular, as infinisaid of any other ship (merchant tives, not having in themselves the vessel or &c.); bâtiment is the property of number, cannot, when general term for all kinds of used as subjects, communicate the ships.

form of the plural to the verb: i se battre à distance, et en venir thus, manger, boire et dormir, c'est à l'abordage.

(not ce sont, as mentioned p. 158, 2. To clap together (mettre en- n. 8) leur unique occupation. semble) ships.'-' in a swift;' turn, 4''to lie off,' être (or, se trouver) of a swift ship.'

devant (or, à la hauteur de). 3 est (or c'est) le fait (followed by 5 See page 94, note 7. de, not by d-'to'). When there 6 This was the name of an anis only one infinitive (as here, met- cient Venetian kind of galley. tre) serving as a subject, or nomi. 7 aborda par accident. native to another verb (est, here), 8 et échoua sur la côte (or, simthe use of ce is not indispensable : ply, échoua); or, et fit côte. taste must decide it; yet, in ge- 9 côte de Flandre. Always use neral, it is better to use that pro- the name of the country, instead noun, when the infinitive has a of the adjective, in such a case as regimen of a certain length. But this. when there are several infinitives 10 'the day appeared.' serving as nominatives to another 11 'they obeyed,' &c. ; turn, verb, ce must be used ; and, by the ghe (i. e., la flotte-fem.) oh---way, the verb must, even then, &c. Now was,' &c. &

Drake and Fenner were the first English captains who attacked the unwieldy leviathans : then came Fenton, South well, Burton, Cross, Raynor, and then the lord admiral, with Lord Thomas Howard and Lord Sheffield. The Spaniards only thought of forming and keeping close together, and were driven by the English past Dunkirk,? and far away from the Prince of Parma, who in watching their defeat from the coast, must, as Drake expressed it, have chafed like a bear robbed of her whelps. This was indeed the last and the 3 decisive battle between the two fleets. It is, perhaps, best described in the very words of the contemporary writer as we may read them in Hakluyt.4

“Upon the 29th of July in the morning, the Spanish fleet after the abovementioned tumult,5 having arranged themselves again into order, 6 were, within sight of Gravelines, most bravely and furiously encountered by the English ; where? they once again got the wind of the Spaniards; who suffered themselves to be deprived of the commodity of the place in Calais road, and of the advantage of the wind near unto Dunkirk, rather than they would change 10 their array or separate their forces now conjoined and united together, standing only upon their defence.11

“And howbeit 12 there were many excellent and warlike13

"It was for the English a precious now be the word, here. opportunity of giving the attack, 6'having put itself again (de and of preventing for ever (page nouveau) in order of battle,'220. note 7) the Spaniards from were,' &c. ; see letting loose (lacher) the flotilla of 7 There;' put within sight of the duke—the prince-of Parma Gravelines' last, and put à full (Parme) against England (see page stop after “Gravelines.' 22, note 1); and that opportunity to get the wind of,' gagner le was admirably used (mise à profit).' vent (or, le dessus du vent) d.

id se former et à serrer la ligne 9 rade, in this sense ; and turn, (a naval term).--The military term 'the road of C ' is, serrer les files. ? Dunkerque. 10 rather than change (de, be

3 the should not be repeated, sides que, before the verb). as both adjectives qualify the same 11 We should say, now-a-days, noun : this case is the reverse of 'and standing only upon the dethat at p. 192, n. 9, and p. 238, n. fensive.

4 Simply, Mais laissons parler 12 although.' un écrivain contemporain, 1

13 warlike,' in this case, bien s'affray' (échauffourée) would armés en guerre.

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