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and he permitted them not to pursue any other object than their enemies. A considerable body having retired to the adjacent mountains, he prevailed on his soldiers to join 1 him in the pursuit, in order to oblige these to surrender. He began by inclosing them with a line drawn at the foot of the mountain ; but they quickly abandoned a post which was untenable for want of water, and endeavoured to reach the city of Larissa. Cæsar, leading a part of his army by a shorter way, intercepted a their retreat. However, these unhappy fugitives again found protection from a mountain,3 at the foot of which 4 ran a rivulet, which supplied them with water. Night approaching, Cæsar's men were almost spent and fainting with their incessant toil since morning ; yet still he prevailed upon them once more to renew their labours, and to cut off the rivulet that supplied the defendants. The fugitives, thus deprived of all hopes of succour or subsistence, sent deputies to the conqueror, offering to surrender at discretion. During this interval of negotiation, a few senators that were among them took the advantage 5 of the night to escape, and the rest next morning gave up their arms, and experienced the conqueror's clemency. In fact, he addressed them with great gentleness, and forbade the soldiers to offer violence, or to take any thing from them. Thus Cæsar gained the most complete victory that had 6 ever been obtained : and by his great clemency after the battle, seemed to have deserved it. His loss ? amounted only to two hundred men ; that of Pompey to fifteen thousand : twenty-four thousand men surrendered themselves prisoners of war, and the greatest part of these entered into Cæsar's army, and were incorporated with the rest of his forces. To the senators and Roman knights who fell into his hands he generously gave liberty to retire

that they should ubi.See page

l'he obtained from his soldiers them as a (simply, de) refuge.' A that they should join (se joindre à, full stop here. in the in

At the foot.' 260, note 1

2 Use couper, and see page 10, up ;' see page 118, note 17. note 10.- Larissa,' Larisse.

6 See page 13, note 5. 3 ' a mountain which served 7 Use the plural.

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wherever they thought proper; and as for the letters which Pompey had received from those who wished to be thought neutral, Cæsar, unwilling to know who had failed to support him, burned them all unread, as Pompey had done upon a former occasion. Thus having performed all the duties of a general and a statesman, he sent for the legions which had passed the night in camp, to relieve those which had accompanied him in the pursuit, and arrived the same day at Larissa.

As for Pompey, who had formerly shown such instances of courage and conduct, when he saw his cavalry routed, on which he had placed his sole dependence, he absolutely lost his reason. Instead of thinking how to remedy this disorder, by rallying such troops as fled,4 or by opposing fresh troops to stop the progress of the conqueror, being totally amazed by this first blow,5 he returned to the camp, and in his tent waited the issue of an event which it was his duty to have directed, not to follow : 6 there he remained for some moments speechless, till being told that the camp was attacked, “ What!” says he,“ are we pursued to our very? entrenchments ?” when 8 immediately quitting his armour for a habit more suited to his circumstauces, he 10 fled on horseback to Larissa : thence, perceiving that he was not pursued, he slackened his pace, giving way to all the agonising reflections which his deplorable situation must 11 naturally suggest. In this melancholy manner he passed along 12 the vale of Tempe, and pursuing the course of the river Peneus, 18 at last arrived at a fisherman's hut. Here he passed the night, and then went on

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board a little bark ;1 keeping along the sea-shore till he 2 descried a ship of some burthen,3 which seemed preparing to sail. In this he embarked ; the master of the vessel still paying 4 him that homage which was due to his former station.—(GOLDSMITH, History of Rome.)

THE BATTLE OF OTTERBURN.

(PERCY AND Douglas.)

[Ann. 1388.] It was from prudence, not from want of courage, that the Scots avoided great battles with the English. They readily engaged in smaller actions, when they fought with the utmost valour on both sides, till, as an old historian expresses it, sword and lance could endure no longer, and then they would part 7 from each other, saying, “Good day; and thanks for the sport you have shown.”8 A very remarkable instance of such a desperate battle ? occurred in the year 1388.

The Scottish nobles had determined upon an invasion of England on a large scale, 10 and had assembled a great army for that purpose ; but learning that the people 11 of Northumberland were raising an army on the eastern frontier, they resolved to limit their incursion 12 to that which might be achieved by the Earl of Douglas, with a chosen band 13 of four or five thousand men. With this force he penetrated into the mountainous frontier of

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i'mounted in a little boat.' men

ue vous m'av

2 procuré. ? Il gagna ainsi la mer ; et, 9 de ces combats doutrance (see toyant le rivage, il.

page 132, note 19). 3 un bâtiment de charge assez lo had formed the project of grand.

making a formidable invasion in 4 See page 105, note 7.

England.' 5 and then ; ' see page 18, «the inhabitants.'—'of Northnote 10.

umberland ;' see page 26, note 4, 6 refused their service.'

12 Use the plural. 7 See page 45, note 4

13 troupe d'élite (as corps d'élite, 8 Au revoir, merci de l'amuse- 'picked men ').

England, where an assault was least expected, and issuing forth 2 near Newcastle, fell upon the flat and rich country around, slaying, plundering, burning, and loading his army with spoil.

Percy, Earl of Northumberland, an English noble of great power, and with whom the Douglas had frequently had encounters, sent his two sons, Sir Henry and Sir Ralph Percy, to stop the progress of the invasion. Both were gallant knights; but the first, who, from his impetuosity, was called Hotspur,4 was one of the most distinguished warriors in England, as Douglas was in 5 Scotland. The 6 brothers threw themselves hastily into Newcastle, to defend that important town; and as Douglas, in an insulting manner, drew up his followers before the walls, they came out to skirmish with the Scots. Douglas and Henry Percy encountered personally ;9 and it so chanced, 10 that Douglas in the struggle got possession 11 of Hotspur's spear, to the end of which was attached a small ornament of silk, embroidered with 12 pearls, on which was represented a lion, the cognizance, as it is called, of the Percies. 13 Douglas shook this trophy aloft, and declared that he would carry it into Scotland, and plant it on his castle of Dalkeith.

i'a side (page 27, note *) where 9 en vinrent personnellement aux they least expected an assault (at- mains. taque, in this sense, and sometimes 10 and it happened.' insulte-a term of war).'

11 'struggle,' here, mêlée.'to 2 et se montrant tout à coup (page get possession,' s'emparer. 148, note 2); or, et débouchant tout 12 en. à coup.--The English have now 13 A semicolon after lion ;' adopted, as a military term, the c'était le cimier des Percys.-The French verb déboucher, and given student must not fancy that all it an English termination, thus proper names take the mark of the 'to debouch.'

plural, in French: on the contrary, 3 mettant tout à feu et à sang. as a rule they do not, and this case 4 Hotspur (i. e., éperon brûlant is only an exception to the rule. -tête chaude).

The exception is, that proper 5 See page 31, note 1, and page names, in French, become plural 15, note 9.

when they may be considered as a 6 "The two.'

title common to an illustrious 7 'had drawn up ;''to draw up,' family, a royal race, a clan, &c. :

thus, les Stuarts, les Bourbons, and 8 ils se décidèren

ent à faire une also in some cases somewhat simisortie, et les deux partis escarmou- lar to the preceding, as les Curiaces, chèrent penilant quelque temps, ies Grocques, les Scipions, &c.

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" That,” said Percy, “ shalt thou never do.1 I will regain iny lance ere thou canst get back into Scotland.”

Then,” said Douglas, “come to seek it, and thou shalt find it before my tent.”

The Scottish army, having completed the purpose of their expedition, began their retreat up the vale of? the little river Reed, which afforded a tolerable road running north-westward towards their own frontier. They encamped at Otterburn, about twenty miles from the Scottish border, on the 19th August, 1388.

In the middle of the night, the alarm arose in the Scottish camp, that 4 the English host were coming upon them, and the moonlight showed the approach of Sir Henry Percy, with a body of men 5 superior in number to that of Douglas. He had already crossed the Reed water, and was advancing towards the left flank of the Scottish army. Douglas, not choosing to receive the assault in that? position, drew his men out of the camp, and, with a degree of military skill which could scarce have been expected when his forces were of such an undisciplined character,8 he altogether changed the position of the army, and presented his troops with their front to the advancing English.

Hotspur, in the meantime, marched his squadrons through the deserted camp, where there were none left

i C'est ce que tu ne feras, &c. object of the verb (aurait cru) :

2 à se retirer le long de la vallée that object is the following part of qu'arrose (page 6, note 3). 3 Au. the proposition, whilst manwuvre

4 it was said that.' 5 6 of troops.' que is the object of exécuter. 6 Simply, the Reed' (fem.). What is it, in fact, that one 7 feeling the disadvantage of his.' would never have believed'?

8 skill ... expected,' &c. The Surely not the maneuvre' (une idea is not expressed correctly: the manoeuvre que), but one would nediscipline of soldiers has to do not ver have believed that suoh solwith the skill' of the chief, but diers were able to execute.' If with the execution of his orders; the sentence ran thus, 'a maturn, se retira du camp avec toutes nouvre which one would never ses troupes, et par une manoeuvre have believed practicable,' the aussi habile que savante, qu'on French would be ... 'crue pratin'aurait jamais cru de pareils solcable' (crue, feminine, here, agreedats en état d'exécuter. See page ing with manoeuvre que, which 244, note! Here the past parti. would then be the object of the ciple cru remains invariable, be- verb, and placed before the verb). cause it is not preceded by the 9 Simply, et fit face à l'ennemi.

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