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to heaven," their eyesfilled with tears of joy and gratitude, they poured forth thanks and praises to God for so great a providence; all present 3 followed their example ; a deep and solemn enthusiasm pervaded that splendid assembly, and prevented all common acclamations of triumph. The anthem of Te Deum Laudamus, chanted by the choir of the royal chapel, with the melodious accompaniments of the instruments, rose up from the midst 4 in a full body5 of sacred harmony, bearing up, as it were, the feelings and thoughts of the auditors to heaven ; 6 “so that,” says the venerable Las Casas, “it seemed as if? in that hour 8 they communicated with celestial delights." Such was the solemn and pious manner in which 9 the brilliant court of Spain celebrated this sublime event, offering up a grateful tribute of melody and praise, and giving glory 10 to God for the discovery of another world. -(WASHINGTON IRVING.)
COWPER TO MR. SAMUEL ROSE.
(ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF TIME.) DEAR SIR, Though it be long since I received your last, 11 I have not yet forgotten the impression it made upon me, nor
1 See page 22, notes 1 and 7; 3 tous les assistants. their clasped hands, leurs mains 4 du sein de la multitude. jointes avec ferveur.
5 en un ensemble parfait. 2 See page 26, note 12. We have 6 See page 22, notes 1 and ?. used leurs in the preceding note, 7 See page 25, note 9, instead of les, as one seems to lose sight of the possessor, in a com- 9 dont. plicated phrase, where the thing To rendant gloire. No article is possessed is at once subject (of used, in French, whenever the
clasped,' elliptical for being verb and the noun form a phrase clasped') and object (of 'raising'). which can generally be expressed For, without this circumstance, in French, or translated into other we should say, in two separate languages, by one word, as here, phrases, levant les mains, 'raising by the word glorifiant, 'gloritheir hands,'and, les mains jointes, fying.' &c., 'their hands clasped'-under- 11 Quoiqu'il y ait longtemps que stood -being.
j'ai reçu votre dernière lettre.
how sensibly I felt myself obliged byl your unreserved and friendly communications. I will not apologise for 3 my silence in the interim, because, apprised as you are 4 of my present occupation, the excuse that I might allege will present itself to you of course, and to dilate upon it would, therefore, be waste of paper.5
You are in possession of the best security imaginable, for the due improvement of your time, which is a just sense of its value.7 Had I been, when at your age, as much affected by 10 that important consideration as I am at present, I should not have devoted, as I did, 11 all the earliest parts 12 of my life to amusement only. I am now in the predicament into which the thoughtlessness of youth betrays 12 nine-tenths 14 of mankind, who never discover that the health and good spirits15 which generally accompany it,16 are in reality blessings17 only 18 according to the use we make of them, till advanced years19 begin to threaten them with 20 the loss of both. How much wiser would thousands have been,21 than now they ever will be, 22
I ni le bien vif plaisir que m'ont 10 pénétré de. aussi procuré. See page 6, note 3. 11 as I am'... 'as I did :' ? entretiens.
see page 5, note 8, as above, at 3 Je ne chercherai point à m'ex- note 4 cuser de.
12 premiers temps. 4 See page 5, note 8.
13 entraine ; or, fait tomber. See 5 autant de papier perdu (or, page 6, note 5. mal employé).
14 les neuf dixièmes. 6 l'emploi convenable.
15 et la gaieté (or, gaité). 7 laquelle consiste à l'estimer à sa 16 cet age—to remove the amjuste valeur. The pronouns qui, biguity. que, dont, are replaced by lequel, 17 réellement des biens. duquel, to avoid ambiguity: these 18 See page 5, note 12. always relate to the former noun, 19 la vieillesse. We also say while qui, que, dont, relate to the l'âge, absolutely, in the same latter
sense. 8 Eussé-je été; or, si j'eusse été ; 20 de. or, si j'avais été. See page 26, 21 Combien des milliers d'entre note 11 In the first form given nous eussent été plus sages. here, an acute accent is put over 22 In French, the particle ne is the last e of eusse, for euphony's used before the verb which follows sake.
plus and moins, unless the pre8 quand j'étais à votre age; or, ceding verb, which accompanies better, not to repeat so nearly the plus or moins, is conjugated with a verb être, quand j'avais votre âge: negative. See, besides, page 5, this English ellipsis, at any rate, note 8, referred to above, and also is not permitted in French, page 19, note 5.
hadi a puny constitution, or some occasional infirmity,2 constrained them to devote those hours to study and reflection, which, for want of some such check, they have given entirely to dissipation! I, therefore, account you happy, who, 6 young as you are, need not be informed that you cannot always be so," and who already know that the materials upon which age 8 can alone build its comfort,9 should 10 be brought together at an earlier period.11 You have, indeed, in losing a father, lost a friend, but you have not lost his instructions. His example was not buried 12 with him, but happily for you (happily because you are desirous of availing yourself of it) still lives in your remembrance, and is cherished in your best affections. 13
SIR ROGER DE COVERLEY. HAVING often received an invitation from my friend Sir Roger de Coverley 14 to pass away a month with him in the country, I last week accompanied him thither, and am settled 15 with him for some time at his country-house,
i Construct so, in French : “if the possessive son is an exception a puny... or some ... had con- to the rule given page 18, note 4, for strained,' &c.
this reason, that the possessor 2 infirmité intermittente.
figures as subject (or nominative) 3 See page 14, note 5
in the same proposition wherein 4 faute d'un frein de ce genre. the thing possessed is the object 5. C'est pourquoi je.
(or accusative). 6 vous qui. A personal pro- 10 doivent. noun, in the objective case, which 11 recueillis de bonne heure (or, is the antecedent of a relative pro- dans le jeune âge). noun, must be used twice in this 12 n'a pas été enseveli. way, first in its conjunctive, and 13 et est un des objets les plus then in its disjunctive form : but chers à votre coeur; or, et a part à here it so happens that both are vos plus vives affections. vous : in the first person singular 14 See page 22. note 7: an invithey are me and moi ; in the second tation,' &c., l'invitation de, &c. tu and toi, &c. See any grammar. 15 je l'y accompagnai la semaine
7 See page 15, note 9; also, re- dernière, et je me suis fixé. Notice ferences at page 29, notes 4 and 22. the repetition of the pronoun je, 8 See page 29, note 19.
the two verbs being in a different 9 établir (or, fonder) son bien- tense. être (or, son aisance). This use of
where I intend to form several of my ensuing speculations. Sir Roger, who is very well acquainted with my humour, 2 lets me rise and go to bed when I please,dine at his own table or in my chamber, as I think fit,4 sit still and say nothing without bidding me be merry. When the gentlemen of the country6 come to see him, he shows me at a distance. As I have been walking in his fields, I have observed them stealing a sight of me? over a hedge, and have 8 heard the knight desiring 9 them not to let me see them, 10 for that I hated to be stared at. 11
I am the more at ease in Sir Roger's family, because it consists 12 of sober, staid persons; for 13 as the knight is the best master in the world, 14 he seldom changes his servants;15 and as he is beloved by all about him, his servants never care for leaving him :16 by this means his domestics are all
i de composer plusieurs des ar. See page 22, note 10. ticles (or, travaux-or, écrits) qui 10 de ne pas se laisser voir de doivent suivre (or, simply, de mes moi. prochains articles,-contributions 11 car, disait-il, (or, par la raison to the Spectator').
que) je déteste (or, je ne puis souf. 2 qui connait très bien mes goûts frir) les regards des curieux. et mon caractère (or, simply, mon 12' Je suis d'autant plus à mon aise humeur-sometimes used also in (or, Je me trouve d'autant mieux) au this sense).
milieu de la maison de Sir Roger, 3 quand il me plait ; or, à ma qu'elle se compose. The word fafantaisie. The verb plaire does mille, in the sense of 'household,' not govern the objective case, in is no longer French. We find it French, but requires an indirect in La Fontaine, among other regimen with the preposition d writers, in his Fables (Fable LI. (dative), expressed or implied : me of my edition), in the latter acis here dative.
ceptation, derived from the Latin 4 selon que je le juge à propos ; familia. or, comme bon me semble.
13 Put a full stop here before 5 et aussi rester silencieux et tran- 'for,' Car. See page 24, note 19. quille, sans m'inviter à la gaieté. 14 du monde. Always use the
6 Quand les notables des environs preposition de (genitive case) after (or, des alentours); or, Quand les a superlative relative, in French. gens les plus considérables de l'en- 15 See page 19, note %; and page droit.
2, note 7. ? j'ai aperçu plusieurs de ces mes 16 de tout ce qui l'entoure, ses sieurs qui m'observaient en cachette domestiques n'ont aucune envie de (or, furtivement-or, à la dérobée). le quitter (or, lui sont très attachés See page 6, note 5.
-or, tiennent beaucoup à lui). Tout 8 et j'ai. When the verbs have ce qui l'entoure is more emphatic each a separate object, although than tous ceux qui l'entourent. they are in the same tense, the See my LA FONTAINE, Fable pronoun is usually repeated. LXXXIII., fourth line.
in years, and grown old 1 with their master. You would take his valet-de-chambre for his brother ; his butler is grey-headed, 2 his groom is one of the gravest men that I have ever seen,4 and his coachman has the looks of a privy-councillor. You see the goodness of the master even 6 in his old house-dog, and in a grey pad that is kept? in the stable with great care and tenderness, out of regard to his past services, though he has been useless for several years.
I could not but observe with a great deal 10 of pleasure the joy that appeared in 11 the countenances of these ancient domestics upon 12 my friend's arrival at his countryseat. Some of them could not refrain from tears 13 at the sight of their old master ; every one of them pressed forward to do something for him, 14 and seemed discouraged 15 if they were not employed. 16 At the same time the good old knight, with a mixture of the father and the master of the family, tempered the inquiries after 17 his own affairs with several kind questions relating to themselves.18 This humanity and good-nature 19 engages everybody to him ;20
1 aussi ses gens sont-ils tous âgés, depuis. See page 38, note 5. ayant vieilli. The interrogative 10 Je ne pouvais qu'observer avec form is elegantly used after aussi beaucoup-see page 5, note 12; or, (in the sense of therefore'), peut- Il m'était impossible d'observer sans éire, encore (yet), toujours (still), beaucoup. en vain, du moins, au moins.
11 qui se peignit sur. 2 a les cheveux gris. See page 26, note 12.
13 Quelques uns d'entre eux ne 3 See page 13, note 5.
pouvaient retenir leurs larmes. 4 Whenever a past participle is 14 s'empressait auprès de lui afin joined with the auxiliary avoir, it de se rendre utile (or, de s'utiliser). agrees, in number and gender, 15 mortifié; or, contristé; or, atwith tl
e régime direct (accusative) tristé. of the verb, but only if that direct 16 lorsque, par moments, il ne se regimen precedes the verb.
trouvait rien à faire, 5 a tout l'air d'un conseiller 37 questions sur. privé.
18 en faisant de son côté plusieurs * 6 jusque.
questions obligeantes (or, affables) 7 qu'on garde ; or, que l'on con- relatives à eux-mêmes. serve. The l here is merely eu. 19 These two nouns, being nearly phonic, and prevents a dissonance synonymous, had better follow See also page 24, note 9.
each other, in French, without a 8 par égard pour; or, en raison conjunction, but with the pronoun de; or, en considération de
repeated. 9 quiiqu'il ne serve plus à rien 20 captive (or, lui gagnemlui con