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THE ART OF PLEASING. The art of pleasing is a very necessary one to possess, but a very difficult one to acquire. It can hardly be reduced to rules ;2 and your own good sense and observation will teach you more of it than I can. Do as you would be done by,3 is the surest method4 that I know5 of pleasing : observe carefully what pleases you in others, and probably the same things in you will please others. If you are pleased with the complaisance and attention of others to your humours,6 your tastes, or your weaknesses, depend upon it," the same complaisance and attention on your part to theirs will equally please them. Take the tone of the company that you are in,s and do not pretend to give it; be serious, gay, or even trifling, as 9 you find the present humour of the company : this is an attention due from 10 every individual to the majority. Do not tell stories in company ;11 there is nothing 12 more tedious and disagreeable : if by chance you know a very short story, and exceedingly applicable to the present subject of conversation, tell it in as few words as possible ; and even then throw out 13 that you do not love to tell stories, but that the shortness of it 14 tempted you, 15 Of all things, 16 banish egotism 17 out of your conversation, and

1 en est un ...., mais très diffi- (or, selon) que. cile &c.

to de la part de; or, simply, 2 On ...., &c. See page 8, par. note 6.

11 Ne contez jamais d'histoires en 3 Agissez envers les autres comme société. vous voudriez que les autres agissent 12 See page 9, note 4. envers vous.

13 faites observer. 4 moyen.

14 de celle-. 5 The subjunctive must be used,

must be used. 15 vous a tenté. in French, after a superlative re

16 Surtout. lative.

17 l'habitude ridicule (or, la 6 Si ce qui vous plait dans les manie) de parler de soi ; or, more autres est leur complaisance et leurs concisely, le moi; or, again, l'égoégards pour vos caprices.

tisme (little used). This word, 7 croyez-moi ; or, soyez-en bien égotisme, must not be mistaken persuadé.

for égoïsme, 'selfishness,' in its .8 See page 1, note 8.

most extensive sense. 9.as,' for 'according as,' suivant

never think of entertaining people with your personal concerns, or private affairs ; though they are interesting to you, they are tedious and impertinent to everybody else, besides that one cannot keep one's own private affairs too secret. Whatever you think your own excellences may be, do not affectedly display them ? in company; nor labour,3 as many people do,4 to give that turn to the conversation whicb 5 may supply you with an opportunity of exhibiting them. If they are real, they will infallibly be discovered, without your pointing them out yourself, and with much more advantage. Never maintain an argument with heat and clamour, though you think or know yourself to be in the right, but give your opinion modestly and coolly, which is the only waylo to convince; and, if that does not do, 11 try to change the conversation by saying 12 with good humour: “ We shall hardly convince one another, nor 13 is it necessary that we should ;14 so let us talk of something else."15

At last,16 remember that there is a local propriety to be observed 17 in all companies, and that what is extremely proper in one company may be, and often is, highly improper in another.

These are some of the arcana necessary for your initia

1 pour toute autre personne; or, vous sachiez avoir raison. See pour tous les autres ; or, again, page 7, note ? simply, pour tout le monde.

9 See page 7, note 17. n'en faites point parade (or, 10 moyen, in this sense. étalage).

11 si cela ne réussit pas. 3 et ne vous efforcez point.

12 en disant. 4 See page 6, note 3.

13 Translate here, literally, as 5 The French grammar re- if the English were 'and it is not.' quires that a relative pronoun The conjunction ni, in French, is should always be placed as near as only used to connect together two possible to its antecedent. Con- negative propositions, not a pegastruct, therefore, the French sen- tive with an affirmative, as 'nor' tence as if the English were 'to does in English, and nec in Latin. give to the conversation that turn 14 que nous le fassions; literally, which,' &c.

that we should do so.' We may 6 de les déployer ; or, de les also say, qu'il en soit ainsi, ('that faire paraître.

it should be so.') 7 This turn is not French; we 15 d'autre chose. use sans que with the personal pro- 16 Enfin. noun vous, and the subjunctive. 17 qu'il faut observer une ......

8 bien que vous pensiez ou que &c.

tion in the great society of the world. I wish I had known them better at your age; I have paid the price of three and fifty years for them, and shall not grudge it if you reap the advantage.3 Adieu.—(CHESTERFIELD, Letters to his Son.)

THE LAZY MIND. THE lazy mind will not take the trouble of going to the bottom of anything ;4 but, discouraged by the first difficulties (and everything worth knowing or having is attended with some),5 stops short, conteuts itself with easy and, consequently, superficial knowledge, and prefers a great degree of ignorance to a small degree of trouble. 6 These people either think? or represent most things 8 as impossible, whereas few things are so to industry and activity. But difficulties seem to them impossibilities, or at least they pretend to think them so, 10 by way of excuse for their laziness. 11 An hour's attention12 to the same object is too laborious for them; they take every thing in the light in which it first presents itself,13 never consider it in all its different views, 14 and, in short, never think it through.15 The consequence of this is, that when they come to speak16 upon these subjects before people who have considered them with attention, they only discover 17

i plat à Dieu que je les cusse French when 'so,' or any other mieux connus; or, simply, que ne resuming expression, is understood les ai-je mieux connus.

in English : see page 5, note 8. 2 je les ai achetés au prix de 10 ils feignent de les croire telles. cinquante-trois ans.

11 afin de justifier leur paresse. 3 s'ils vous profitent.

12 Une heure d'attention. 4 quoi que ce soit.

13 dans le jour elle se pré5 et rien de ce qui mérite d'être sente au premier coup d'oeil. connu ou possédé (or, vaut qu'on le 14 sous toutes ses faces diverses. connaisse ou qu'on le possèdeor, 15 ne l'examinent jamais à fond ; again, vaut la peine de le connaître or, ne l'approfondissent jamais. ou de le posséder) n'en est exempt. 16 viennent à parler ; in the

6 beaucoup d'ignorance d un peu sense of 'happen to speak: in ande peine.

other sense, we should say, vient regardent; or, considèrent. nent pour parler, (“for the purpose 8 la plupart des choses.

of speaking ;') viennent parler 9 le sont ; literally, "are it.' would mean, 'come and speak.' This pronoun le is expressed in 17 See page 5, note 12.

their own ignorance and 1 laziness, and lay themselves open to answers2 that put them in confusion. 3—(CHESTERFIELD, Letters to his Son.)

ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.4

ENGLAND is the southern 5 and Scotland the northern part of the celebrated island called Great Britain. England is greatly larger 6 than Scotland, and the land is ? much richer, and produces better crops. There are also a great many more mens in England, and both the gentlemen and the country people are more wealthy, and they have better food and clothing, than those in Scotland.10 The towns, also, are 11 much more numerous, and more populous.

Scotland, on the contrary, is full of hills, and huge moors and wildernesses, 12 which bear no corn, and afford but little food for flocks of sheep or herds of cattle.13 But the level ground that lies along the great rivers is more fertile, and produces good crops. The natives of Scotland14 are accustomed to live more bardily in general than those of England. The cities and towns are fewer, 15 smaller, and i et leur propre.

8 beaucoup plus d'hommes (or, 2 s'exposent à des réponses. The d'habitants). student must never fail to apply 9 et les grands propriétaires, aussi the rule, That, whenever a substan- bien que les gens (or, journaliers) tive is taken in a partitive sense, des campagnes (or, simply, les the partitive article (du, de la, and paysans). des,some')—whether it bé ex- * io que les mêmes classes en Écosse. pressed or understood in English After the preposition en no article -must always be expressed, in is used with the name of a country. French, before such a substan- 11 y sont. tive.

12 de vastes bruyères et d'immenses 3 qui les rendent confus; or, qui terres vaines et vagues. les confondent.

13 aux troupeaux de boeufs et de 4 L'Angleterre et l'Ecosse. Ne- moutons ; or, au gros et au menu ver forget to put, as a general rule, tail. in French, the definite article be 14 Les natifs de l'Écosse. Natifs fore names of countries. See be- is used to signify all natives whatlow (note 10) for an exception. ever, and naturels all except those 5 la partie méridionale.

of European countries. 6 beaucoup plus grande. .

15 moins nombreuses ; or, en 7 le sol en est.

moins grand nombre. Moins

per

less full of inhabitants than in England. But, as Scotland possesses great quarries of stone, the towns are commonly built of that material, which is 2 more lasting, and has a grander effect to the eye, 3 than the bricks used in England.

Now, as these two nations live in the different ends 5 of the same island, and are 6 separated by large and stormy seas from all other parts of the world, it seems natural that they should have been 8 friendly to each other, and that they should have lived as one 9 people under the same government. Accordingly, about two hundred years ago, 10 the king of Scotland becoming king of England, the two nations have ever since 11 been joined in one great kingdom, which is called Great Britain. (WALTER Scott, Tales of a Grandfather.)

THE BRITISH EMPIRE.

The British Empire, exclusive of its foreign dependencies, 12 consists 13 of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, 14 and of the smaller islands contiguous and sub

(less,' and also 'fewer ') could not here, in French, the order of these be used here thus alone: but we two regimens, so :-... 'from all,' could say, 'fewer towns,' moins de &c., ... 'by large,' &c. villes.

8. After the impersonal verb il 1 carrières.

semble. the French use the sub2 baties en pierre, laquelle espèce junctive, unless that verb be acde matériaux est (or, cette espèce companied by one of the personal ... étant). The substantive ma- pronouns me, te, lui, nous, &c., in tériaux has no singular.

which latter case the indicative is 3 fait plus d'effet.

used.

9 un seul.

10 il y a environ deux cents ans. 5 chacune à l'un des bouts. Cent takes s when multiplied by

6 et qu'elles sont. The ellipsis another number and not followed of comme ('as'), quand ('when'), by another numeral. si ('if'), &c., is not allowed, in li depuis lors. French, before the subsequent 12 sans compter ses colonies. member of the sentence; but, in- 13 se compose. stead of repeating these adverbs 14 See note 4 of the preceding and conjunction, we generally use page. Yet, in the third line of que to supply their place.

next page (18), we shall put ng 7 To avoid ambiguity, invert article.

4 Or.

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