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door; it was twisted and double-twisted so fast with wire, there was no getting it open without pulling 2 the cage to pieces. . . . I took both hands to it. 3

The bird flew to the place where I was attempting his deliverance, and thrusting his 4 head through the trellis, pressed 5 his breast against it, as if impatient. “I fear, poor creature !” said I, “I cannot get thee at liberty." ...."No," said the starling ....I can't get out, I can't get out,” said the starling. 8

I yow I never had my affections more tenderly awakened ; nor do I remember an incident in my life where 10 the dissipated spirits, to which my reason had been a bubble, were 11 so suddenly called home.12 Mechanical as 13 the notes were,14 yet so true in tune to Nature syntax and orthography, which are 7 See page 7, note ? current in England among even8 said,' here, that is, ejacuwell-educated persons, with regard lated all at once; use the preteto many French expressions which rite, accordingly, not the imhave been adopted in the English perfect. language, and were accepted at first 9 See page 14, note 13, most likely from exceedingly in 10 See page 22. note 7. competent hands. Thus, coûte qui 11 Translate here by the comcoûte, instead of coûte que coûte ; pound of the present subjunctive double entendre, instead of double (see page 35, note 14). entente ; se battre à l'outrance, in- 12 rappelés au logis. The word stead of se battre à outrance ; &c., logis is not often used in this sense, &c. It is really a very great pity except in the common phrase, la that these mistakes, which are only folle du logis, used to designate a small portion of those now cur- that very freakish faculty-imarent, are so generally in use that gination. they cannot, I am afraid, be easily 13 Translate here by Quelque ... eradicated. I shall have to notice que; and see page 47, end of a few more in the course of this note 5. Quelque, followed by que, work.

is spelt in three ways :--1st, be1 elle était entortillée d'un double fore a substantive, in one word, fil de fer (or, fil d'archal), et si and it agrees with that subfortement.

stantive, as, quelques talents (what2 qu'il n'y avait pas moyen de ever talents) qu'il ait ;' 2nd, l'ouvrir sans mettre.

before an adjective, in one word, 3 Je m'y pris des deux mains. but remains invariable, as quelque

4 We sometimes deviate, for the grands (however great) que soient sake of emphasis, from the rule ses talents--yet, if that adjective given page 26, note 12.

should itself be followed by a noun, 5 flew ; pressed; see page 1, quelque will agree, as, quelques note 3, and page 55, noto 8; also grands talents qu'il ait ; 3rd, before page 30, note 15.

à verb, in two words, the first of 8 See page 29, note 9; and which, only, agrees, as, quels que others. But we may here trans- soient ses talents. late, “as with impatience.'

14 See page 6, note 8.

were they chaunted 1 that in one moment they overthrew all my systematical reasoning,” upon the Bastille, and I heavily walked up stairs, unsaying every word 4 I had said in going down them.

“Disguise thyself as thou wilt; still,5 Slavery !” said I...." still thou art 6 a bitter draught! And though thousands 7 in all ages have been made to drink of thee, thou art no less bitter on that account ! .... 'Tis thou, thrice sweet and gracious Goddess,” addressing myself to LIBERTY, “ whom all, in public or in private, worship, whose taste is grateful, and ever will be so, till Nature herself shall change. 10 No tint of words can spot thy snowy mantle, or, 11 chymic power turn thy sceptre into iron. With thee to smile upon him 12 as he eats his crust, the swain is happier than the monarch, from whose court 13 thou art exiled.“ Gracious 14 Heaven !” cried I, kneeling down upon the last step but one in my ascent,15 “grant me but 16 health, thou great Bestower of it,17 and give me but 18 this fair Goddess as my 19 companion, and shower down thy mitres, if it seems good 20 unto thy divine Providence, upon those heads which are aching for them.” 21—(STERNE, Sentimental Journey.)

1 Leave out yet' (page 108, 13 de la cour duquel (or, de qui). note 4).—elles étaient chantées dans When there is a preposition beun accord si parfait avec la na- tween 'whose' and the noun to ture; or, elles étaient si conformes which it relates, we must use duà l'accent de la nature.

quel, de laquelle, desquels, and des2 Use the plural.

quelles, according to the gender 3 l'escalier (singular). See page and number, instead of using dont, 53, note 2.

which can never be preceded by a 4 See page 27, note 12.

preposition; and, if we speak of 5 thou wilt; use the future (of persons, de qui may be used as vouloir); and leave out still' in the well as duquel, &c. first instance.

14 miséricordieux. 6 Again here, use the future. 15 Simply, sur l'avant-dernière

? des milliers (or, more truly, marche. des millions) d'hommes.

16 seulement; which is more em. 8 Use the verb forcer.

phatic than ne . . . que. i tu n'en es pas moins amer pour 17 Translate, 'its great,' &c. cela.

18 ne ... que; to avoid an un10 Remember that jusqu'à ce que necessary repetition. frequently governs the subjunctive. 19 Simply, pour. if Translate by 'no,' repeated.

20 si bon semble. 12 pour lui sourire.

21 qui en sêchent l'envie.

[graphic]

FOX.

MR. Fox's eloquence was of a kind which to comprehend you must have heard himself. When he got fairly into his subject,2 was heartily warmed with it, he poured forth words and periods of fire that smote you, and deprived you of all power to reflect and rescue yourself, while he went on to seize the faculties of the listener, and carry them captive along with him whithersoever he pleased 4 to rush. It is ridiculous to doubt that he was 5 a far closer reasoner, a much more argumentative speaker than Demosthenes ; as much more so as Demosthenes would perhaps have been than Fox, 6 had he lived in our times and had to address? an English House 8 of Commons. For it is the kindred mistake of those who fancy that the two were like each, 10 to imagine that the Grecian's orations are long chains of ratiocination, like Sir William Grant's arguments, or Euclid's demonstrations. They are close to the point;11 they are full of impressive allusions ; they abound in expressions of the adversary's inconsistency ; they are loaded with bitter invective; they never lose

i Turn, “Mr. Fox had a kind of ne when negatively, which is the eloquence which one cannot com- reverse with craindre, as seen page prehend without having heard the 37, note 15). orator himself.

6 Turn, by as much—or sim? quand il entrait en plein dans ply, as—(ďautant, or, simply, aussi) son sujet.

3 continuait. superior to Demosthenes in this 4 lui plaisait (literally, it respect (sous ce rapport) as Demopleased to him.') See page 1, note sthenes would perhaps have been 3, page 55, notes, and page 31, (see page 19, note 5, and page 15, note 3. The verb plaire is never note 9) to Fox. so used, in French; and je plais, parler d. tu plais, &c., 'I please,' &c., are 8 Chambre. only taken in the sense of 'I give 9 une erreur commune chez. pleasure,' 'I am pleasing, or plea 10 ces deux orateurs se ressemsant,' &c., never in that of 'I am blaient. pleased,' &c.

11 Elles ne s'écartent jamais de la 5 Remember that douter governs question; or, Tout y est rigoureusethe subjunctive (without ne, when ment au fait ; or, again, Tout y va conjugated affirmatively, and with droit au but.

sight of the subject ;? and they never quit hold ofthe hearer by the striking appeals they make to his strongest feelings and his favourite recollections : to the heart, or to the quick and immediate sense of inconsistency, they are always addressed, and find their way thither4 by the shortest and surest road; but to the head, to the calm and sober judgment, as pieces of argumentation, they assuredly are not addressed.5 But Mr. Fox, as he went along, and exposed absurdity, and made inconsistent arguments clash, and laid bare 6 shuffling or hypocrisy, and showered down upon meanness, or upon cruelty, or upon oppression, a pitiless storm of the most fierce invective, was ever forging also the long, and compacted, and massive chain of pure demonstration.

There was no weapon of arguments which this great orator more happily or more frequently wielded than wit, the wit which exposes to ridicule the absurdity or inconsistency of an adverse argument. It has been said ' of him, that he was the wittiest speaker of his times 10 and they were 11 the times of Sheridan and of Windham. This was Mr. Canning's opinion, and it was also Mr. Pitt's. There was nothing more awful in Mr. Pitt's sarcasm, nothing so vexatious in Mr. Canning's light and galling raillery, as the battering and piercing wit with which Mr. Fox so often interrupted, but always supported, the heavy artillery of his argumentative declamation.

In most of the external qualities of oratory, 12 Mr. Fox was certainly deficient, being of an unwieldy person, 13 without any grace of action, with a voice of little compass, and which,

i The French construction is, 66 to lay bare,' mettre d nu. they never lose the subject of 7 ne cessait en même temps de sight,' or, 'they never lose of sight forger (see page 48, note 12). the subject;' but never '... lose 8 argumentation. sight of,' &c.

9 See page 8, note 6. % captivent jusqu'au bout.

10 Use the singular. 3 Bégin so, they are always 11 See page 72, note 13. addressed to the heart,' &c.

12 de l'orateur. Put this first 4 s'y font jour; or, s'y introdui- part of the proposition second, in sent.

French.—' to be deficient in,' here, 5 Invert the last part of this n'avoir (or, ne posséder) pas. proposition, in the same way as 13 lourd de sa personne, in the preceding one (note 3).

when pressed in the vehemence of his speech, became shrill almost to a cry or squeak ;2 yet all this was absolutely forgotten in the moment when the torrent began to pour. Some of the undertones 3 of his voice were peculiarly sweet; and there was even in the shrill and piercing sounds which he uttered, when at the more exalted pitch, a power that thrilled the heart of the hearer. His pronunciation of our language was singularly beautiful, and his use of it 4 pure and chaste to 5 severity. As he rejected, from the correctness of his taste, all vicious ornaments, and was most sparing, indeed, in the use of figures at all, so, in his choice of words, he justly shunned foreign idiom,9 or words borrowed whether from the ancient or modern languages, 10 and affected the pure Saxon tongue,11 the resources of which are unknown to so many who use it, both in writing and in speaking 12—(LORD BROUGHAM.)

1 See page 29, note 8.

8 Turn, “in the choice of his 2 se faisait aiguë jusqu'à (or, words' (see page 27, note 12). au point de) ne plus être presque 9 Use the plural; and see page qu'un cri.

101, note 8 3 tons bas.

16 Translate as if the English 4 et son expression; or, et l'usage were, 'from the ancient languages qu'il en faisait.

or from the modern languages' 5 jusqu'à.

(and see page 21, note 12). 6 par suite de.

il le saxon pur. 7 était très réservé dans l'emploi 12 dun si grand nombre de perde figures; or, better, était fort sonnes . . . &c., tant en écrivant sobre de figures.

qu'en parlant.

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