Acres. Sir Lucius, I doubt 1 it is going ; yes, my valour is certainly going ! it is sneaking off !2 I feel it oozing out, as it were, at the palms of my hands !3

Sir L. Your honour ; your honour-Here they are.

A cres. Oh, that I was 4 safe at Clod Hall ! or could be shot before I was aware !5

LOUIS XI. (King of France ; from 1461 to 1483.) BRAVE enough for every useful and political purpose, Louis had not a spark of that romantic valour, or 6 of the pride generally associated with it, which fought on 7 for the point of honour when the points of utility had long been gained.9 Calm, crafty, and profoundly attentive to his own interest, he made every sacrifice, both of pride and passion, which could interfere with it.10 He was careful in disguising his real sentiments and purposes from all who ll approached him, and frequently used the expressions, “ that the king knew not how to reign who knew not how to dissemble ; 1 and that, for himself, if he thought his very cap knew 2 his secrets, he would throw it into the 3 fire." No man of his own or of any other time better understood how to avail himself of the frailties of others, and when to avoid giving any advantage by the untimely indulgence of his own.

i il me semble,

subj.) used in a similar way, as 2 elle m'échappe.

dussé-je être tué, j'irai, 'were I to 3 pour ainsi dire, qui me glisse be killed, I shall go there. These entre les doigts.

kinds of sentences are elliptical, 4 que ne suis-je.--safe ;' see the governing verb or conjunction page 117, note 11, and always trans- being understood: the first senlate it so when it means "un- tence is for je désire que je puisse, scathed,' 'uninjured :' when it &c., and the second, for bien que means 'secured,' the French for it (or, quoique) je dusse, &c. is, en sûreté, and when it signifies 6 See page 42, note 8. 'affording safety' (as e.g., a safe 7 See page 6, note 5. It may be harbour) we use sar.

observed here, that the present 5 Leave out or ; puissé-je être tense would be preferable, the fact tué avant même que je m'en doute. being a constant one. Notice that an acute accent is 8 but. placed, for the sake of euphony, 9 Simply, est atteint. over the final e of puisse (pres. 10'y nuire; or, better, le comsubj.). Observe also this con- promettre. struction, the pronoun being * 11 from,' here, d.--'all who,' placed after the verb; the same &c.; see page 31, note 16. thing takes place after dusse (imp.

He was by nature vindictive and cruel, even to the extent 5 of finding pleasure in the frequent executions which he commanded. But as no touch 6 of mercy ever induced him to spare when he could with safety condemn, so no sentiment' of vengeance ever stimulated him to a premature violence. He seldom sprang on his prey till it was fairly within his grasp,' and till all hope of rescue was vain; and his movements were so studiously disguised, that his success was generally what first announced to the world the object 10 he had been endeavouring to attain.

In like manner 11 the avarice of Louis gave way to 12 apparent profusion 13 when it was necessary to bribe the favourite or minister of a rival prince for 14 averting any impending attack, or 15 to break up any alliance confederated against him.16 He was fond of licence and pleasure, 17 but not even his ruling passions ever withdrew him from the most regular attendance to public business and

1 See page 92, note 13. Leave place d. out 'how,' here, after 'to know'. 13 See page 25, note 16, page 27, (savoir).

note 8; and others. Yet, here, 2 Use connaitre, here.

we might translate by, une appa3 au ; it would be speaking too rence de prodigalité. pointedly to use dans, here.

14 soit pour. + de donner avantage sur lui en 15 soit. It is optional (as men. cédant inconsidérément aux siennes. tioned page 66, note 15), after soit 5 au point.

(whether") to use ou, or repeat 6 sentiment, or, mouvement. soit : here, soit repeated is pre7 désir.

ferable, as we thereby avoid the 8 'to stimulate,' faire commettre. awkward repetition of ou, ex-'a premature violence,' un acte pressed just above, before le miprématuré de violence.

nistre. 9 à sa portée.

18 pour rompre une confédéra10 que ce n'était ordinairement tion dirigée (or, une alliance que par le succès qu'il avait obtenu formée) contre lui. qu'on apprenait le but.

17 les plaisirs et les divertisse11 De même.

ments, 12 se changeait en; or, faisait


the affairs1 of his kingdom. His knowledge of mankind was profound, and he had sought it in the private walks of life; in which he often personally mingled ;2 and, though naturally proud and haughty, he hesitated not, with an inattention to the arbitrary divisions 3 of society, which was then thought something portentously unnatural,4 to raise from the lowest rank men whom he employed on the most important duties, and 5 knew so well how to choose them, that he was rarely disappointed in their qualities.

Yet there were contradictions in the character of this artful and able monarch ; for human nature is never uniform. Himself the most false and insincere of mankind,8 some of the greatest errors of his life arose from too rash a confidence in the honour and integrity of others. When these errors took place, they seem to have arisen from an over-refined system of policy, which induced Louis 10 to assume the appearance of undoubting confidence in those whom it was his object to 11 over-reach; for, in his general 12 conduct, he was as jealous 13 and suspicious as any tyrant who ever breathed. 17

Two other points may be noticed to complete the sketch of this formidable character, by which he rose among the rude chivalrous sovereigns of the period to the rank of a keeper among wild beasts, who, by superior wisdom and policy, by distribution of food, and some discipline by blows, comes finally to predominate over those who, if unsubjected by his arts, would by main strength have torn him to pieces.

i ne l'empêchèrent jamais de 6See preceding page, note 1. donner régulièrement ses soins aux ? se trompait rarement sur. affaires publiques et à l'administra 8 des hommes. tion (see page 49, note 8).

9 un raffinement excessif de sa. 3 et il l'avait acquisé (page 32, 10 translate, ‘him.' note 4) en se mêlant personnellement 11 ceux qu'il se proposait de. dans tous les rangs de la vie privée. 12 ordinaire. Put a full stop here (page 24, 13 méfiant ; and repeat as,' note 19), and leave out and after 'and.' 3 distinctions.

14 qui ait jamais existé. Notice 4 regardée comme aussi étrange this use of the subjunctive, after que peu naturelle.

aucun (any), followed by a relative 5 See page 23, note', and various pronoun; as we have already seen other places.

it after le seul, at page 39, note 3.

The first of these attributes was Louis's I excessive superstition, a plague 2 with which 3 Heaven often afflicts those who refuse to listen to the dictates of religion. The remorse arising from his evil actions Louis never endeavoured to appease 4 by any relaxation in 5 his Macchiavelian stratagems, but laboured 6 in vain to soothe and silence that painful feeling? by superstitious observances, 8 severe penance, and profuse gifts to the ecclesiastics. The second property, 10 with which the first is sometimes found 11 strangely united, was a disposition to low pleasures and obscure debauchery,12 The wisest, or at least 13 the most crafty, sovereign of his time, 14 was fond of ordinary 15 life, and, being himself a man of wit, enjoyed the jests and repartees of social conversation 16 more than could have been expected from 17 other points of his character. He even mingled in the comic adventures of obscure intrigue, with a freedom little consistent with the habitual and guarded jealousy of his character ; 18 and 19 was so fond of this species of humble 20 gallantry, that he caused 21 a number of its gay and licentious anecdotes to be enrolled in a collection well known to 22 book-collectors, in whose eyes (and the work is unfit for any other) the right edition is very precious.23—(WALTER SCOTT, Quentin Durward.)

1 de ces traits caractéristiques de sition, whereas au moins commonly Louis XI. était une.

expresses a minimum, as, 'we were ? See page 27, note 2.

at least sixty,' nous étions au moins

soixante. 4 Translate, “Never Louis en 14 Use 'he,' here in French. deavoured to appease the remorse,'

15 privée. &c.

16 Simply, de la conversation. 5 en changeant quelque chose d. 17 d'après les. 6 See page 23, note 9.

18 son naturel méfiant et ombra7 sa conscience.

geux. Put a full stop here. 8 pratiques.

19 Enfin, il. 9 Use the plural.

20 ignoble. 10 Simply, Le second.

21 See page 9, note 6. il See page 8, note 6.

22 des. 12 Use the plural ; obscure, 23 pour lesquels la bonne édition secrètes.

est d'un très-grand prix, et qui seuls 13 du moins; this expression doivent se permettre d'y jeter les generally indicates a restriction yeux. of the preceding part of the propo

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THE man who broke the power of Gallia in an eight years' war has written 1 the history of the 2 war himself. He was a 3 soldier in his youth, like most Romans of rank,4 and he had been a governor 3 in Spain shortly before he was 5 consul. But it was not till after he was more than forty years of age that his military career commenced, and" he obtained a field wide enough for his daring and capacious genius. It was Cæsar's ambitions to conquer the Gauls, and it was prudent policy in the Romans, for Italy was never safe 10 so loug as the restless and warlike men beyond thell Alps were unsubdued. The rapidity of Cæsar's movements, the immense extent of country over which his military operations extended, his battles, his sieges, his defeats, and his victories, with their political consequences, give to his work an untiring interest, if we read it with proper knowledge and in a proper way. Nor 12 let any man, who thinks that he knows 13 something of modern warfare, 14 venture to disparage either the Roman or his enemies without 15 a map always before him, and his attention well awake to the significance of a few words written in the Latin language, and written by Cæsar. The Gauls fought with courage and desperation; they showed military talent,16 and in the arm of cavalry they were strong. 17 They were inferior in infantry and in their weapons ;18 and they were weakened by political disunion. Cæsar pursued

1 Translate literally, 'has writ- 9 See page 25, note 18; and ten himself.' 2 cette.

others. 3 'a soldier; ' 'a governor; ' see 10 See page 123, note 4. page 76, end of note 8

il qui habitaient au delà des. * de haut rang; or, d'un rang 12 See page 14, note 13. élevé; or, again, de distinction. 13 See above, note 5, and the 5 See page 7, note?

reference made there. 6 qu'après qu'il eut atteint l'âge 14 art militaire. 15 sans avoir. de quarante ans (or, eut eu qua- 16 Use the plural, in French. rante ans révolus).

17 et leurs armées étaient fortes en ? See page 6, note 3, and page 1, cavalerie. note 5.

18 sous le rapport de l'infanterie 8 Translate, Cæsar's arbition et des armes. was.'

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