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soldiers with the sovereignty of Antioch ;1 and a fourth, the Tancred whose name lives in the great poem of Tasso, was celebrated through Christendom as the bravest and most generous of the champions of the Holy Sepulchre.

The vicinity of so remarkable a people early began to produce an effect on the public mind of England. Before the Conquest, English princes received their education in Normandy. English sees and English estates 3 were bestowed on Normans. Norman-French was familiarly spoken in the 4 palace of Westminster. The court of Rouen 5 seems to have been to the court of Edward the Confessor what the court of Versailles, long afterwards, was to the court of Charles II.6—(T. B. MACAULAY, History of England.)

cident; we never use est and ouest, masculine, as anglais (masc.), in this sense, that is, when speak- anglaise (fem.), bon (masc.), bonne ing of those empires or emperors, (fem.), &c. This rule is sensible or of Europe and of the countries enough, for what could sound that lie eastward of it: thus the worse than “des évêchés et des Eastern question, la question terres anglais ?The student is d'Orient (but we say vent d'est, here supposed to know already d'ouest, 'east, west, wind,' &c.). and know well—that, as to an

fut placé par ses compagnons glais, it could not be altered, and d'armes à la tête de la souveraineté that it must be so used in the masd'Antioche.

culine plural, on account of one of 2 que le Tasse a chanté dans son the two nouns (évêchés) being masimmortel poëme. In imitation of culine. the Italians, the French use the 4 Le français de Normandie article with the following proper était familier au. names : le Tasse, l'Arioste, le Cor- 5 This last sentence being a kind rége, and a few others.

of résumé of the preceding details, 3 Des évêchés et des domaines an- had better begin so :-En un mot, glais; or, Des terres et des évêchés la cour de Rouen ; or, La cour de anglais. If we use terres instead Rouen enfin. of domaines, then we must put 6 Charles II.-pronounce Charles évêchés last. The grammatical deux. The cardinal numbers, not rule is this: when two substantives the ordinal, are used, in French, qualified by an adjective have not before names of sovereigns, except the same gender (here terres is when speaking of the first of a fem., and évêchés is masc.), eu- name (as, Charles I., pron. Charles phony requires the masculine sub- premier, not un); but, in all cases, stantive to be used last, if the the French omit the article 'the,' adjective has a different termina- used in English before the numeral tion in the feminine and in the following the name of a sovereign.

INFLUENCE OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE AND

LITERATURE IN THE AGE OF LOUIS XIV.

FRANCE united at that period almost every species of ascendency. Her military glory was at the height. She had vanquished mighty coalitions. She had dictated treaties. She had subjugated great cities and provinces. She had forced the Castilian pride to yield her the precedence.3 She had summoned Italian princes to prostrate themselves at her footstool.4 Her authority was supreme in all matters of good breeding, from a duel to a minuet. In literature she gave law 6 to the world. The fame of her great writers filled Europe. No other country could produce a tragic poet equal to Racine, a comic poet equal to Molière, a trifler8 so agreeable as La Fontaine, a rhetorician so skilful as Bossuet.

The literary glory of Italy and of Spain had set ; that of Germany liad not yet dawned.10 The genius, therefore, of the eininent meil who adorned 11 Paris shone forth with a splendour which was set off to full advantage by contrast.12 France, indeed, had at that time an empire over

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1 possédait à cette époque la su- speaker. périorité dans tous les genres.

10 ‘had set' ...,'had not yet 3 apogée, in this sense.

dawned,' n'était plus ... n'était

pas encore. The English meta4 obligė les ....d s'kumilier d phor would not be acceptable in ses pieds.

French ; but we might very well o en matière de bon ton (or, de say, s'étoit éteinte (page 40, note 6) bon goût).-'a duel'...'a mi...., n'avait pas encore lui (from nuet; use the definite article the verb luire). ('the'), in French, here.

11 faisaient l'ornement de (in this . 6 faisait la loi; or, donnait des figurative, pointed sense ; in a lois.

proper, ordinary sense, ornaient 7 montrer,-to avoid ambiguity would be the word used). 8 un poèie badin; 'so,' aussi. 12 qu'augmentait encore le con

9 un orateur aussi puissant ; or, traste (page 6, note 3); or, qui simply, un orateur tel. The word s'augmentait encore par le contraste: rhétoricien means merely one who the French are not so fond as the knows rhetoric; and as to rhéteur, English of the passive voice; they it either means a teacher of rhe- generally prefer the active or the toric, cr is taken in a bad sense, reflective, even in cases besides signifying a studied and bombastic those mentioned at page 8, note 6.

mankind, such as? even the Roman Republic never attained. For, when Rome was politically dominant, she was in arts and letters the humble pupil of Greece. France had, over the surrounding countries, at once the ascendency which Rome had over Greece, and the ascendency which Greece had over Rome. French was becoming the universal language, the language of fashionable society,the language of diplomacy. At several courts princes and nobles spoke it more accurately and politely: than their mother tongue.4

In our island there was less of this servility) than on the continent. Neither our good nor our bad qualities were those of imitators.6 Yet even here homage was paid, awkwardly indeed, and sullenly,8 to the literary supremacy of our neighbours. The melodious Tuscan, so familiar to the gallants and ladies of the court of Elizabeth, sank into contempt. New canons 10 of criticism, new models of style, came into fashion.11 The quaint ingenuity which had deformed 12 the verses of Donne, and had been a blemish on 13 those of Cowley, disappeared from our poetry. Our prose became less majestic, less artfully involved,14 less

1 See page 38, note 1, and page wish, on the contrary, to dwell on 14, note 5.

the continuance or repetition of it, y la haute société.

on the habit in which people were, 3 et plus élégamment.

at that period, of 'paying homage,' 4 leur propre langue; or, la &c., we must then use the imlangue de leur pays ; or, leur perfect. langue maternelle (a more poetical 8 quoique bien gauchement et than prosaic expression).

comme à regret (or, et comme d 5 cette servilité fut moindre. contre-coeur).

6 Put a colon, or a semi-colon, 9 preux, or, chevaliers, after 'continent.'-ni nos bonnes 10° règles. ni nos mauvaises qualités ne furent 11 devinrent (or, vinrent) d la jamais celles des imitateurs ; or, mode. In the same way we say, better, nous n'avons jamais eu les être hors de mode, 'to be out of qualités ou les défauts des imita- fashion,' and passer de mode, 'to teurs.

go out of fashion.' 7'here,' chez nous.—'to pay, 12 déparé. here, rendre. —'was paid,' see 13 Simply, et entaché. page 8, note 6, and page 1, note 3. 14 moins artistement arrondie We may use here, either the im- dans ses périodes (or, simply, arperfect or the preterite : if we rondie); or, moins artistement wish to consider the fact mentioned riodique dans son style (or, simply, only as one point in history, we périodique); or, moins artistement shall use the preterite ; but if we contournée. The verb contourner means, literally, 'to give an agree- John Bull est un homme sans façon, able turn to ;' but contourné more franc, positif. commonly means, when speaking 5 • with .... about him,' ayant of a phrase, or of style in general, en lui. 'forced,' 'unnatural;' here, how 6 romance,' romanesque ; 'naever, the word artistement, in the ture,' caractère, here. context, is sufficient to remove any 7 beaucoup de naturel et de force. ambiguity.

variously musical,1 than that of an earlier age; 2 but more lucid, more easy, and better fitted for controversy and narrative. In these changes it is impossible not to recognise 3 the influence of French precept and of French example.—(T. B. MACAULAY, History of England.)

JOHN BULL.

JOHN BULL, to all appearance, is a plain, downright, matter-of-fact fellow,4 with) much less of poetry about him than rich prose. There is little of romance in his nature, but a vast deal of strong natural feeling. He excels in humour more than in wit ; is jolly rather than gay; melancholy rather than morose; can easily be moved to a sudden tear, or surprised into a broad laugh ;9 but he loathes sentiment, and has no turn for 10 light pleasantry. Hell is a boon companion,12 if you allow him to have 13 his humour, and to talk about himself ; 14 and he will stand by a friend in a quarrel, with life and purse, however soundly he may be cudgelled.

8 Il a plus de gaieté que. 1 moins variée dans son har 9 il n'est ni difficile de l'émoumonie.

voir (de le toucher-de l'attendrir) 2 qu'elle ne (page 29, note 22) jusqu'aux larmes, ni rare de l'enl'était jadis. The word jadis is tendre partir tout-à-coup d'un éclat growing obsolete, except in poetry de rire; or, more freely and conand in elevated style : in familiar cisely, on le voit rire et pleurer style we use autrefois, as, 'I was avec une égale facilité. very strong formerly,' j'étais très 10 n'entend rien à; or, n'a pas fort autrefois.

la moindre idée de. 3 Construct so :-' It is impos- 11 See page 72, note 13. sible not to recognise in these

not to recognise in these 12 un fort bon vivant. changes.'

13 de se livrer à. 4 Selon toutes les apparences, 14 de lui.

In this last respect, to tell the truth, he has a propensity to be somewhat too ready. He is a busy-minded 1 personage, who thinks not merely for? himself and family, but for all the country round; and is most generously disposed to be everybody's champion. He is continually volunteering his services to settle his neighbour's affairs ; and takes it in great dudgeon 3 if they engage in any matter of consequence without asking his advice; though he seldom engages in any friendly office of the kind without finishing by getting into a squabble4 with all parties, and then railing bitterly at their ingratitude. He unluckily 5 took lessons in his youth in the noble science 6 of defence, and having accomplished himself in the use of his limbs and his weapons, and become a perfect master at boxing and cudgel-play,' he has had a troublesome life of it ever since.10 He cannot hear 11 of a quarrel between the most distant of his neighbours, but he 12 begins incontinently to fumble with the head of 13 his cudgel, and consider whether his interest or honour does not require that he should meddle in the broil. Indeed, he has extended his relations of pride and policy so completely over the whole country, that no event can take place, without infringing 14 some of his finely-spun 15 rights and dignities. Couched 16 in his little domain, with 17 these filaments stretching forth in every direction, he is like some choleric, bottle-bellied old spider,18 who has woven his web over a whole 19 chamber, so that a fly cannot buzz, nor a breeze

1 affairé.

du bâton (or, l'art de faire jouer le 3 et s'ofj'ense.

poing et le bâton). 4 par se mettre mal.

· 10 il a mener depuis ce temps 5 Use here the indefinite pre- (or, depuis lors) une vie sans cesse terite, he has taken ;' speaking agitée. of a deceased person, however, we 11 entendre parler. should use, in French, as in Eng- 12 sans, with the infinitive. lish, the definite preterite.

13 à consulter. 6 See page 22, note ?

14 to infringe,' blesser, here. 7 défense de soi-même; or, - 15 d'une manière plus ou moins fense personnelle.

forte ses. 8 to accomplish oneself,' se per. 16 Retranché. 17 entouré de. fectionner : translate by, and as 18 une grosse et vieille araignée he has accomplished,' &c.

colère. 9 et qu'il s'est rendu tout à fait 19 dans toute la largeur d'une (as familier l'art de boxer et de jouer at page 95, note 12).

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