you should do to Brutus. The question 1 of his death is enrolled in the Capitol ; his glory not extenuated wherein he was worthy; nor his offences enforced for which he suffered death.2

Here comes 3 his body, mourned by Mark Antony, who, though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit of his dying,4 a place in the Commonwealth ; as which of you shall not? 5 With this I depart, that as I slew 6 my best lover for the good of Rome,? I have the same dagger for myself when it shall please my country to need my death. &-(SHAKSPEARE, Julius Cæsar.)


TUBAL. Shylock. How now,9 Tubal ? What news from Genoa ? Hast thou heard of my daughter ?

Tubal. I often came where I did hear of her, but cannot 10 find her.

Shy. Why there, there, there ! 11 a diamond gone that cost me two thousand ducats in Frankfort ! the curse never fell upon our nation till now; I never felt it till pow. Two thousand ducats in that and other precious, precious, jewels ! 12 I would my daughter were 13 dead at my foot,

1 La cause ; or, Le sujet; or, 6 Voici ma conclusion : j'ai tué. better, Les motifs.

7 'good,' salut ; a full stop after 2 to extenuate,' in this sense, "Rome.' diminuer, or, amoindrir; 'to en 8 'I have;' Je garde. — 'myforce,' likewise, exagérer.-' in the self; simply, moi. — please ; see capitol; his glory,' &c., au Capi. p. 31, n. 3.-to need ; demander. tole dans un exposé im partial ou 9 Eh bien! l'on n'a rien diminué de la gloire 10 En beaucoup d'endroits on m'a qu'il avait justement acquise, rien parlé d'elle, mais je n'ai pu. ajouté aux fautes qui lui ont mérité. 11 Voild, voild, voild.-'a diala mort.

mond gone, translate 'I lose a 3 Voici.

diamond.' 4 qu'accompagne Marc-Antoine 12 que je perds ld, outre plusieurs en deuil, lui qui, sans avoir eu bijoux précieux, bien précieux! part à sa mort, en recueillera les 13 Que ma fille n'est-elle.'foot;' bienfaisants résultats.

we should use the plural, here, in 5 et qui de vous n'en recueillera French, as well as ear,' farther pas autant ?


and the jewels in her ear! Owould she were hearsed at my foot, and the ducats in her coffin ! No news of them; and I know not what spent in the search :2 loss upon loss! the thief gone with so much, and so much to find the thief; and no satisfaction, no revenge ; no ill luck stirring but what lights on my shoulders ; no sighs, but o' my breathing ; no tears, but o my shedding ! 3

Tub. Yes, other men have ill luck too! Antonio, as I heard in Genoa. ...

Shy. What, what, what ! 4 ill luck, ill luck ?
Tub. Hath an argosie cast away, coming from Tripoli.
Shy. Thank God ! 6 Thank God! is it true ? is it true?

Tub. I spoke with some of the sailors that escaped the 7 wreck.

Shy. I thank thee, good 8 Tubal ; good news, good news!

Tub. Your daughter spent in Genoa, as I heard, in one night, fourscore ducats.

Shy. Thou stick'st a dagger in me ; 9 I shall never see my gold again ; 10 fourscore ducats at a sitting ! 11 fourscore ducats !

Tub. There came divers of Antonio's creditors in my company to Venice, that swear he cannot but break. 12

i que n'est-elle étendue , devant hale, de larmes que celles que versent moi, prête à être portée en terre. mes yeux.

Eh quoi ! on n'en a point de 4 Quoi ? que dis-tu ? nouvelles ? Allons, c'est comme 5A perdu un vaisseau marcela.-Et Dieu sait tout l'argent chand (or, simply, un de ses vaisque ces recherches vont me coûter seaux). encore! The words vont me codter 6 Dieu soit loué. encore (future) are a slight devia- 7 échappés au ; leaving out tion from the text (“spent'-past), that.'* for the sake of emphasis ; this em 8 mon cher. phasis is not out of place : the Jew 9 Tu m'enfonces un poignard very naturally thinks of what must dans le coeur. be spent altogether, in order to 10 never again,' plus; and see find his daughter of both what page 19. note 5 the search has already cost him, 11 d'un seul coup. and what it will again (encore) re- 19 En revenant à Venise, j'ai quire on account of its unsuccess- voyagé en société de plusieurs créanfulness as yet.

ciers d'A; ils disent qu'il ne 3 il n'y a de malheurs que pour saurait éviter de faire banqueroute moi, de soupirs que ceux que j'ex- (or, de faillir). See p. 54, note 1.


Shy. I'm glad of it: I'll plague him, I'll torture him : I am glad of it.

Tub. One of them showed me a ring that he had 1 of your daughter for a monkey.

Shy. Out upon her! Thou torturest me,2 Tubal! It was my ruby, I had it of Leah, when I was a bachelor ; 3 I would not have given it for a wilderness 4 of monkeys.

Tub. But Antonio is certainly undone. · Shy. Nay, that's true, that's very true : go fee me an officer ; 6 bespeak him a fortnight before. I will have the heart of him, if he forfeit ;? for were he out of Venice, I can make what merchandise I will.8 Go, go, Tubal, and meet me 9 at our synagogue ; go, good Tubal ; at our synagogue, Tubal.—(SHAKSPEARE, Merchant of Venice.)

A SKETCH OF THE NORMANS. The Normans were then the foremost race of Christendom. Their valour and ferocity 10 had made them conspicuousll among the rovers whom Scandinavia had sent forth to

i Translate, that he had had.' note 4) fameux. In the first of

2 La malheureuse ! Tu m'assas- these two renderings, les is not the sines.

accusative of fait, but of remar3 il me venait de Lia, qui me quer; the accusative, or régime l'avait donné lorsque j'étais encore direct, of fait is understood, for it is garçon.

as if we had, literally, ‘had made 4'un régiment.—to give,' here, (fait) some one—understood-nocéder, to avoid the repetition of tice (remarquer) them.' The nondonner.

5 Oui. agreement of fait, here, is conse6 va, Tubal, procure-moi un huis- quently in accordance with the sier. See page 77, note 8.

rule. But, even were the accusa7 s'il manque à son engagement tive of the past participle fait to (or, simply, s'il ne me paye pas), il precede it, that participle would faut que j'aie son coeur.

not any more agree for that; for, 8 car une fois qu'il ne sera plus à -and this is worthy of special Venise, je puis faire toutes les opée attention, as being the only exceprations qu'il me plaira (see page tion to the rule given in note 4 of 31, note 3).

page 32,—the past participle fait, 9 et viens me retrouver.

when followed by a verb in the 10 See page 20, note 11.

infinitive, is always invariable: ex., 11 les avaient fait remarquer ; or, "je les ai fait parler," "ils nous les avaient rendus (see page 32, ont fait taire,” &c.

ravage Western Europe. Their sails were long1 the terror of both coasts of the channel.2 Their arms were repeatedly carried far into the heart of the Carlovingian empire, and were victorious under the walls of Maestricht and Paris. At length one of the feeble heirs of Charlemagne ceded to the strangers a fertile province, watered by a noble river, and contiguous to the sea, which was their favourite element. In that province they founded a mighty state, which gradually extended its influence over the neighbouring principalities of Brittany and Maine.3 Without laying aside that dauntless valour which had been the terror of every land from the Elbe to the Pyrenees, the Normans rapidly acquired 4 all, and more than all, the knowledge and refinement which they found in the country where they had settled. Their courage secured their territory against foreign invasion. They established internal order, such as 6 had been long unknown in the Frank empire. They embraced Christianity, and with Christianity they learned a great part of what the clergy had to teach. They abandoned their native speech,8 and adopted the French tongue, in which the Latin was the predominant element. They speedily raised their new language to a dignity and importance which it had never before possessed. They found it a 10 barbarous jargon; they fixed it in writing ;11 and they employed it in legislation, in poetry, and in romance. They renounced that brutal intemperance to

1 Leurs vaisseaux étaient (or, are somewhat different in meaning: Leur marine était) depuis long- -idiome means the language pecutemps.

liar to a nation, and is sometimes, 2 la Manche.

though seldom, synonymous with 3 See page 26, note 4.

patois (dialect); whereas idiotisme 4 s'étaient rapidement assimilé always signifies a peculiar expres(or, approprié).

sion in a language, such as those, 5 and more than all,' et même for instance, which constitute what ils y avaient ajouté ; and put this, we call Anglicisms, Gallicisms, Lain French, quite at the end of the tinisms, &c. sentence.

9 See page 20, note 11, and page 6 See page 38, note 1,

32, note 4 ? du clergé à peu près tout ce 10 ils n'avaient trouvé qu'un ; or, qu'il pouvait.

ils le (relating to langage, subst, 8 leur idiome national; or, leur masc.) trouvèrent à l'état de. langue nationale. The French words 11 ils en firent une langue écrite. idiome and idiotisme, though akin,

which all the other branches of the Great German family were too much inclined. The politel luxury of the Norman presented a striking contrast to the coarse voracity and drunkenness of his Saxon and Danish neighbours. He loved to display his magnificence, not in huge piles of food and hogsheads of strong drink,” but in large and stately edifices, rich armour,4 gallant horses, choice falcons, wellordered tournaments, banquets delicate rather than abundant, and wines remarkable rather for their exquisite flavour than for their intoxicating power.5 That chivalrous spirit which has exercised so powerful an influence on the politics, morals, and manners of all European nations, was found in the highest exaltation 6 among the Norman nobles. Those nobles were distinguished by their graceful bearing and insinuating address. They were distinguished also by their skill in negotiation, and by a natural eloquence which they assiduously cultivated. It was the boast of one of their historians, that the Norman gentlemen 10 were orators from 11 the cradle. But their chief fame was derived from their military exploits.12 Every country, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Dead Sea, witnessed the prodigies of their discipline and valour. One Norman knight, at the head of a handful of warriors, scattered the Celts of Connaught.13 Another founded the monarchy of the Two Sicilies, and saw the emperors, both of the East and of the West, 14 fly before his arms. A third, the Ulysses of the first Crusade, was invested by his fellow

1 élégant, or, raffiné, in this (subst. masculine, in this sense ; sense.

2 avec.

we also say, le plus haut période,

but this expression forms a pleon3 de larges entassements de mets asm, as période alone means et de tonneaux remplis de breuvages highest degree,' 'highest pitch'). enivrants ; or, un amas de mets 7 bearing,' here, tenue, or tourgrossiers, des flots de liqueurs fortes. Nure; 'address,' manières.

4 'armour,' and also harness,' 8 Use the plural, here. are used, in French, in the plural 9 Aussi un .... dit-il (page 32, as well as in the singular ; put the note 1) avec orgueil, plural, here.

10 See page 46, note 8. 5 des vins plutôt remarquables 11 dès." par leur bouquet que par leur force; 12 Mais c'est surtout par . ... or, des vins plus exquis et plus sa- qu'ils s'illustrèrent. voureux qu'enivrants.

13 See above, page 101, note 3. 6 se retrouvait à son période 14 les empereurs d'Orient et d'Oc.

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