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Sometime I'll say, I am duke Humphrey's

And he a prince, protector of the land ;
But so he rul'd, and such a prince he was,
As he stood by, whilst I, his forlorn duchess,
Was led with shame, and made a laughing-

To every idle rascal follower.


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Sometime I'll say, I am duke Humphrey's

And he a prince, and ruler of the land :
Yet so he ruld, and such a prince he was,
As he stood by, whilst I, his forlorn duchess,
• Was made a wonder, and a pointing-stock,
To every idle rascal follower.
But be thou mild, and blush not at my

shame ;
Nor stir at nothing, till the axe of death
Hang over thee, as, sure, it shortly will.
For Suffolk,-he that can do all in all
With her, that hateth thee, and hates us

And York, and impious Beaufort, that false

priest, Have all lim'd bushes to betray thy wings, And, fly thou how thou canst, they 'll tangle

thee : *But fear not thou until thy foot be snar'd, *Nor never seek prevention of thy foes. Glo. Ah, Nell, forbear; thou aimest all

awry; *I must offend before I be attainted : *And had I twenty times so many foes, *And each of them had twenty times their

power, *All these could not procure me any scath, *So long as I am loyal, true, and crimeless. Wouldst have me rescue thee from this

reproach? Why, yet thy scandal were not wip'd away, . But I in danger for the breach of law. • Thy greatest help is quiet, gentle Nell:

I pray thee, sort thy heart to patience ; • These few days' wonder will be quickly

Hum. My lovely Nell, what wouldst thou

have me do?
Should I attempt to rescue thee from hence,
I should incur the danger of the law,
And thy disgrace would not be shadow'd so.
Eleanor. Be thou mild, and stir not at my

Until the axe of death hang o'er thy head,
As shortly sure it will. For Suffolk, he,
The new-made duke, that may do all in all
With her that loves him so, and hates us all,
And impious York, and Beaufort that false

Have all lim'd bushes to betray thy wings,
And, fly thou how thou canst, they will en-

tangle thee.

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We have here 69 lines of Henry VI.,' and the marks of Malone show that, of these, 31 are unaltered from the contention.' Malone, however, has not carried out his own principle of distinguishing by inverted commas the lines in which any change has taken place. When we open "The Second Part of Henry VI.' we find, in the first speech, the following three lines marked with inverted


« « Seven earls, twelve barons, twenty reverend bishops,

“I have perform'd my task, and was espous'd :

• And humbly now upon my bended knee." The differences of the corresponding three lines in the Contention' are as slight as we find in many passages of the quarto and folio copies of Shakspere's undoubted works. They stand thus in the · Contention:

“Seven earls, twelve barons, and twenty reverend bishops,-
I did perform my task, and was espous d :
And now, most humbly on my bended knees.

We may state with confidence that, of the 2373 lines which Malone has computed were formed by Shakspere “on the foundation laid by his predecessors," one-half, at least, so stated to be formed, exhibit nothing more than such minute deviations as we here point out. But, if Malone had carried this principle throughout, of the 1771 lines which he conceives were written by “ some author who preceded Shakspeare," at least one-half would have been transferred + Shakspere by the inverted commas. For example: in the scene with Gloster and his duchess there are many lines of the 69 in which no deviation whatever is marked by Malone, but which still deviate as much from the original as the three lines beginning “Seven earls," &c. We have marked these at the end of each with inverted commas. We mark also, with asterisks at the end, two new lines which Malone has omitted to mark. The result is that, if Malone had carried out his own principle, only 12 of these 69 lines would be held to belong to the original play. Our readers may judge from this what reliance is to be placed upon the commentator's capricious arithmetic. We hold it to be a test altogether fallacious in principle, and carried by him into practice to the extent in which it suited his own purpose, and no farther. Had he shown, for example, that there remained only 12 lines of the original play in the scene before us, some painstaking inquirer might have referred to The First Part of the Contention,' in surprise at the result, and have discovered that, in all essentials, the scene of Henry VI. and the scene of the Contention' are evidently the production of one and the same mind. For what are the additions to this scene which Malone and his followers hold to be the amount of Shakspere's contribution towards it? With the exception of the first four lines, these additions do not contain a single idea which is not found in the original; and in the original all that marks the poet—in a word, all that is Shaksperian—is exclusively to be found. The new lines are comparatively weak, though not injudicious, amplifications of the original. The entire conception of character is in the original; the additions do not contribute a single feature to its development. We have ventured to mark in italics those passages of the scene in the Contention' which appear to us essentially Shaksperian; and we may add that, if passages such as these are to be found in “some author who preceded Shakspeare,” we regret that our stock of enjoyment has not yet been enlarged through any acquaintance with his works.

We have now to present a scene,--the celebrated one of the death of Cardinal Beaufort,-in which the elaboration has been so far carried that Malone leaves only one line as the property of the original author. Yet we venture to think that the original author had something more to do with its production than that one line; and that the whole dramatic conception of the scene, as well as some of the most remarkable expressions, are the property, not of the amplifier, however skilful be his amplification, but of the mind which first pictured to itself that terrible deathbed. Most skilful, indeed, are the elaborations; and they belong evidently to a more practised hand than that which reduced the original conception into language. But the hand, as we think, is still the same; the improved hand applying itself to its work with more technical precision. It is our belief that the man who conceived the original scene could alone have finished it. When did any great artist ever produce a perfect picture from another's sketch? The genius which informed the original idea could alone preserve it through the process of its refinement.



Car. O, death ! if thou wilt let me live
But one whole year, I'll give thee as much

As will purchase such another island.
King. Oh, see, my lord of Salisbury, how

he is troubled ! Lord cardinal, remember, Christ must save

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thy soul.

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* K. Hen. How fares my lord ? speak,

Beaufort, to thy sovereign.
Car. If thou be'st death, I'll give thee

England's treasure,
• Enough to purchase such another island,
• So thou wilt let me live, and feel no pain.

K. Hen. Ah, what a sign it is of evil life, *When death's approach is seen so terrible! War. Beaufort, it is thy sovereign speaks

to thee. Car. Bring me unto my trial when you

will. Died he not in his bed ? where should he

die ? Can I make men live, whe'r they will or

no ?*O! torture me no more, I will confess.• Alive again ? then show me where he is ; • I'll give a thousand pound to look upon

him. *He hath no eyes, the dust hath blinded

them.Comb down his hair; look ! look! it stands

upright, Like lime-twigs set to catch my winged

soul ! • Give me some drink; and bid the apothecary • Bring the strong poison that I bought of him. K. Hen. O, thou eternal Mover of the

heavens, *Look with a gentle eye upon this wretch ! *0, beat away the busy meddling fiend, *That lays strong siege unto this wretch's soul, *And from his bosom purge this black de

spair !

Car. Why, died he not in his bed ?
What would you have me to do then ?
Can I make mon live, whether they will or no?
Sirrah, go fetch me the poison which the

'pothecary sent me.
Oh, see where duke Humphrey's ghost doth

And stares me in the face. Look, look, comb

down his hair!
So, now he's gone again : Oh, oh, oh !


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War. See, how the pangs of death do

make him grin. • Sal. Disturb him not, let him pass peace

ably. * K. Hen. Peace to his soul, if God's good

pleasure be! • Lord cardinal, if thou think'st on heaven's

bliss, • Hold up thy hand, make signal of thy

hope.• He dies, and makes no sign ; 0, God, for

give him!

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War. So bad a death argues a monstrous

life. K. Hen. Forbear to judge, for we are sin

ners all. Close up his eyes, and draw the curtain


And let us all to meditation.

We shall conclude our parallel extracts from The Second Part of Henry VI.' and the Contention' with the following portions of the scenes with Jack Cade:



Drum. Enter CADE, Dick the butcher, SMITH the weaner,

and others in great number. Cade. We John Cade, so termed of our supposed father,

Dick. Or rather, of stealing a cade of herrings.

Cade. for our enemies shall fall before us, inspired with the spirit of putting down • kings and princes,-Command silence.

Dick. Silence !
Cade. My father was a Mortimer,

Dick. He was an honest man, and a good bricklayer.

Cade. My mother a Plantagenet, -
Dick. I knew her well, she was a midwife.
Cade. My wife descended of the Lacies,


Sal. See how the pangs of death do gripe

his heart. King. Lord cardinal, if thou diest assur'd

of heavenly bliss, Hold up thy hand, and make some sign to us,

Oh, see he dies, and makes no sign at all.
Oh, God, forgive his soul !

Sal. So bad an end did never none behold;
But as his death, so was his life in all.
King. Forbear to judge, good Salisbury,

For God will judge us all.
Go, take him hence, and see his funerals


Dick. She was, indeed, a pedlar's daughter, and sold many laces.

Smith. But, now of late, not able to travel ' with her furred pack, she washes bucks here at home.

Cade. Therefore am I of an honourable • house. Dick. Ay, by my faith, the field is honour

and there was he born, under a hedge; for his father had never a house, but


Enter Jack Cade, Dick BUTCHER, ROBIN,

Will, Tom, HARRY, and the rest, with long
Cade. Proclaim silence.
All, Silence !

Cade. I, John Cade, so named for my valiancy.

Dick. Or rather for stealing of a cade of sprats.

Cade. My father was a Mortimer.

Dick. He was an honest man and a good bricklayer.

Cade. My mother was come of the Lacies.

Nick. She was a pedlar's daughter indeed, and sold many laces.

Robin. And now, being not able to occupy her furred pack, she washeth bucks up and down the country.

Cade. Therefore I am honourably born.

Harry. Ay, the field is honourable, for he was born under a hedge, because his father had no other house but the cage.

Cade. I am able to endure much.

Geo. That's true; I know he can endure anything, for I have seen him whipped two market-days together.

Cade. I fear neither sword nor fire.

Will. He need not fear the sword, for his coat is of proof.



the cage.

Cade. Valiant I am. * Smith. 'A must needs; for beggary is *valiant.

Cade. I am able to endure much.

Dick. No question of that; for I have seen him whipped three market-days together.

Cade. I fear neither sword nor fire.
Smith. He need not fear the sword, for

his coat is of proof.

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Dick. But, methinks, he should stand in fear of fire, being burnt i'the hand for stealing of sheep.

Cade. Be brave then; for your captain is brave, and vows reformation. There shall be, in England, seven halfpenny loaves sold for a penny: the three-hooped pot shall have ten hoops; and I will make it felony to drink small beer : all the realm shall be in common, and in Cheapside shall my palfrey go to grass. And, when I am king, (as king I will be)

All. God save your majesty!

Cade. I thank you, good people ;-there ' shall be no money; all shall eat and drink on my score; and I will apparel them all ‘in one livery, that they may agree like brothers, and worship me their lord.

Dick. The first thing we do, let's kill all the lawyers.

Cade. Nay, that I mean to do. Is not this a lamentable thing, that of the skin of an innocent lamb should be made parchment ? that parchment, being scribbled o'er, should undo a man? Some say the bee stings: but I say, 't is the bee's wax, for I did but seal once to a thing, and I was never mine own man since. How now? who's there? Enter some, bringing in the Clerk of Chatham.

Smith. The clerk of Chatham: he can write and read, and cast accompt.

Cade. O, monstrous !
Smith. We took him setting of boys' copies.
Cade. Here's a villain !

Smith. H'as a book in his pocket, with red letters in't.

Cade. Nay, then he is a conjurer.

Dick. Nay, he can make obligations, and write court-hand.

Cade. I am sorry for 't: the man is a proper man, on mine honour; unless I find him guilty, he shall not die.-Come hither, sirrah, I must examine thee: What is thy name?

Clerk. Emmanuel.

Dick. They use to write it on the top of letters ;-'T will go hard with you.

Cade. Let me alone :-Dost thou use to write thy name? or hast thou a mark to • thyself, like an honest plain-dealing man?

Clerk. Sir, I thank God, I have been so well brought up, that I can write my name.

All. He hath confess'd : away with him ; he's a villain and a traitor.

Cade. Away with him, I say: hang him • with his pen and inkhorn about his neck. Second PART OF HENRY VI., Act IV.,

SCENE 7. Mess. My lord, a prize, a prize! here's the lord Say, which sold the towns in France;

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Dick. But methinks he should fear the fire, being so often burnt in the hand for stealing of sheep.

Cade. Therefore be brave, for your captain is brave, and vows reformation: you shall have seven halfpenny loaves for a penny, and the three-hooped pot shall have ten hoops, and it shall be felony to drink small beer, if I be king, as king I will be.

All. God save your majesty!

Cade. I thank you, good people : you shall all eat and drink of my score, and go all in my livery; and we 'll have no writing, but the score and the tally, and there shall be no laws but such as come from my mouth.

Dick. We shall have sore laws then, for he was thrust into the mouth the other day.

Geo. Ay, and stinking law too, for his breath stinks so that one cannot abide it.

[Why, is 't not a miserable thing, that of the skin of an innocent lamb parchment should be made, and then with a little blotting over with ink a man should undo himself? Some say 't is the bees that sting, but I

say 't is their wax, for I am sure I never sealed to anything but once, and I was never mine own man since.]*

Enter Will with the Clerk of Chatham.
Will. Oh, captain, à prize !
Cade. Who's that, Will ?

Will. The clerk of Chatham : he can write and read and cast account. I took him setting of boys' copies; and he has a book in his pocket with red letters.

Cade. Zounds, he's a conjurer! bring him hither. Now, sir, what's your name?

Clerk. Emanuel, sir, an it shall please you.
Dick. It will go hard with you,

I tell

you, for they use to write that o'er the top of letters.

Cade. What, do you use to write your name? Or do you, as ancient forefathers have done, use the score and the tally?

Clerk. Nay, truly, sir, I praise God I have been so well brought up that I can write mine own name.

Cade. Oh, he has confessed; go hang him with his pen and inkhorn about his neck.


SCENE 7. Geo. My lord, a prize, a prize! here's the lord Say, which sold the towns in France.

* This passage in brackets is found in Scene 7 of the fourth act.

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