can be said in their favor. They have general principle with regard to all orlost their knowledge of art; that is to say, ders. they do not construct their own habita- There is, however, another remark to tions. They have lost also, as already be made in reference to the repugnance stated, their natural affection for their which the slave-inaking instinct in ants is young, and even their instinct of feeding. said to merit from us. The same remark

Then comes Strongylognathus. These will apply to some other instincts which have lost even more. Slavery has told on are said to militate against the belief in the bodily strength. When roused, they divine government, such as the impulse will however fight, but they fight in vain; which amongst bees leads the workers to and but for the exertions of their slaves put to death the drones after these have they would evidently be exterminated. fulfilled their single function of securing

Beneath this lowest depth there is yet the continuance of the race. It is strange, a lower depth. Anergates is the name of certainly. But the repugnance which is the miserable creature. If Sir John Lub. professed or felt in presence of such facts bock is right in the novel suggestion by arises, surely, from an error. The error which he explains the mysterious fact that consists in looking at them from a merely it continues to exist at all, a male and human point of view - from not realizing female Anergates stealthily enter the nest that it is not a world of human beings that of Tetramorium and assassinate the we are regarding, but of totally different queen. The result of this dastardly ma- beings. It is an error to attribute to what næuvre is that in the following year the we call the victims in such cases the feelcommunity consists of the murderous ings which we should naturally attribute couple, their young, and only the workers to our so circumstanced. if of Tetramorium, who, though they would we could accurately represent to never submit to be captured by such selves the actual consciousness of the weak creatures, yet tend their helpless various species of animals, it may well be invaders with the utmost care. Aner that all the difficulties now arising from gates is an awful warning. It is a para- the contemplation of the war of nature site. It has lost its real independence, its would shrink to very small proportions, or arts, and many of its instincts. “ The disappear altogether. individuals are weak in body and mind, With regard to the rise of the instinct few in numbers, and apparently nearly of slave-making, the suggestion is offered extinct -- the miserable representatives of by Mr. Darwin, and repeated by Sir John far superior ancestors.” *

Lubbock, that since it is a common pracNow it must be admitted that such an tice with ants, even of species that do not instinct as that of slave-making is diffi. make slaves, to carry off the pupæ of cult at first sight to reconcile with our other species, if scattered near their nests, à priori notions of divine design, though “such pupæ originally stored as food surely it is not more so than any other might become developed; and the foreign rapacious and cruel instincts in the ani. ants thus unintentionally reared would mal creation, or than the presence of evil then follow their proper instincts, and do at all in the world. But it may be well to what work they could."* Out of such point out that whatever the difficulty may circumstances it is possible that the inbe, there appears to be an equal difficulty stinct may have grown. But both this on the hypothesis of mechanical evolu- instinct and all the instincts peculiar to tion. For it is a clear case of a well-de neuters being neither inherited directly veloped instinct that is not, apparently, from either parent, nor transmitted by beneficial to the species. It may, of the possessors, present one of the great. course, be said that if an injurious instinct est difficulties to the theory of evolution bappens to be developed and to become by natural selection. persistent, it must lead to the final extinc- We turn now to some of the particular tion of the species affected, and that the results of Sir John Lubbock's observation slave-making ants are an example to the of his favorites. It will surprise those point. We take leave, however, to re. readers who now learn the fact, that the mark that there is no proof whatever that library of a studious man may be shared the ants ever possessed the various use without inconvenience to himself by nuful instincts which they are said to have merous communities of insects so much lost. Conjecture as to particular orders addicted to travelling about as ants. The of beings is too frail a foundation for a range of their peregrinations may, bow.

• See Ants, Bees, and Wasps, p. 89.

. See The Origin of Species, p. 219.

ever, be limited by very simple means. required, two or three are sufficient to A shallow trough filled with water is as provide it."* The food in this case, it impassable to them as was the Styx of should be added, was honey, of which old to the unfortunate shades for whom ants are particularly fond. Not the least the last rites had not been duly per- interesting portion of the book before us formed. Sir John Lubbock has bad for is the chapter in which the various consome years thirty to forty communities trivances are described by which ants are under observation. Each community in prevented from gaining access to the habited a space about a quarter of an inch honey of flowers, and so depriving them deep, filled with fine earth, between two of their means of attracting the visits of glass plaies, and enclosed at the edges by bees and other fying insects, which, as slips of wood, with a small aperture in one Mr. Darwin has shown, are in many cases corner for a doorway. Some of the nests of great importance in promoting crosswere placed like shelves one above an- fertilization. But we must not linger on other, and supported by a single upright this topic. post. Beneath the lowest was suspended Another point on which Sir John Luba platform larger every way than the bock has made elaborate observations is nests, in order to intercept any individu- the power which ants have of recognizing als that fell, and having a watery ditch at one another and of intercommunication. its edges. There was thus free passage All the members of one community are between the nests and to the top of the able to distinguish between a fellowpole; but all the communities were cut citizen and an interloper, even after the off by the water from communication with former may have been excluded from the the outer world. It is sad to learn that nest for nearly two years. They even this ingenious device for saving space in recognize as fellow-citizens ants brought volved special difficulties. The ants up from the pupa state among strangers. knew their own nests perfectly well, but It has been asserted by some naturalists were so pugnacious, that great care had to that ants, and likewise bees, make use be exercised in assorting the nests. Be- of some kind of language, of which the tween fellow.citizens the utmost harmony antennæ serve as the instruments, and prevails, but the members of different that by means of it they can communicate communities always regard one another with one another as to the approach or as enemies.

absence of danger, or describe localities Mention has been made already of where, for example, specially attractive division of labor amongst some harvest food may have been discovered. The ing ants. By the adoption of a simple latest observer, though he would certainly method for ensuring recognition, our au- í be the last to deny to his interesting pets thor has been able to observe the per the possession of any remarkable and formances of individual ants, and claiins particularly any manlike faculty which he to have shown that they differ amongst had good reason to assign to them, does themselves in character and disposition, not confirm this view. Ants, as he shows, and that division of labor is carried out recognize one another, but it is not by amongst them to a greater extent than means of language, nor is the recognition was supposed.. When it was desired to personal. That is to say, an individual is watch the proceedings of a particular ant, perceived in consequence of some subtle he marked it with a small dab of paint on quality, possibly some special odor, to the back, an operation which sometimes be a relation. Numerous experiments had to be repeated, as, the ants being tend to show likewise, that though ants very cleanly animals, the strange mark track one another by scent, and, conse. would sometimes be licked off by fellow- quently, may follow to a store of food the citizens.

first discoverer of it, the power of commuIn order to ascertain whether particu. nicating with one another is very limited, t lar individuals are charged with the duty though not quite absent. of bringing in the small supplies of food We must now draw to a close, though required in winter, a nest of Formica many interesting topics, such as the nafusca was watched, and an hourly register kept, with few intermissions, for nearly * See Ants, Bees, and Wasps, p. 47. two months, from November 20 to Janu formed that their abdomen is capable of enormous dis

eign species certain individuals in each nest are su ary 15.

From the observations made in tension. They act as receptacles of the honey, which this and other cases, it seemed clear "that they retain and redistribute wlien required. They are certain ants are told off as foragers, and said never to leave the nest, and in fact are merely

animated honey-pots. (Ibid., pp. 47, 49.) that during winter, when little food is † See Ants, Bees, and Wasps, p. 171.

In some for


ture of the senses of ants, still remain recorded above, the subject of his regrets unnoticed. The points to which we have was sitting before a blazing fire in the chiefly confined ourselves are those which smoking-room at Longbourne, smoking exhibit the societies of ants as regularly one of the excellent cigars of which a organized communities. It is in this as- stock was always to be found in that wellpect that the subject appears to us to ordered establishment, and enjoying, or have more importance at the present time appearing to enjoy, the creature comforts than in any other aspect. Attempts are incidental to the situation. It was his rife to reassure those persons (amongst sister-in-law who had suggested to him whom we reckon ourselves) who would that, as they were alone in the house, they view with alarm the decadence of belief should betake themselves to this cosy in and reverence for a divine and author- little apartment immediately after dinner, itative standard of duty. Strange to say, asserting, as kind-hearted ladies do somethe arguments used seem to be based not times (and. Heaven only knows whether upon what we know of man, but upon they are speaking the truth, or whether it what we observe among the social ani. is not an act of selfish brutality to take mals below us. The question is much them at their word), that she liked the too large for us to enter upon its general smell of tobacco, and that to spend the discussion at the end of an article. But evening in the smoking-room, instead of our subject has been an order of beings in the drawing-room, was an unwonted which furnishes examples of the most treat to her. highly organized societies next after man; It reminded her, she said, of old days, and, consequently, if the theory which when she used to sit with Jack after din. regards the social bond as sufficiently ner. Perhaps she wanted an excuse for efficacious by itself in maintaining order talking about Jack; and on ordinary ocwithout the sanction of religion can find casions Tom, who had had a sincere affecsupport anywhere in the subject creation, tion for his younger brother, would have it is to be presumed that the communities been willing enough to gratify her; but of ants would furnish such support in this evening his thoughts were, not unnatabundance.

urally, centred upon himself, and with a It is worth while to note, therefore, the very little encouragement he would have broad gulf that separates such societies related the whole history of his disapas those with which we have been occu- pointed hopes. Thus, these two people, pied from the society of men, and which who had become excellent friends, and renders it absolutely impossible to reason who were both inclined just now to claim from one to the other in the manner a little of the sympathy to which friendsuggested. Whatever be the amount of ship is entitled, remained for some time intelligence exhibited by ants, no one will at cross purposes, each throwing out hints contend that in seeking the common good to which the other failed to respond, until they are actuated by anything higher than it become evident that some topic of cominstinctive impulse, and from this impulse mon interest must be resorted to. This they cannot free themselves; nay, they i was in Tom's favor; for when the convercannot form the idea or the wish to free sation languished, it was inevitable that themselves from it. Man's reasoning the adventure of the day should suggest power gives him, indeed, the opportunity itself as the ground for a fresh start, and of choosing nobly, of devoting himself, at so he soon found an opportunity of repersonal self-sacrifice, to the good of oth- marking, in a casual manner, that he supers, but it also offers him the temptation posed so pretty a girl as Miss Brune of choosing precisely the reverse - of en- would not be likely to remain Miss Erune deavoring to secure his own gratification, much longer. no matter what the cost to others.

“I don't think she will be in a hurry to marry,” responded Margaret. “Nellie has a good deal of character, and she will be sure to think well before she

From The Cornhill Magazine. "If she has not chosen already."

“Yes, if she has not chosen already. There are perhaps half-a-dozen marriage. able young men hereabouts, and I believe

they are all of them devoted to her in an At the moment when Mr. Brune was off-and-on sort of way." giving way to mercenary aspirations, as "Is there anybody in particular, should

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you suppose?” inquired Mr. Stanniforth, crease of accidents, was likewise a subject staring up at the cornice.

that seemed to require looking into; so Margaret poked the fire, and made no that, upon the whole, it came to this, that reply; so he went on, "I used to fancy he would have to leave by the twelve that young Marescalchi was paying her a o'clock train. good deal of attention, but perhaps it Margaret expressed her surprise and didn't mean anything."

regret at this sudden change of plans, but Margaret laughed; whereupon her in. was hardly so much afflicted by it as she terrogator withdrew his eyes from the might have been, had not the post brought ceiling with great promptitude, glanced her her own share of disquieting correinquiringly at her, saw it all, and imme. spondence in the shape of an announcediately dropped into a gloomy reverie. ment from Philip that he had finally made

“I am glad you noticed that,” said the up his mind to abandon the law in favor unconscious Margaret, “ for I have always of the operatic stage. thought that those two were exactly suited “ I have been thinking about this for a to one another, and hoped that something long time,” he wrote, “but I would not might come of it some day. But I have tell you until I was tolerably sure of sucgiven up match-making,” she added with cess, because I wanted to spare you need. a shake of her head. “I have made one less worry, and I knew you would be or two attempts in that way, and the re- rather horrified at first. Don't breathe a sults have not been encouraging. I sup. word about it to anybody just yet -- it pose people must be allowed to choose would only set the whole pack of them for themselves."

baying at you if you did — but think it But Mr.: Stanniforth was no longer anx- over quietly, and I am sure you'll agree ious to pursue the subject, and indeed that I might do worse. Old Steinberger had not distinctly heard the last few (perhaps you have never heard of him, words. “Oh, yes, certainly, I quite agree but he is a celebrity nevertheless) with you," he said; and then began to Steinberger says my high notes only talk very fast about habitual drunkards, want practice to be as good as Wachtel's in which unfortunate class of society he (I dare say you have never heard of had been lately stirred up to take a keen Wachtel either); and if all goes well, I interest. He had a comprehensive scheme ought, in a few years' time, to jump to for dealing with them in their double the top of the tree at one bound. Is character of afflicted fellow-creatures and there any other profession in the world in responsible members of the community; which such a coup as that would be at all but as the carrying out of this project possible? As for the social position, any. would have involved the expenditure of body will tell you that great singers are sone millions of the public money, be received everywhere in these days; and sides interfering with the liberty of the between ourselves, my dear old Meg, who subject after a fashion conceivable only am I to give myself airs? The nuisance to enlightened Radical brains, the reader of it is that living in London, and having need not be wearied with its provisions. the best masters, and all that, costs a lot Margaret listened to them patiently, ar- of money; but I must economize, and I gued against them, was triumphantly dare say I shall manage to get on somesilenced, and ultimately went to bed with how. The rapidity with which a fivea consolatory assurance that she had done pound note melts away here is awful. what was expected of her.

Cab-bire alone" – etc., etc. At breakfast the next morning, Mr. The remainder of the letter contained a Stanniforth, who had passed a bad night, good many bints of this delicate nature, looked up from a pile of opened letters ior Philip seldoin asked directly for that lay before him, and said that he was money, that being a course of procedure very sorry, but he was afraid he must be which went against his finer feelings. off. He had spent the first half of the Money, however, was what he was at recess in unwonted idleness, and would this time in urgent need of; and, but for now have to work hard to make up time. this circumstance, it is probable that The habitual drunkards, it appeared, were Margaret would have been allowed to reclamoring for attention; the anti-vivisec. main for some time longer in ignorance

2 tionists were about to hold meetings in of his schemes. One reason in particuvarious places at which the presence of lar he had for desiring that his coffers the member for Blackport would be in. should be replenished: namely, that he dispensable; the insufficiency of railway contemplated a change of domicile. The servants, and consequent alarıning in. remote situation of Coomassie Villa


half a day's journey from the club, as he heart he would think you rather a fool for would often pathetically remark was giving it to him.” causing him daily inconvenience, and he The awful possibilities foreshadowed no longer dreaded the risk attaching to in this speech were too much for Mrs. residence in a more frequented quarter; Marescalchi, who began to cry. for he was beginning to feel convinced of • Now, now, Fan,” remonstrated Philip, the truth of the common saying that one "you ought to know me better by this is never so much alone as in a crowd. time than to take every word I say so It was, however, quite certain that the seriously. I'm not really such an upsuburban butcher, baker, and grocer grateful beggar as I make myself out; would not suffer him to depart until their and as for dear old Meg, it's a positive several little accounts had been defrayed; delight to her to throw her money out of and therefore it was that he awaited Mar. window. If I didn't pick it up, you may garet's answer with no small impatience, be sure that somebody else would — perand that, when the answer came, he was haps a less deserving person.” a great deal more anxious to examine the “Oh, but Philip, ".sobbed Fanny,“ how figure of the checque contained in the could you talk like that about — about envelope than the accompanying eight your dying? And dear baby, too ! I can't pages of manuscript. But he did read bear to hear you say such things." the latter as soon as he had ascertained Oh, is that it?” said Philip, much the satisfactory nature of the former, and amused. " I think you may feel reassured, was a good deal touched by Margaret's then. In point of physical health I can kindness and generosity.

safely speak of myself in the highest Nothing, indeed, could have been more terms, and I don't see a symptom of anymoderate than the tone of her reply. She thing wrong with baby, unless it's excess did not deny that Philip's news had start- of fat. So dry your eyes, Fan, and I'll led her, nor that she had certain misgiv- go out and search for lodgings in some ings as to the social position about which more civilized district." he had expressed himself so confidently; Of this task Philip discharged bimself but she admitted that he was better able with due circumspection. It might be to judge of such questions than she could permissible to be bold, but it would not be, and further, that he had a perfect right do to be too bold; and therefore he de. to choose his calling in life for himself; cided to eschew such favorite localities as the one essential thing, for him and every: Clarges Street and the like, where people body else, was to have a calling of some from Crayminster or the neighborhood kind or other. She then went on to make might at any time establish themselves some very true, if not very original, ob- next door to you for a week or two. The servations on the solaces of labor, which other side of Bond Street was quite as Philip skimmed over rapidly, and con- handy and less dangerous; and chancing cluded by thanking him for having taken upon a tolerably commodious first floor in her into his confidence. In a postscript Conduit Street, which at that season of she added that she was sure his expenses the year was to be had for a moderate must be heavier than he could conven. weekly rental, he agreed to take it. iently manage, and that she therefore en. Thither, in the course of a few days, he closed a trifle, which she hoped would transplanted his belongings, and there for help to lighten them for a time.

a time he dwelt in prosperity and conThere was a pleasing, provisional sort tentment, no man forbidding him. of sound about the last three words When Philip walks down Conduit which Philip did not fail to note and ap. Street nowaday's the smile with which he preciate.

habitually faces the world and all that “Fan," said he gravely, as he folded up therein is fades from his expressive the letter, “if the baby should die, and I countenance, and as he passes a certain should be cut off in my prime, immedi. house, and glances up at its first floor win. ately after realizing a handsome fortune dow, he does not fail to pay the tribute of on the boards of the Italian Opera, don't a sigh to the memory of hours gone, you take it into your foolish little head to never to return. He may have forgotten, adopt an orphan. Unless he turned out as most of us do, when looking back upon to be very unlike some other orphans the past, many a small rub, anxiety, or anwhom I have heard tell of, he would be a noyance; but the fact still remains that burden to you all your life, he would take his life during the first part of that winter your last penny from you with absolute season was one that agreed with his compiacency, and at ine bottom of his tastes to a nicety. The lodgings, though

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