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were prominently displayed at the late stronger than their intellectual powers meeting of the Surrey Sessions, where Mr. should pursue this pleasant mental recre. Hardman and a full bench of magistrates ation — the evil they do is altogether behad to dispose of no less than eight cases yond their knowledge; they gratify their of professional street beggars, who were own feelings with the idea that they may indicted as incorrigible rogues and vaga- have relieved distress, and indulge in bonds. The evidence in the first case much smug self-sufficiency in congratulatshowed that a man, whose age was only ing themselves on the good they have thirty-one, had been convicted no less done. These promiscuous alnis - givers than twenty-three times, so that a great would not hesitate to denounce the drunkpart of his life since his childhood must ard who, to gratify his desires, beggars have been passed in imprisonment. An. himself and starves his wife and family, other, who had moved in a respectable nor the idler, who prefers indolence and position, had taken to drink and followed poverty to industry and competence. beggary as the readiest means of procur- But they do not refrain from doing evil ing intoxicating liquors. The third, a for the gratification of their own feelings, violent ruffian, who had been previously and this under the false pretence that convicted no less than nine times — who they are doing good. All persons who was sentenced to twelve months' im- have taken the trouble to make the slightprisonment and twenty-four strokes with est inquiry into the subject know that the a birch rod — received an intimation that necessitous poor never beg; that the on his next appearance at that court he whole of the beggars of the metropolis would, if again convicted, be welcomed and tramps of the country districts belong with a cat-o'-nine.tails. Another violent to a distinct class - in great part an character, who had no less than twenty. hereditary caste – which is supported by three convictions recorded against him, the maudlin sentimentality of those who was sentenced to a similar punishment; encourage this vicious mode of life. By and one who was not violent, but had so doing they tend to perpetuate one of been convicted thirty times during his the most serious of the social evils which thirty-six years of life, was allotted a sim. afflicts the nation. They foster and en. ilar term of imprisonment without the courage the idle and dissolute class of corporal punishment. The remaining vagrants who infest the country, and dis. prisoners, a man and his wife, were sen- seminate vice, disease, and moral as well tenced to six months' hard labor. If the as physical degradation amongst the popinquiry is made as to the cause of this ulation. By these beggars servants are state of things, and the source to which often tempted to become pilferers of their we may trace the foundation and perpet- employers' property; and the knowledge uation of professional beggary, there can and practice of petty vice and practical be but one answer. The vice, with all its dishonesty is carried into places where hideous accompaniments, is dependent on they were formerly unknown. If persons the mistaken charity of silly, sentimental wish to gratify their charitable feelings, people, men and women alike, who gratify and they are really desirous of doing good their own unreasoning impulses by giving and not evil, let them seek out the de. away money in the streets. To relieve a serving poor; there is no lack of them to really necessitous person is an action be found when sought. Or, should they which gratifies certain moral instincts be too much occupied with town life, and which are inherent in every human being; live too remote from the dwellings of the it gives a sense of personal satisfaction; humbler classes, they can give their alms there is a feeling in the breast of the to the poor-boxes of the police magis. donor that a good deed has been done, trates, in the full confidence that they will and a satisfactory self-complacency per- be bestowed only on the most worthy obvades the mind at having performed it. jects. But let them abstain from pleasing When such a desirable mental state can themselves by giving money to sturdy be procured at any time by the expendi. beggars in the streets, which demi ralizture of a bronze coin or indulged in in ing practice is none the less injurious excelsis for sixpence, it is not surprising from being performed with the idea of that people whose moral sentiments are doing good.


Fifth Series, Volume XL,


No. 2010.– December 30, 1882.


From Beginning,

Vol. OLV.

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Church Quarterly Review, II. NO NEW THING. Part XI., .

Cornhill Magazine, III. CHARLES DICKENS,

Fortnightly Review, IV. THE LADIES LINDORES. Part XVI.,

Blackwood's Magazine, V, PROFESSOR CLERK MAXWELL,



English Mechanic,
Title and Index to Volume CLV.



793 803 817 820 823

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. Tor Eight Dollars, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGB will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of The LIVING AGB, 18 cents.



O Autumn Morning, sweet enchantress, rest, AFTER a night of storm, the morning breaks,

Fly not so soon!
Grey, soft, and still,

Whisper thy secret to this troubled breast, Each little bird within its bush awakes,

For all the world is listening ere the noon; A voice in feathers, and with right good will Alas, already shines the perfect day, Tunes up for the sweet music birds have played The magic morn hath vanished away! Since the glad day when little fowls were made. Temple Bar.

C. B.

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The swarthy crow alights upon the field

Mid silver dews;
His keen eye marks the savory grub concealed,

Nor fears he for the wetting of his shoes;
Woe to the worm who crawls abroad, a prey
Where hunger waits with cruel beak to slay.
Hunger, imperious lord, thy stern decree

Brooks no dispute ;
Never a despot wielded spell like thee,

O'er reasoning man, and ruminating brute -
Old serpent, in thy coign of vantage curled,
Thy well-poised lever moves the mighty world !
Who whets the sickle for the golden corn

On yonder hiil?
Who wakes the reaper in the misty morn,

To garner crops for sleepers lying still?
Restless and ruthless master, at thy call,
Harvests are reaped, and Sloth will leap a wall.
Who gives a savor to the poor man's bread

No monarch tastes ?
Wins the rare pearl thro' peril dark and dread ?

Plants a fair garden in deserted wastes ?
'Tis thou, great motive power of mortal toil;
And fruit is plucked when thou dost stir the

soil. Yea, fruit is plucked — what cries of muffled


Arouse mine ear?
Away, ye mannikins, that apple-tree

Bears fruit forbidden! Ah, the case is clear,
The roystering wind last night hath wrought

me ill,
And boys are boys, with many a void to fill.
In ragged breeches, pockets have no holes,

An instinct wise
In thrifty mothers they, poor patient souls,

Must build up life with small economies;
They mend their nets, and have their sure re-

ward, Rough winds blow dumplings to the frugal


I am so white and chill:

Love, will you shrink away?
If you will not kiss me still

Do not let me in, I pray.
I have cross'd the mighty river:
Will you fear me? Do you shiver ?
If your arms refuse to woo,
Death is more kind than you.

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Love, if you were a ghost

And I were alive and warm
Ah, perhaps — I will not boast

I might shudder at your form ;
I might Aee before the presence
Of an unembodied essence.
Hush ! hush! it is not true,
Love, I should know 'twas you!

Longman's Magazine.

WHAT flowers I had in one fair knot were

And so I Jaid them on a public stall,

Wondering would any one take note at all,
Or taking note, to praise them would be found.
A keen-eyed critic turned the nosegay round,
Then cried, “No true flowers, these !” and

let it fall : “Mere weeds that grow against the Church's

wall ! And what coarse thread about the stalks is

wound !

But, lo ! the gallant sun comes forth to cheer

All hearts and eyes;
Across the stream's bright mirror, shining clear,

The little dabchicks skim with joyful cries;
And in cool depths, below the bridge's rail,
The old trout lies, and moves a cautious tail.

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The cows that pasture by the river's brim, 'Tis true, I fear me, dandelions and grass Contented eat;

I culled, mistaking them for garden bloom, And feeding, in the distance, golden dim, And half-believing that they so might pass;

On the hill acre where we cut the wheat, And now my critic has pronounced my doom, Sheep, stepping slowly through the stubble, Half-undeceived I shall not grudge my lot,

If friends may find one true Forget-me-not. A flock in fairy-land, where poets dream.




From The Church Quarterly Review. tion contained in the first chapter of Gen-

esis, nor to the important distinction From the earliest times of which any But that chapter must have exerted a

there drawn between man and nature. record remains, there have been some minds attracted by the inysteries of ani- most powerful influence upon the Jewish mal life. We cannot, of course, expect to mind, for the simple reason that it placed find in the records of the remote past any the mind at the outset in the right attitraces of an intelligent investigation of tude for the investigation of nature. It the habits and the mental faculties of the placed all nature before man as a system subject creation. There is a general capable of being investigated, as an order agreement as to the fact that in its early

of things distinct from, but subject to, stage the human mind was incapable of the mind, as to be subdued by man, and any exact analysis of its own powers, or

consequently requiring in some degree to of the phenomena which it witnessed be understood. It is surely no visionary either in animate or inanimate nature. notion, but one of the plainest of truths, But it is natural to suppose that even in that familiarity with that authoritative the pre-historic period man was struck by record must have facilitated the advance the resemblances as well as by the differ- of the Jewish intellect for some distance ences between himself and the lower on the road of science. animals. He felt, if he did not mentally

We should not expect to see the full

effect in this direction of that venerable grasp the fact, that emotions wondrously similar to his own – love, fear, joy, rage

record until the Hebrew nation, after its — were exemplified in the living world wanderings and its internal struggles, had around bim; while the absence of

finally settled down under a powerful and

any language common to himself and the orderly government, and was in the enlower animals served to wrap them in im- joyment of the leisure which attends pros

perity and peace. It is, however, evident penetrable mystery. That such was the case seems to be clearly proved by the that the fruit of which that record was

the important position occupied by various

germ did ripen when those favorable animals in some very ancient religions. scientific writings have come down to us

circumstances had arrived. Though no We commend this topic to the considera. from the period, it is clear that science tion of any who may be disposed to

must have been one of the characteristics derive all ancient religious ideas from solar phenomena.

of a portion of the nation when at the It is interesting to observe that the beight of its power in Solomon's days,

and that classification was carried out to earliest methodical investigation of na

a considerable extent. To record the dil. ture, the earliest approach to a definite classification, appears to have been in igence of that king himself as a student Palestine. We are not now referring to

of natural history was not deemed unwor. the broad and general description of crea

thy even by the sacred historian, and we

may fairly infer that the royal author was 1. Harvesting Ants and Trapdoor Spiders. not alone in the study. Had be been so, Notes and Observations on their Habits and Dwell- it would have profited no one that “he ings. By J. Treherne MogGridge, F.L.S. Lon- spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is don, 1873.

2. Supplement to Harvesting Ants and Trap-door in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that Spiders. By J. Treherne Moggridge, F.L.S., springeth out of the wall; or that “he

With specific Description of the Spiders by spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of the Rev. 0. PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE. London, 1874.

3. An Introduction to Entomology, etc., etc.“ By creeping things, and of fishes." * We William Kirby, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., and William shall have to refer later on to one portion Spence, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. Seventh Edition. of bis natural-history teaching. London, 1856. 4. Ants, Bees, and Wasps. A Record of Observa

We do not deny that amongst other tions on the Habits of the Social Hymenoptera. By peoples a spirit of inquiry grew up in Sir Join LUBBOCK, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D., President of the British Association, etc., etc. Second Edition. London, 1882.

* See 1 Kings iv. 33.





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course of time.

It may indeed be in. Again, it was formerly supposed that ferred from the passage which has sug. instinct and reason are always in inverse gested these remarks that in some of the ratio to one another; tiat the more of neighboring nations it was so, and the free intelligence any species possessed library, consisting of inscribed tablets, the less was the amount, so to speak, collected by the Assyrian kings some or the number of its instincts, and vice three centuries after Solomon's time, and versâ. This was a hasty inference from especially by Assur-bani-pal, contained, the fact that in man the power of in

are told, "an interesting division stinct seems to be entirely dwarfed by formed by the works on natural history. intelligence. It is one of the features of These consisted of lists of animals, birds, intelligence as distinguished from instinct reptiles, trees, grasses, stones, etc., etc., ar- that it has to learn, and that it profits by ranged in classes, according to their char- experience; and we all know that no huacter and affinities as then understood." * man being can construct a habitation for

Resisting the temptation to linger in himself without learning the way, an the vast field and amongst the embarras accomplishment which to many of the de richesses presented by the history of lower creatures comes by nature. But the study of nature, and coming to our the doctrine that reason and instinct are own times, we observe that the fascina- in inverse ratio certainly does not hold tion of that study appears to have reached good generally. Of insects, for example, its height. Every year brings out some the social Hymenoptera, ants, bees, and fresh work, the result of patient observa- wasps, are the highest in the scale of tion, written in a more or less popular intelligence. Yet it is precisely these style, and detailing new and most inter- insects which possess the most wonderful esting facts about plants or about ani- instincts.* mals. Such a supply implies the existence The bees have long enjoyed a full share of a demand. It implies that there is a of attention, arising from the service large number of readers who take a de- which they render to man in collecting light in knowing all that can be known honey. The knowledge of the habits of about the animated world around them. ants is not so widely diffused; yet, as we It would seem as if men are beginning at shall endeavor to show, they are highly last to follow literally the general direc-interesting in many ways.

Moreover tion to study creation implied in the words their habits admit of being studied with “ Consider the lilies."

greater ease than those of bees. The late Mr. Darwin remarked as fol- Sir John Lubbock remarks that “there lows: “It is a significant fact, that the are a number of scattered stories about more the habits of any particular animal ants which are quite unworthy of cre. are studied by a naturalist, the more dence.” | He has given us in a recently he attributes to reason and the less to published volume an interesting résumé unlearnt instincts.” † The truth which of facts about ants, many of them the reunderlies these words appears to be that sults of his own patient and ingeniously in almost if not all animals there is more directed observation. Before selecting play than used to be supposed of a faculty and remarking upon some of these facts, akin to human reason in its power of as we propose to do, we will give two exchoice, in its varied action when circum. amples, the one of a marvellous story stances vary; not that there is not also a that falls under the category of those large number of unlearnt instincts, such unworthy of credence, the other of a beas that which guides the bird in nest- lief respecting ants, which, after being building or in periodical migration, and scouted by modern science as a popular the bee in the construction of the honey. delusion, has been reinstated in the full comb.

dignity of scientific truth by later obser* See Ancient History from the Monuments : Assyria. vation. By the late George Smith, of the British Museum, London, p. 182.

* See The Descent of Mad, vol. i., p. 37. + See The Descent of Man, 1871, vol. i., p. 46.

† Ants, Bees, and Wasps, preface.

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