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which was a possession of the prince of guages with Auency, and Spanish by Piombino. Barbarossa threatened to preference. At once courageous and ravage the island with fire and sword, if cautious, he had a penetrating eye for the Il Giudeo's son were not given up to him. choice of his subordinates, amongst whom This act appears to have been dictated were numbered at various times such orless by friendship for his comrade in naments of the piratical profession as piracy than by greed of gain. There is Cacciadiavoli, Il Giudeo, Hassan Aga (a little doubt that he expected the prince to Sardinian renegade), etc. He made a pay a heavy ransom for the youth to whom careful and fruitful study of the naval he had become attached. Only a short constructions of his time, and greatly imtime previous, the republic of Genova proved the build and armament of the had been compelled to the humiliation of corsair vessels, making them lighter and buying him off from destroying Savona. Heeter than heretofore; for, as he was However, the young man at once declared accustomed to remark to his lieutenants, himself willing to go and see his father, as a greyhound is better for the chase than a was right and dutiful, but stipulated spon- mastiff. In short, he was evidently no taneously that the dominions of his bene- vulgar desperado, intent on petty plunder, factor, the prince of Piombino, should be but a leader of men, endowed with keen respected. Accordingly the baptized son perceptions, cool daring, and Napoleonic of Il Giudeo set out for Egypt where his unscrupulousness. It does not appear, father anxiously awaited him. But when however, that he made any pretence of one day he appeared before him, a hand carrying Mussulman “civilization into some, elegant cavalier, richly attired, and Christian countries. He simply robbed surrounded by a train of servants and at- and ravaged because he wanted booty and tendants, the old man embraced his long. slaves. But the world has progressed lost son in such a paroxysm and transport since A.D. 1530, or so. We have seen that of joy, that "his heart burst and he fell the republic of Genova la Superba was dead.” The circumstance is well attested induced to buy him off on one occasion. by Bosio, Mambrino, Jovius, etc. And, He plundered Calabria, Campania, and as Padre Guglielmotti remarks, Il Giudeo Nice; and in 1536 (regnante Pope Paul was probably the only one of the dreaded 111. Farnese) he caused such a panic company of Moorish pirates to whom it along the whole of the Italian Mediterracould possibly have happened.
nean coast, that the pontiff made a jour. Barbarossa's adventures were perhaps ney in person to hasten the armaments more varied and startling than those of and defences of the Maremma, to visit any of his compeers, or at least more of the citadels, to comfort the people, and to them have been chronicled and particular- encourage the troops and their leaders. ized. But he was also superior to the In twenty-seven days he visited Nepi,. majority of his compeers in intelligence Viterbo, Montefiascone, Orvieto, Gradoli, as well as daring. The son of a renegade Capodimonte, Acquapendente, ToscaGreek of Mitylene, he and his brðther nella, Corneto, Cività Vecchia, and Cere. Qürudje early embarked in the career of And then he turned his attention to the piracy, beginning in great poverty – so walls of Rome. Guglielmotti maintains much so that their first attempts were that the modern fortifications of Rome made in a wretched little cockle-shell of a and the works of Sangallo and Castriotto, boat, armed at the expense of some spec- in the part of the city called the Borgo, ulator (perhaps we should now say “con- and at the Vatican, had their origin in the tractor") in that line of business; they necessity for being prepared against the speedily amassed riches, and made them- Turks, and especially against the terrible selves feared and famous. Kair-ed-Din, Barbarossa. One of Barbarossa's excorrupted by the Italian cinquecentisti ploits was to disembark in the island of into Ariadeno, and nicknamed from the Procida, in the Gulf of Naples, and from color of his hair Barbarossa, was the thence to burn, harry, and ravage the leading spirit of the two. He was of mainland in all directions. He bombarded middle height and herculean strength, Gaëta, he destroyed Sperlonga, he seized with a red and very thick beard. His Fondi, a town in the present province of lower lip hung down and made hiin lisp in Caserta in the kingdom of Naples. And his speech. He was proud, vindictive, and at this latter place he nearly succeeded treacherous. Nevertheless, he could on in a pet plan of his, which was to carry occasion assume considerable affability of off Giulia Gonzaga, widow of Vespasian manner, and his smile is said to have been Colonna, and reputed the most beautiful peculiarly sweet. He spoke several lan- / woman in Italy, and make a present of
her to Sultan Soliman! The lady had | haps increased by the fact stated in the the narrowest escape possible, being one preface to Henry Colman's “European of the first persons in the town to be Life and Manners,” published in 1849, aroused from sleep by the approach of that the letters of which the book is made the pirates, and hurrying away half- up were not originally intended for publidressed. The town was sacked, and cation. In the same preface the author later the pirates burned Terracina, and exhibited a right feeling which it could finally they appeared on the Roman be wished were more common amongst shores at the mouth of the Tiber. Such authors nowadays. “ The greatest diffiwas the terror of the populations that culty,” he wrote, “in the publication of contemporary writers are almost unani- these letters has been that they might be mously of opinion that Barbarossa might deemed too personal; and my anxiety have captured Rome itself had he made has been lest they should be thought to the attempt. This, however, was not in approach a violation of private confidence. bis schemes. Having taken in stores of I know few things that could give me fresh water, and wood from the neighbor. more pain than to be justly obnoxious to iog forests, he made off straight for Tu- such a charge. I hope it will not in any nis. Here Muley-Hassan, the legitimate degree be found so." In accordance with sovereign, was very far from suspecting this feeling the author at first resolved what awaited him. But Barbarossa, with not to publish a single name, but he found perfect frankness and absence of any di- this an idle attempt, as "individuals plomatic fashions whatsoever, turned the would be traced by circumstances as cerTunisan monarch out of his dominions, tainly as if distinctly announced.” He and installed himself as ruler instead! goes on, however, to say: "I have reAfter twelve years more of a brilliant and ported no conversations, and passed no prosperous career, this remarkable per- free opinions, upon any persons or charsonage died in his bed at Constantinople, acters except public characters, and upon and was buried (July, 1546) on the shores these only in their public relations and of the Bosphorus at Therapia. To this acts; and though in speaking of private day the ruins of his tomb are to be seen individuals I have spoken in the language there, picturesquely overgrown with moss of respect or praise, I can only say that and ivy:
the terms are most general; I had conThe above are only a few brief pages stantly to restrain the grateful utterance from the varied chronicles of Mediterra- of my convictions, and it is not a title of nean piracy, which are curiously and in the eulogy which I might have honestly timately connected with the history of pronounced.” Further, Mr. Colman was European politics throughout the six- careful to state that all the particulars teenth century. And in our own times published as to the style of living in the the geographical position of that famous houses at which he was a guest liad been Barbary coast has again made it impor- placed in his hands “ with a full and extant in the councils of Europe. Nay, to pressed liberty to use them as I pleased. go further back by many centuries, the ... I know my English friends will Italians of to-day discover that Cato's smile at the simplicity with which I have warning about Carthage is not yet obso- detailed some small matters; but they lete; and that the fresh figs from Tunis must live in a condition and organization
more quickly transported to their of society totally different from their own coasts by steam 'navies nowadays than in order to understand the interest which they could be carried in the Roman gal. is taken on this side of the water in these leys a hundred and fifty years before minute details.” Christ.
As to Mr. Colman's more general views, and especially as to his first impressions of London, people who are compelled or who choose to stay in town at
this time of year may get some gratificaFrom The Saturday Review. tion from being reminded by the AmeriAN AMERICAN IN ENGLAND FORTY YEARS can traveller of the magnificent nature of
their abiding-place. Having described A DESCRIPTION of English life in town some of the narrow city streets, he goes and country, written forty years ago by a on to speak of London's • broad and cultivated American gentleman who was magnificent passages, of a width a third an honored guest in England, has in these greater than Broadway in New York in days a considerable interest, which is per-| its widest parts, running for miles with
stores and shops of almost unimaginable | Before leaving London to pay some visits splendor, and in their richness and mag. at great houses, the writer described nificence realizing the brightest fictions of how he was struck by “the neatness of poetry.” As to the extent of London, the the better class of women,” most of whom author found it impossible to communi. wore white cotton stockings “ without cate any idea of it to those who had not those dirty pantalets which you see hobseen it for themselves. He had gone bling about the ankles of our women; eighteen miles, from Brentford to Strat, while they had too much good sense to ford, through an uninterrupted succession let their clothes draggle in the mud under of thickly-planted houses. He had walked an affected modesty. "I wish our ladies until he had to sit down on a doorstep out at home could take some lessons from of pure weariness, and yet had not got at them.” Another thing he admired was all out of the moving tide of population. their wearing, when walking, pattens or He rode on the driver's seat on omnibuses, thick-soled shoes as thick as cork shoes, and was astonished at the constant suc- or else goloshes. "India-rubbers are not cession of squares, parks, terraces, and seen.” What is the difference between long lines of single houses for miles, and goloshes and India-rubbers ? He was furcontinuous blocks and single palaces in ther pleased at finding that the very heart of London, occupying acres of ground. This, he added, was the im. they seldom wear false curls; but women whose pression produced, without taking into hair is grey wear it grey, and seem to take as account the large parks,
much pains with, and as much pride in their
silver locks as the younger ones do in their which for their trees, their verdure, their neat. much more a study than with us; and upon the
auburn tresses. Manners are certainly ness, their embellishments, their lakes and whole make society much more agreeable; for cascades, their waters swarming with fish, and they are not put on for the occasion, but grow covered with a great variety of water-fowl which they have been able to domesticate, and up with them as matter of course. Everything their grazing flocks of sheep and cattle, and in society proceeds much more quietly than
with us. their national monuments, and the multitudes of well-dressed pedestrians, and of elegantly. Of the country houses to which he was mounted horsemen and horsewomen, and of invited Mr. Colman had, as he warned carriages and equipages as splendid as gold and silver can make them, are beautiful be readers in his preface, a good deal to say yond even my most romantic dreams. I do not
as to matters of detail, but in one letter exaggerate; I cannot go beyond the reality. he gives a kind of general summary of his
experiences, and some of the impressions The same impression is more than once given in this may be referred to: repeated in different words, the inference of course being that the writer was in hands on retiring with all the party, and on
In a Scotch family you are expected to shake correspondence with several friends, and meeting in the morning. The English are a preferred to leave the letters as they were little more reserved, though, in general, the rather than go to work to make a set book master of the house shakes hands with you. of them a preference which is perhaps In the morning you come down in unjustified by the air of spontaneousness dress, with boots, trowsers of any color, frockthus retained. One point, as in con- coat, etc. At dinner you are always expected trast to the magnificence above referred to be in full dress; straight coat, black satin to, he touches upon in a passage which or white waistcoat, silk stockings and pumps,
The gentleman is exspeaks of "the most melancholy sight in but not gloves. London and Liverpool," and it is to be pected to sit near the lady whom he hands in. feared that if Mr. Colman could return to After dessert there London now he would find that but little had been done towards removing this dis- stantia wine, which is deemed very precious,
is put upon the table a small bottle of Congrace to certain of our streets at night. and handed round in small wine-glasses, or time. In a passage following not long Noyeau, or some other cordial. . No cigars after this, he writes:
or pipes are ever offered, and soon after the
removal of the cloth the ladies retire to the Tell I have little chance of obtaining drawing-room, the gentlemen close up at the for her a King Charles poodle. The lady of table, and, after sitting as long as you please,
who had a well-educated one, told you go into the drawing-room to have coffee me the price was thirty guineas; and it had no and then tea. The wines at table are generally doubt been stolen from her, a very common of the most expensive quality; port, sherry, trick, by the man who sold it to her, and she had claret, seldom madeira ; but I have never heard to pay him eight guineas more for finding it. any discussion about the character of the wines,
excepting that I have been repeatedly asked the New York Canal than he heard altowhat wine we usually drank in America,
gether during his seven months' residence In a foot-note the writer states that dur- in England. At the beginning of 1844 ing his long residence in England, even the traveller took to going out to evenin the freest conversation in parties of ing parties, when he observed that elderly gentlemen, be never heard an obscene ladies wore their gowns very low in front, story or indecent allusion, “nor even,” he while young ladies wore them rather high adds, using a vile mongrel phrase which in front but very low behind. Short kid custom has made current -"a double en. mittens or gloves were worn up to the tendre.” Shortly after the date of this wrist; then the arm was bare to the letter Mr. Colman was fortunate enough elbow, with short sleeves, and a good deal to be present at the queen's visit to of lace round the elbows and bosom. The Cambridge on the occasion of the degree gowns were worn very long, with white of LL.D. being conferred on the prince kid shoes. Society, in its political asconsort; and in reference to this, after pects, was in a peculiar condition, calcudwelling on the blessing to her subjects lated to cause anxiety : of the queen’s “exemplary and beautiful character,” he makes the quaint statement is at present maintained mainly by military
It is quite plain to me that the Government that “this is remarkable, for some of force. The disturbances in Ireland, the divitheir monarchs have been a disgrace to sions in the Church in Scotland, the condition human nature, and their celebrated Queen of the poor throughout the country, the agitaElizabeth was an odious character." Ontion on the subject of the Corn-laws, the movea second visit to Cambridge, the writer ments of the High Church party, the Pusey attended the University Sermon, and controversy, the hatred of the Established found the preaching,
o almost the best Church not uncommon amongst Dissentersthat I have heard in England. It was a all these things seemed to make a jumble of
noxious elements. highly devout, practical, and useful sermon, and written with great elegance, de. The reputation of America was at livered in a simple, earnest, and unaffect. very low ebb, and Mr. Colman could ed manner." In the afternoon he went scarcely go into any company without to chapel, first at King's, and afterwards being obliged to do battle for his country. to the organ-loft at Trinity, where there “ The mere suggestion of repudiation,
a very grand display, The room which, I believe, has never been contemis not elegant; it is a good deal larger plated by any but the State of Mississippi, than King's Chapel in Boston, with seats has done us an immense injury.” The running lengthwise, and rising from the tone of the American papers the writer centre aisle. The room was lighted by found to be in many respects inexcusable, about two hundred wax candles, and the and especially in their efforts to kindle a whole assembly below were dressed in war spirit: white surplices with their black square caps in their hands. ...I have never
America seems really to be cursed with some witnessed a sight so splendid and august." selfish, mean politicians, who, to gross ignoFurther on he states that “no student is ciple, add only views of the most narrow and
rance and entire recklessness of moral prinallowed to go without his university dress, sordid character, and are incapable of acting at any time, out of his own room
La upon any large and comprehensive principles vexation which Cambridge men may be of right and justice, and of regarding with a heartily glad to have got rid of.
single eye the great interests of humanity. On his return to London towards the end of 1843 Mr. Colman found himself As to the Irish agitation it seemed porfor a time comparatively solitary, and took tentous of destruction and outrage, but
the occasion to walk about and investigate
government had no serious apprethe condition of the streets of all kinds,
hensions : in which, much to his surprise, he seldom The refractory child will cry itself to sleep. saw a quarrel. He saw carriages, again I have no confidence in the patriotism of and again, by hundreds, passing each O'Connell
. With him it seems a mere matter other in the narrowest passages, often of religious bigotry and personal emolument. bindered when they were most anxious
Nothing has surprised me more than to to get on, and yet (this is surprising learn from one of the late American papers enough) he saw no passion displayed and that Governor S — has recently made a
sspeech at one of the repeal meetings. heard no harsh language uttered. He
can he have to do with Irish politics? had, he wrote, heard more profane swearing in one hour among the boatmen on With but slight changes beyond those
of names much of this would not seem | drop of rum, they maintained their health, out of date nowadays. Of the theatres according to the report of the surgeon. Mr. Colman had little to say except as to There were one or two cases of illness, the ballets at the Opera House, which he but no trace of scurvy, though 70° of frost found got up in a style of surpassing were at times experienced. In June the magnificence and splendor. “The music ice was cleared away, and on the 21st four is of the most recherche description, and boats were started from Cape Flora, with the dancing as elastic and sylph-like as twenty-five men and provisions for six can be imagined. I cannot speak of it months. The “Eira » with unqualified approval. Within cer- fortunate than the discoverers of Franz tain limits it presents all the charms of Josef Land in their escape; for although the most wonderful cultivation and grace; they had sometimes to drag their boats but beyond certain limits, the passing of over the ice, they reached Novaya Zemlya, which every modest mind at once recog: at Matotschkin Schar, on August 2. Next nizes, it becomes offensive and immoral." day they were sighted by the “William He went on, however, to admit with his Barents,” and as Sir Allen Young, in the usual fairness that every allowance must" Hope,” was only a mile away, Mr. Leigh be made for the effect of habit and estab- Smith and his men were soon welcomed lished customs, and with this admission on board the steamer sent to rescue them. we may for the present take leave of our When Mr. Smith publishes bis detailed ingenuous and ingenious writer.
narrative, we may find that he has been able to make some addition to a knowl. edge of the geography and natural history of the region where he has wintered, though we fear it cannot be much. All
his collections went down with the THE “EIRA" EXPEDITION.
Eira,” so that science cannot be a great On June 14, 1891, the “ Eira” left Pe gainer by his expedition. Until details terhead. The ice reached very far south, are to hand, it is impossible to say whether and no opening could be found to enable the catastrophe to the vessel could have her to get north until the middle of July. been avoided, or whether it was one of Franz Josef's Land was reached on July those accidents for which all Arctic ex23, and the “ Eira” steamed along the plorers must be prepared. The ice seems coast to within fifteen miles of Cape Lud. to have been in motion very early this low. The ice was closely packed to the year for that region, and we know that it north, so it was decided to return to Gray has come down unusually far south; any Bay and wait till a more favorable oppor- information concerning the movements of tunity should present itself to proceed. the ice in high latitudes during the past On August 7 the “ Eira” was made fast spring and summer would be welcome. to the land-foe near Bell Island, and a The following is an interesting extract storehouse was erected of materials taken from the journal report upon Cape Flora out in the ship. On August 15 she left|(obtained by the Times Aberdeen correBell Island, and, being unable to pass to spondent), giving an account of the birds, the eastward of Barents Hook, she was bears, and walrus seen during the winter made fast to the land-floe off Cape Flora. spent there : The next few days were spent in collect. “On July 25, 1881, we reached Gray ing plants and fossils, which unfortunately Bay, at Cape Grant and Cape Crowther. were lost with the vessel. On August 21 There are large loomeries a short distance the “Eira” was heavily nipped by the up the bay on the water side. Many ice, and about 19 A.M. a leak was dis- rotgees had their young among the ba. covered, and barely two hours elapsed till saltic columns of the lofty cliffs. Other the vessel had to be abandoned. All the birds were also seen, including the snowboats were saved, and most of the men bird, the molly, the boatswain, the Arctic saved some clothes and bedding.
lern, dovekies, the eider duck, the burgoThe tent was ultimately erected on master and the kit:iwake. At the east Cape Flora, and here the expedition spent side, near the head of Gray Bay, there the winter, making the best of their cir- were a good number of snow-birds and cumstances. But little food had been dovekies building, but too high up for one saved, and the party had therefore to to obtain the eggs. At Cape Stephen keep a sharp look.out for walruses, bears, there was a large loomery, and at Cape and other native game, on which they Forbes there were a few looms, a good lived, and on which, along with a daily I number of rotgees and dovekies, and