tions of his narrative which most provoke their youth extraordinary liars.” (Vol .., p. a smile. The history of the Noetic party 245.) at Oriel, and of the inore distinctly ecclesiastical school which followed it, may be the strict sense of truthfulness is most

It is, perhaps, not easy to say where grave and dignified enough; but there thoroughly fostered. Such education as were other parties or schools which ex. these St. Edmund Hall men had, they hibited no dignity at all. Such was the had received probably either at home or little society gathered at St. Edmund in some insignificant school; but elseHall, which was intended “to be a buro- where Mr. Mozley seems to speak of such ing and shining light in the surrounding conditions as by no means unfavorable to darkness." The brightness was not a the growth of the virtue which they conphysical one.

spicuously lacked. On the Wilberforces These Edmund Hall men could be known we are told that “one result of a private anywhere. They were either very shabby or education was their truthfulness.' very foppish. They all had the look of dirt, which, perhaps, was not their fault, for they large as to create a social distance between

A public school, and indeed any school so had dirty complexions. How is it that good- the masters and the boys, is liable to suffer the ness, poverty, and a certain amount of literary growth of conventional forms of truth and conor religious ambition, produce an unpleasant ventional dispensations from absolute truth. effect on the skin ?

Loyalty to the schoolfellows warps the loyalty

The world has had many They were not, however, always birds of due to the master. a feather. Some few were men of read- a fling, at Bishop Wilberforce's ingenuity and

dexterity, but his veracity and faithfulness can. ing and of learning.

not be impugned. He said what he believed But they did not find then:selves at home, or felt, and was as good as his word — a fact and they made their escape to ano,her college that must be admitted by many who owe him at the first opportunity — Jacobson to wit. little or nothing. Matters must have been even worse at the be. ginning of the century. An old family friend But we can scarcely stop at this point; of mine, Mr. Wayland, together with his friend and in the comments which follow, Mr. Mr. Joyce, who became a popular private tutor Mozley is not quite consistent with him. and used to help Lord Grenville to write ele- self. For the cultivation of truthfulness, giacs on his departed dogs, found themselves private education stands, it seems, after thrown together by misdirected kindness in St. all, at a disadvantage. Edmund Hall. I cannot say that they blessed the friends who had so ordered their career. It may be said that a public schoolboy, even

if he cuts a knot with a good bold lie every Their feelings of disappointment and now and then, on what custom holds to be the annoyance may well be forgiven under necessity of occasion, yet learns to manage the the conditions which Mr. Mozley goes on whole matter of truth better than he could at to describe.

home or at a private tutor's. He learns better

to distinguish between truthful and false char. As the St. Edmund Hall men divided their acters, true and false appearances, the genuine time between self-contemplation, mutual and the spurious in the coinage of morality, amusement, and the reading of emotional the words that mean and the words that don't works, studying no history, not even critically mean, the modes of action likely to bear good studying the Scriptures, and knowing no more fruit, and the modes which only promise or of the world'than sufficed to condemn it, they pretend. Every public schoolboy can say how naturally, and perforce, were driven into a very it was S. Wilberforce made some considerable dangerous corner. This was invention. Their mistakes, and how it was he acquired a reputa. knowledge was imaginary. So, too, was their tion for sinuous ways and slippery expressions. introspection, their future, sometimes even (Vol. i., p. 114.) their past. All precocity is apt to take this form. The quick ripening mind, for lack of

These remarks leave the main point other matter, feeds upon itself. These young untouched. Promises made by man to inen had been reared on unsubstantial and man, exactness in conversation, and truth. stimulating food; on pious tales, on high- ful judgments of others, do not exhaust wrought death beds, on conversations as they the conditions which may be tests of ought to have been, on one-sided biographies. truthfulness. In his private life Bishop Truth of opinion, they had always been told, Wilberforce was absolutely trustworthy, was incomparably more important than truth of fact. Henry Wilberforce used to relate the high-minded, and honorable ; but he was rather unguarded speech of a well-known also a theologian and a politician, and in archdeacon, friend of Sumner, Bishop of Win- both capacities he had to deal with cir. chester : “It's remarkable that all the most cumstances which called not seldom for spiritually-minded inen I have known were in wary treatment, and which exposed him,

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we think unjustly, to the charge of slip. said and written to demonstrate its abperiness and insincerity. It is impossi- surdity, it is felt still. Individual men ble to read the bishop's private corre may have cleared themselves of the very spondence in the biography lately pub- faintest complicity with dissimulation in lished of bim without arriving at the any shape; but it has not been found conclusion that he was even more earnest easy or even possible to banish the fear in his convictions than he was supposed of systems which seem to furnish congento be.

ial soil for something,

than mere At the outset of the Tractarian move. evasion. The difficulties which surround ment, vast numbers had already half the subject are exceedingly great; and to convinced themselves that there was a take it in hand without keeping these well-organized conspiracy for reducing difficulties fully in sight is simply to beEnglish men under papal bondage. Their tray huge folly. It is precisely this folly worst fears received an absolute confir. of which Mr. Kingsley was guilty when mation when, as Mr. Mozley puts it, “ a he made his attack on Dr. Newman in man retiring and modest even to a fault, person, and so fell into a trap from which who could never have seen a dozen peo-extrication was impossible." It was the ple together without a wish to bide him- method of his protest rather than the subself,” made a pretty theory of what all stance of his accusation that was in fault. the world does in one way or another.” His charge was mere water as compared In Mr. Mozley's opinion the theory was with that of a writer in the Christian superfluous as well as imprudent. The Remembrancer ten years before. The Bible, he asserts, is now the most univer- allegations of this writer, even after a sal book in the world, and where it goes careful weighing of all that is urged in tbere can be no reserve. This may be the appendix to Dr. Newman's “ Apolodoubted. The multiplication of books gia,” remain, so far as we can see, subdoes not change the powers of the human stantially unaffected, and they are cermind; and a vast superiority in education tainly far more serious than those which and learning will always enable a man to Mr. Kingsley made in his unfortunate practise reserve with the common folk, if article in Macmillan's Magazine. It is a he chooses to do so. But of Isaac Wil- grave matter when a writer, after a careliams, as the one to make the challenge, ful examination of authoritative treatises Mr. Mozley may well say:

on casuistry, ends by saying that, so long Could the man himself have been exhibited mains uncondemned, " we must be par

as Liguori's theory of truthfulness reat Exeter Hall ... people would have seen doned if we believe their word, because what a simple rogue the poor child was, what they are Christians — because they are an imitation Guy Fawkes, what an innocent Inquisitor. As it was, and in total ignorance men of honor – because they are Enof the man, the world fell, or affected to fall, glishmen; not because they are, but in into a paroxysm of terror at the infernal machi- spite of their being, Romanists." Yet, on nations preparing against it. The front line the other hand, we cannot refuse to hear of the advancing foe it could venture to cope Dr. Newman when he says that the pracwith in open fight and measure swords with. tice is founded on the words which warn It was the awful indefinite reserve and the us against casting pearls before swine; dark ambuscade that made ten thousand pul- and that in matters of practice, apart from pits tremble to the very foot of the steps. For many years after , whenever the preacher had writers simply declare that in certain ex

questions of teaching, “great English exhausted his memory or his imagination, and run out his circle of texts or ideas, he could treme cases, as to save life, honor, or

It is easily fall back on the dark doings of Oxford. even property, a lie is allowable." * Congregations of London shopkeepers were Jeremy Taylor who insists that “to tell a told that Newman and Pusey inculcated and lie for charity, to save a man's life, the life practised systematic fraud, concealment, and of a friend, of a husband, of a prince, of a downright lying in a good cause — that is, in useful and a public person, hath not only their own. When one looked round to see the been done at all times, but commended by impression made by the dreadful charge, the great and wise and good men.” Jeanie congregation either were so fast asleep, or they Deans was brought up in a sterner school were taking it so easy, that they must have of morality. John Inglesant, brought up heard it often before, or perhaps, after all, did in the school of the Jesuits, thought it his not think habitual lying so serious a matter. (Vol. i., p. 435.)

duty to lie for his king, even at the risk of


his own life. The alarm, however, was not simply feigned; and in spite of all that has been

* Apologia, p. 418. VOL, XL, 2062



So, running out in all directions, pene- the following sentences are a virtual contrating the domain of poetry and art, pro- fession: voking against itself reactions, of which we have not yet in all cases seen the is

Why did I go so far, and why did I not go sue, the great movement has gone on, and farther? Why enter upon arguments and not is indeed going on still. With its origin stand still, and in doing so commit myself to

accept their conclusions ? Why advance to and progress are associated a multitude of

a final retreat? The reasons of this laine and memorable names; and of many of these impotent conclusion lay within myself, wide Mr. Mozley has spoken with affectionate apart from the great controversy in which I enthusiasm, of none without tender sym- was but an intruder. I was never really seri, pathy, or at the least an impartial forbear. ous, in a sober business-like fashion. I had

But who shall say that he has fully neither the power nor the will to enter into any appreciated either the actors or their great argument with the resolution to accept work? Mr. Mozley would assuredly the legitimate conclusion. Even when I was make no such imprudent claim. Some of sacrificing my days, my strength, my means, the most conspicuous among them live in my prospects, my peace and quiet, all I had,

to the cause, it was an earthly contest, not a his pages; others, scarcely less important, spiritual one. It occupied me, it excited me, are barely seen within the charmed circle, it gratified my vanity, it identified me with and such omissions seem to point to what I honestly believed a very grand crusade, personal characteristics in himself which it offered me the hopes of contributing to great Mr. Mozley would be the last to disavow. achievements., But good as the cause might Milman and Stanley are but two out of be, and considerable as my part might be in many, whose minds have been in what-it, I was never the better man for it, and, not

In ever measure shaped and braced to their being the better, I never was the wiser. work by the influences of the Oxford fact, it was to me, all or most of it, an outside

affair. movement, and who are destined, as we believe, to mould in far greater measure The explanation, probably, is not far to the religious faith of Englishmen here seek. All faiths rest on certain ultimate after. These men Mr. Mozley has, we premisses; and where a man is honest think, failed to understand, as Dr. Pusey and single-hearted it is by these that his holds him to have failed in understanding course is throughout life determined. Newman and Keble. It may therefore be No doubt there are Roman Catholics in true that though he has lived through it, England, and a far larger proportion of he has, in a certain sense, failed to under them elsewhere, who never troubled themstand the movement itself. He can speak selves about such questions; but no man of the theories, rather we should say the has joined the Roman Church with a doctrines, of the Apostolical Succession, mind at ease, who had not convinced him. of priestly power, of absolution, and the self that only by so doing he could escape rest, but nowhere, it would seem, as going from complete and irremediable ruin; to the root of the matter. Churchman- and this conviction in all but its final stage ship, as understood by Hurrell Froude, by was fully formed in Dr. Newman's mind Keble, or by Newman, is nowhere com- for years before he made his submission. pared closely with the churchmanship of in the very striking and forcible part of the older men, of whose general excel. the “ Apologia” which gives his “ Gen. lence he speaks with genuine and hearty eral Answer to Mr. Kingsley,” he declares admiration. The time came when, in the that as he looks on this living, busy world orderly sequence of thought, the road to he sees no reflection of its Creator, and which he had committed himself brought is led to the conclusion that either there him to the great alternative, and bade is no Creator, or this living society of him, as he thought, make choice be man is in a true sense “discarded from tween the Church of England and the bis presence.” Hence, if there be a God, communion of Latin Christendom; and and since there is a God, the human race in picturing for us the struggle through is implicated in some terrible aboriginal which he passed he has given expres. calamity, and is out of joint with the pursion, on various subjects of the great poses of its Creator. If for any this ruin est gravity, to thoughts pointing to like is to be arrested and a method of deliv. modes in which other minds may be erance vouchsafed, there must be a conworking, and of which it will be well crete representative of things invisible, for his readers to take account. But that which shall have the force and the tough. of the primary conviction needed for an ness necessary to be a breakwater against irrevocable decision there was an uncon- the deluge of unbelief and rebellion. scious, or rather a half-conscious, lack, | There must be “a power in the world, invested with the prerogative of infallibil. | approached, or rather the twelfth ap. ity in religious matters.” These prem- proached, August having already come. isses being granted, it may, we allow, be Every bit of country not arable or clothed a hard matter to resist the conclusion; with pasture, was purple and brilliant with but they must be granted in full. It is heather; and to stand under the columns not enough to say that the idea of moral of the fir-trees on a hillside, was to be goodness excludes that of a mechanical within such a world of “ murmurous obedience, and that moral action and the sound” as you could scarcely attain even responsibility consequent upon it imply under the southern limes, or by the edge choice; that a bad choice involves indefi- of the sea. The hum of the bees among nite mischief; that the divine purpose is the heather - the warm, luxurious sunnot therefore affected, and that the divine shine streaming over that earth.glow of work still advances to its great consum- heather-bells — what is there more musimation. We are offering no arguments cal, more complete? These hot days are and pronouncing no judgment. Both rare, and the sportsman does not esteem would here be out of place; and there is them much; but when they come, the sun the less need for offering them, as we that floods the warm soil, the heather that have bad occasion lately to deal at some glows back again in endless warmth and length with these premisses, and with the bloom, the bees that never intermit their theological fabric which rests on them, in hum“ numerous as the lips of any poet, our remarks on Dean Stanley's “ Chris- the wilder mystic note that answers from tian Institutions.” Dean Stanley's an- the boughs of the scattered firs, make up swer to Dr. Newman's syllogisın is also a harmony of sight and sound to which our own; and we are content to leave there are few parallels. So Lord Millebehind us the controversies which no fleurs thought when he climbed up the hill theories of sacerdotalism have ever been above Dalrulzian, and looking down on able to settle. In some of his comments the other side, saw the sea of brilliant on the religious history of the last half-moorland, red and purple and golden, with century, Mr. Mozley seems to have caught gleams here and there of the liveliest the true answer to the perplexities which green, — fine knolls of moss upon the he bas rather shaken off than fairly un-grey-green of the moorland grass. He ravelled. He has at least fully learnt the declared it was “a new experience,” with lesson that “everything warns us and a little lisp, but a great deal of feeling. calls us to moderation and to mutual Lady Lindores and Edith were of the toleration;" and if his inind bad been party with John Erskine. They had less fixed on organized ecclesiastical con- lunched at Dalrulzian, and John was stitutions, he would bave seen, in Dean showing his poor little place with a some. Stanley's words, that underneath the vast what rueful civility to the Duke of Lavenmass of sentiments and usages which der's son. Millefleurs was all praise and have accumulated round the forms of admiration, as a visitor ought to be ; but Christianity “there is a class of princi- what could be think of the handful of a ples - a religion behind the religion, place, the small house, the little wood, the which, however dimly expressed, has limited establishment? They had been given them whatever vitality they pos- recalling the Eton days, when Jolin was, sess.” In this assurance we can read the little marquis declared, far too kind a more cheerfully the beautiful words with fag.master. « For I must have been a which, at the close of his “ Apologia,” little wretch," said the little fat man, foldspeaking of all those who had with him ing his hands with angelical seriousness been so united at Oxford, and so happy and simplicity. Lady Lindores, who had in their union, Dr. Newman prays “ with once smiled at his absurdities with such a hope against hope that they may even genial liking, could not bear them now, now be brought at length, by the power since she had taken up the idea that Edith of the divine will, into one fold under one might be a duchess. She glanced at her shepherd."

daughter to see how she was taking it, and was equally indignant with Millefleurs for making himself ridiculous, and

with Edith for laughing. “I have no From Blackwood's Magazine.

doubt you were the best fag that ever was,” she said.

“ Dear Lady Lindores ! always so good The summer went over without any and so kind,” said Millefleurs, clasping special incident. August and the grouse | his little fat hands. “No, dearest lady, I




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was a little brute; I know it. To be by heart. Now this is what I call de. kicked every day would have been the lightful,” said little Millefleurs, arranging right thing for me — and Erskine, if I himself carefully upon the heather, and recollect right, had an energetic toe upon taking off his hát. “ You would say it is occasions, but not often enough. Boys lovely, if you were an American.". are brutes in general: with the exception Do you mean the moor? I think it is of Rintoul, who, I have no doubt, was a very lovely, with all the heather and the little angel. How could he be anything gorse, and the burns and the bees. Out else, born in such a house?

of Scotland, is there anything like it?” “If you think Lindores has so good an Edith said. effect, Rintoul was not born there," she “Oh yes, in several places ; but it is said, laughing, but half vexed: for she not the moor, it is the moment. It is had not indeed any idea of being laughed lovely to sit here. It is lovely to enjoy at in her turn, and she was aware that she one's self, and have a good time. Society had never thought Rintoul an angel. But is becoming very American,” said MilleLord Millefleurs went on seriously, - fleurs. “There are so many about. They

“Rintoul will despise me very much, are more piquant than any other foreignand so probably will Erskine; but I do ers. French has become absurd, and not mean to go out tomorrow. I take Italian pedantic; but it is amusing to talk the opportunity here of breaking the a foreign language which is in English

If it is as fine as this, I shall come words, don't you know.” out here (if you will let me) and lie on this " You are to come back with them to delicious heather, watch you strolling dinner, Mr. Erskine,” Lady Lindores said. forth, and listen to the crack of the guns. She thought it better, notwithstanding No; I don't object to it on principle. I her prevailing fear that Millefleurs would like grouse, and I suppose that's the best be absurd, to leave him at liberty to disway to kill them, if you will take so much course to Edith, as he loved to discourse. trouble; but for me, it is not my way of " I hope you are going to have a fine day. enjoyment. I was not made to be a son The worst is, you will all be so tired at of civilization. Do not laugh, Lady Edith, night you will not have a word to bestow please; you hurt my feelings. If you take upon any one. luncheon to the sportsmen anywhere, I " I have not too many at any time,” will go with you: unless you, as I sup. said John, with a glance, which he could pose you will, despise me too.

not make quite friendly, at the visitor – “I'don't think it is such a noble thing who was flowing blandly on with his lisp, to shoot birds, Lord Millefleurs."

with much gentle demonstration, like a “But yet you don't dislike grouse chemical operator or a prestidigitateur, and it must be killed somehow," said with his plump hands. Our young man John, somewhat irritated, as was natural. was not jealous as yet, but a little moved

My dear fellow, I don't find fault with with envy — being not much of a talker, you. I see your position perfectly. It is as he confessed — of Millefleurs's fluency. a thing you have always done. It is an But he had thrown himself at Edith's feet, occupation, and at the same time an ex. and in this position felt no bitterness, nor citement, a pleasure. I have felt the same would have changed places with any one, thing in California with the cattle. But especially as now and then she would give it doesn't amuse me, and I am not a great him a glance in wbich there was a secret shot. I will help to carry your luncheon, communication and mirthful comment if Lady Lindores will let me, and enjoy upon the other who occupied the fore. the spectacle of so many healthy, happy ground. Lady Lindores preferred, howpersons who feel that they have earned ever, that he should talk to her and withtheir dinner. All that I sympathize in draw his observation from her daughter. perfectly. You will excuse me saying Reluctantly, against the grain, she was dinner,” said Millefleurs, with pathos. beginning in her turn to plot and to “When we got our food after a morning's scheme. She was ashamed of herself, work we always called it dinner. In many yet, having once taken up the plan, it things I have quite returned to civiliza- touched her pride that it should be cartion; but there are some particulars still ried out. in which I slip — forgive me. May we sit " I have always found you had words down here upon the heather and tell enough whenever you wished to say stories? I had a reputation once in them,” she said. “Perbaps you will tell that way. You would not care for my me everybody has that. And Lord Lin. stories, Lady Edith; you know them all | dores tells me you don't do yourself jus.

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