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pared for the pulpit, neither was I for the bed- ten times more arrogant, unreasonable, and side. (Vol. i., p. 278.)
bitter than the clerical, and the female popes
a hundred times worse than either - laid down This scantiness of natural power and the law, and demanded instant obedience. of acquired learning becomes not incon-|(Vol. ii., p. 392.) venient in dealing with the many high matters which he confesses to be much This is all very amusing, although it too hard for him. He understands the fails to carry to our minds a due sense of first invocation in the Litany of the En. the author's incapacity for dealing with glish Prayer-Book; the rest are not to the points in question. It is not without him intelligible.
a slight temptation to incredulity that we
listen to Mr. Mozley when he tells us that When I pronounce them, I feel in a mo- he has attempted no account of New. mentary maze, as if a dizziness had come on man's works, having always been a “bad me, or as if I had slipped and were twisted reader” and having now “less power than round. I have had to execute a performance, ever of mastering any work requiring and I have always done it ill. To confess the honest truth, when I say the words of our
close attention and continued thought; invocations with the least attempt to under and we are tempted to put our own interstand them, I feel balancing myself upon the pretation on his confession that the work finest edges between Tritheism on the one before us is but a superficial one, " for I side, and Sabellianism, if I know what that is, am not much of a logician, or of a metaon the other. I may confidently say I feel no physician, or of a philosopher; least of all such straitness and peril in using the Latin am I a theologian.” The truth is simply forms. (Vol. ii., p. 349.)
this, that Mr. Mozley is before all things Nor is it only here that he speaks of a journalist. Although he has not thought himself as feebly groping his way where proper in these confessions to do more others walked with enviable confidence. than hint obscurely at the principal occu.
pation of his own life, it is notorious that Sixty years ago the interpretation of Scrip- he has been for many years one of the ture was one vast mass of conventionalisms, chief contributors to a leading newspaper, very galling, very oppressive, yet not to be touched as you would value your peace and and he has no reason to be ashamed of character. Should any one have the temerity his performances in that capacity. He to express a doubt whether the words, “In the also acted for some time as editor of the place where the tree falleth, there shall it lie,” British Critic, as the successor of Newwere point blank against purgatory, or whether man himself. These facts suggest the the works” contrasted by St. Paul with singular reflection that a man so whimsi. “faith” included Christian obedience in the cal in his habits, so inaccurate in his same category as Jewish ordinances, he must statements, and so unsettled in his opin. be an atheist, or, still worse, a Papist in dis-ions, should have exercised a considerable guise. Hence possibly my questionings influence over the political and theological were less reverent and more impatient than they might have been. I had to seek, and I views of his contemporaries. If we were did seek, for a clue through this sea of doubt. to judge of his writing by the style of the ful interpretations ; but I was not much of a volumes now before us, we should say it Biblical scholar, and still less read in the Fa- is slipshod and careless, though humorthers or even in our own divines. The latter ous. He probably wrote better at other are a wordy race, and one has to be a long time times and in other places. But both as a getting at the pith of their meaning. Some of writer and a thinker he must be ranked them seem to have no other art than that of far below his brother, Dr. James B. Moze disguising the weakness of their own convic. ley, the late Regius Professor of Divinity tions. (Vol. ii., p. 378.)
at Oxford. His lifelong experience as a In like manner he is willing to adınit journalist accounts for some shortcomings that when, after a sojourn in Normandy, as well as for some of his merits as a he made up his mind to join the Church writer. It has put him so effectually on of Rome, he was actuated chiefly by a bis guard against dulness as to tempt desire to rid himself of a sense of for him to undue efforts to be always bright menting and overpowering difficulties. and sparkling. Matters even of imporI believe I was seeking rest.
tance are rather touched lightly than
I was distracted and wearied with discussions above my Mr. Mozley is more anxious for dramatic
handled with adequate seriousness; and measure, my faculties, and my attainments. Í disliked the tone of disputants, all the more grouping than for the clear sequence of because I easily fell into it myself.
The his narratives. The same cause has led Church of England was one vast arena of con him into not a few useless digressions troversy. Ten thousand popes- the lay popes and exaggerations. It has exposed him
to charges of inaccuracy in speaking of man, born of a Huguenot family, Archbishop Whately, of Sir James from first to last thoroughly loyal to her Stephen, of the father of Mr. Herbert family traditions, and all the early teach. Spencer, and others. It has betrayed ing of her children was that modified him into some inexact statements about Calvinism which retained the Assembly's his brother-in-law, Cardinal Newman. It Catechism as a text, but put into young is quite possible that he might have bands Watts, Baxter, Scott, Romaine, steered clear of some of these reefs and Newton, Milner – indeed, any writer who rocks had he availed himself of means at seemed to believe and feel what he wrote his disposal - in other words, if he had about." bestowed upon his task the time which Calvinism, even in a modified form, is beyond doubt it needed. He insists, in- not so pleasant a creed as to leave room deed, with some earnestness, that his for dissatisfaction if any one can be shown book consists of reminiscences, and remi- not to be imbued with it; and in the As. Discences only.
sembly's Catechism it still exhibits feat: I possess a great mass of letters, journals, ures so shocking that we can well under. and other documents that might have helped stand the indignation which the imputation to make these volumes a little more interesting of it would rouse in minds for whom it and more authentic. But I have now only a has no attraction. The Catechism states, small remainder of my eyesight – one eye gone in the broadest and baldest way, the sevand not much left of the other — while my erance of mankind into the sinall body prospects of life and strength are aiso a small of the elect who must be saved in spite and doubtful remainder. I should soon have of themselves, and the larger body of the lost myself had I attempted to penetrate into all this buried material. (Vol. i., p. 9.)
reprobate whose ruin even divine power
is unable to avert. We welcome, there. We regret that he should have had this fore, the assurance of Mr. Francis Newfear, or that, having it, he should not have man that Mrs. Newman was free of all shrunk from entering into details with leanings to Calvinism in any shape; nor regard to the cardinal's early life, unless are we sorry to learn that she never in. he had something like a certitude of the troduced, either to him, or, as he believes, exactness of his picture. To the outward to any of her children, any one of the world it is of comparatively little moment books named by Mr. Mozley. Not only whether Dr. Newman's mother belonged is it, he declares, untrue that she taught to one school of religious thought or to him or them the Assembly's Catechism, another; but our knowledge of the in- but he is not aware that he has ever seen fluences which moulded or may have it, while he is quite sure that in his famoulded his childhood must affect our ther's house he never heard of its name judgment of his career as a whole. For or its existence. On this subject we have a long time he showed a marked leaning in the “ Apologia” only the following to the party which was known as the sentence: Evangelical. Later on, he was for a long time the champion of the theories of I was brought up from a child to take great churchmanship specially insisted on by formed religious convictions till I was fifteen.
delight in reading the Bible; but I had no the great Caroline divines. It is there. Of course I had perfect knowledge of my catefore a matter of importance to ascertain, chism. if we can, the channel by which he passed from one stage of his religious lise to an- We can scarcely doubt that the words other. On this point we learn something my catechism” 'must denote the catefrom his “ Apologia;” we gather some chism which he would regard as his own thing more from the reminiscences of Mr. so long as he remained a member of the Mozley, who regrets that in his “biogra. Church of England; and this catechism, ply " Newman has not done justice to it is quite certain, could not be that of his early adventures and sallies into the the Assembly of Westminster. But it is domains of thought, politics, fancy, and not so easy to understand precisely what taste.' To this it is a sufficient answer may be meant by the absence or lack of that the "
Apologia ” was not meant to be formed religious opinions in his early a biography, and that an enumeration of youth. If we follow Mr. Mozley, we his accomplishments in music and poetry shall suppose that Dr. Newman refers to would have been out of place in it. But the sudden passage from death to life, if the “ Apologia ” does not in terms con- from deliberate rebellion to absolute sub tradict, it gives no direct countenance to mission, from love of iniquity to love of Mr. Mozley's statement that Mrs. New- goodness, which, according to certain
schools, is the immediate result of the sons so removed had done, he supposed, instantaneous conversion wrought in the all the good they could do or were likely elect and in these alone." He expected," to do, and they were suddenly withdrawn Mr. Mozley tells us, “to be converted;' because they would do no more or could in due time he was converted;' and the do no more, although the prolonged lise day and hour of his conversion he has of many who had altogether survived ever remembered, and no doubt observed.” their work was a fact calling not less urThis description scarcely tallies with the gently for an explanation. There is, in account in the “ Apologia,” which speaks truth, no difficulty in framing theories only of a "great change of thought." which account for certain sets of phe
I fell under the influences of a definite creed, nomena only; and the illustrations of and received into my intellect impressions of such theories may exhibit no little humor. dogma which, through God's mercy, have never Such an illustration, we are told, Dr. been effaced or obscured.
Newman gave, when Mr. Mozley's ser:
vant drove him in a pony trap from Chol. But far from adding that the exact mo- derton to Salisbury, eleven miles. ment of the change has been conmem. orated continuously to the present time, The poor man, who was gardener, and Dr. Newman goes on to say that the feels always had a good deal to say about the coun. ing itself, in its Calvinistic aspect, soon try and things in general, talked the whole passed away. The reason for its thus way. The next letter from Newman ended
with, “Pony went well; so did Meacher's vanishing is obvious. He had never em tongue. Shoot them both. They will never braced the negative side of the Calvinistic be better than they are now!” (Vol. i., p. theory of conversion. He looked upon 209.) himself as predestined to salvation; he thought of others as “simply passed over, An inconsistency still more marked is not predestined to eternal death,” adding exhibited in the case of one of the most that, like his beloved teacher, Thomas conspicuous figures in the early days of Scott, of Aston Sandford, he rejected the the Oxford movement. Richard Hurrell latter proposition as a detestable doctrine. Froude has left behind him a reputation
The passage is significant as showing such as the inost rigid of sacerdotalists the pertinacity with which Dr. Newman might rejoice to attain ; but it is quite has always clung to the idea of dogma as possible for a Hildebrand or Becket to the declaration of an external visible au- unite the most extravagant ecclesiastical thority, not as the statement of truth pretensions with extreme hatred of other which remains unaffected whether it be religious bodies which put forth like declared by such an authority or not. claims, and in such instances there is in We can therefore take these sentences truth no difference of opinion, except as along with Mr. Mozley's declaration, else to the geographical centre of power. where made, that “ Newman was always Froude, therefore, might insist on these for a thorough religious conversion, with pretensions, and yet remain an Anglican a real sense of it; a deep sense of the of the Anglicans. The only question is necessity of doctrinal truths, and an ab- whether he did so or did not. Mr. Moze solute devotion to its claims.” But Mr. ley speaks of him as always somewhat in Mozley had spoken of conversion at the advance of Newman, but st:!! as returning outset as an instantaneous passage from from his cruise in the Mediterranean in one type of character to another; and 1833 “more utterly set against Roinan this we fail to reconcile with a later pas. Catholics than he had been before. His sage in which he speaks of Newman as conclusion was that they held the truth in maintaining such a change to be impossi- unrighteousness; that they were wretched ble, and as claiming for himself “to have Tridentines everywhere and, of course, been substantially the same from first to ever since the Reformation ; that the con. last, only in progress and development;duct and behavior of the clergy was such under heaven-sent guidances, impulse, that it was impossible they could believe and assistance." It is quite possible that what they professed; that they were idol. the charge of inconsistency may apply aters in the sense of substituting easy both to Mr. Mozley and to Dr. Newman. and good-natured divinities for the God The latter, it seems, was disposed not of Truth and Holiness." (Vol. i., p. 304.) merely to approve the notion of a York. In bis “Remains" Froude was allowed shire schoolmaster that men never change, to speak upreservedly for himself. No but to formulate a theory accounting for attempt was made by his editors to soften deaths chronologically premature. Per. or modify any of his utterances; and
upon the whole, Mr. Mozley remarks, they seems to think. Such conduct may be were right, " for no one ever charged, or made to look very black; but, the aspect could now charge, on Froude that his ex- being changed, it may assume a fairer pressions had brought any one to Rome, hue. Speaking of some French priests or could doubt that Froude himself was whom he met at Caen in 1843, Mr. MozAnglican to the last."
ley tells us that “they took it for granted With this we need only contrast the that Newman would join their communion, following sentences in Ďr. Newman's and that he was only lingering in order to ' Apologia.” Froude, we are here told, bring more with him in the end." had an intellect as critical and logical as it was This [he adds] they seemed to think a natuspeculative and bold. Dying prematurely, as ral and proper proceeding; and I should doubt he did, and in the conflict and transition state whether there exists a Frenchman capable of of opinions, his religious views never reached thinking otherwise. It may seem unwarrant. their ultimate conclusion, by the very reasonable to attribute to a great and gallant nation of their multitude and their depth. His opin a moral code which few Englishmen will be ions arrested and influenced me, even when found to tolerate; but France is a military na. they did not gain my assent. He professed tion, and has also ever been divided into par. openly his admiration of the Church of Rome ties practically at war, and observing the old and his hatred of the Reformers. .. He felt maxim that all is fair in love and in war. We scorn of the maxim, “The Bible, and the Bible Englishmen hardly know what a great blessing only, is the religion of Protestants,” and he we enjoy in being able, upon the whole, to ob. gloried in accepting tradition as a main instru. serve the code of honor, even while we disment of religious teaching. *
agree.. (Vol. ii., p. 291.) It seems, indeed, strange that the por.
This is one of the taunts against France trait of Hurrell Froude drawn by Newman and Frenchmen which Mr. Mozley throws in the “ Apologia” should not have led out from time to time with discreditable Mr. Mozley to reconsider some state- rashness. Yet it appears from his groments which he advances with absolute tesque account of his visit to Normandy confidence. It is quite possible that a that he was profoundly ignorant of the tendency Romewards, or in any other language and the manners of the French direction, may exist for a time without people, and he seems never before to have being known to those who are affected by been inside a Ro an Catholic Church. it; and in the same way Newman's lan. It seems to us the height of fatuous imguage in 1833 may have given no signs of pertinence to assume that “ we Englishsteps to be taken some years later; but it men ” have a sense of honor to which the is quite certain that a strong leaning to, French cannot attain because they are “a and indeed a preference for, the Roman military nation : ” and certainly that high Church, was for Hurrell Froude no reason
sense of honor was not universal amongst for deserting the communion of the Church Mr. Mozley's priestly friends and asso. of England, and that from hin Newman ciates. learnt to regard this position as legiti
For at this very time Mr. Spencer, af. mate.
terwards known more widely as Father
Ignatius, was urging on his party preIt is difficult she says] to enumerate the pre; cisely the conduct which commended cise additions to my theological creed which I itself to the priests at Caen. “ Let us rederived from a friend to whom I owe so much, He made me look with admiration towards the main quietly for some years till, by God's Church of Rome, and in the same degree to blessing, the ears of Englishmen are bedislike the Reformation. He fixed deep in nie
come accustomed to hear the name of the idea of devotion to the Blessed Virgin, and Rome pronounced with reverence." At he led me gradually to believe in the Real the end of this term you will soon see the Presence.t
fruits of our patience. In truth, wherever It is little better than a quibble to pre
there is compromise, we must expect to tend that minds in such a state are not see the terms on which it rests sirained in substantial harmony with the dogmatic from time to time at either end. That system of the Roman Church. The hon. there are elements of compromise both in esty of men who with such convictions the articles and in the forinularies of the retain their position in the English Church English Church, is a fact beyond quesis another question, which cannot be set- tion; and the large extent to which the tled quite so easily perhaps as Mr. Mozley compromise may be lawfully, though not
honorably, carried in the direction of Ro* Apologia, p. 85.
man teaching, has been authoritatively † Apologia, p. 87.
laid down in the Bennett judgment.
Whether the amount of liberty exercised statements of Mr. Francis Newman in his by the vicar of Frome would have per- Phases of Faith.” It seems, in truth, to manently satisfied Mr. Spencer, we may be far removed from fact. The precocity well doubt; but that there are honest was exhibited not by the younger brother, English gentemen who cannot see why but by the elder, who soon found himself the terms of coir promise may not be in- circumstances which forced him into terpreted as indulgentiy on the side of a premature leadership. The brothers Laud as
on that of Baxter, we cannot started from a common ground, where a doubt at all; and the admiration for general agreement left no room for any. Rome on the one side balances the ad- thing like angry debate or painsul argumiration of nonconformity on the other. !ment, until the mind of the elder began to
It is unfortunate that the value of the show that the impression of the Augusreminiscences which form the bulk of tinian City of God was already deeply enthese volumes must be tested in details graven upon it. The difference began affecting personal interests and feelings, when the elder formulated his ideas of an and sometimes trenching on painful top- external infallible authority in matters of ics. But the necessity exists; and only faith ; but even when this was met by the by seeing how matters stand in two or counter assertion that the choice between three instances can we reasonably con- Rome and Canterbury as such an authorvince ourselves that careful examination ity was mere geographical accident, may produce the same results in others. there was nothing of that prolonged disThe world has already dealt somewhat puting on which Mr. Mozley lays stress. freely with the relations, or the supposed The banquet to which Mr. Mozley inrelations, between Cardinal Newman and vites his readers is both rich and varied ; his brother Mr. Francis Newman. Such but we cannot say that the entertainment relations need, of course, the most deli- places us altogether at our ease. If all cate handling; and here assuredly Mr. the personages of whom he speaks were Mozley would have done well to try his wholly unknown to us, we might resign own memory by the impressions leit on ourselves to the comfortable supposition those of whom he was speaking. The that his judgments of them are to all inmatter is not one of intrinsic inportance. tents and purposes just and right. But The public is not greatly concerned in de- each fresh inistake abates our confidence, termining the degrees of cleverness or while it makes us feel that Mr. Mozley's other qualities in a family. But when two reliance on his power of recollection is brothers liave won for themselves a name, vastly too great. He remenibers the en. when in different directions they bave exthusiastic praises bestowed on Arnold by ercised a large influence on the thought Rugby boys during their Oxford resi. of the age, it becomes doubly imprudent dence, and the wealth of oracular sayings to commit to paper recollections which for which they professed themselves inmay not be trustworthy. Mr. Mozley is debted to him. “Had I memory,” he anxious to make good what he regards as adds, “or had I kept a journal, I should serious omissions in Dr. Newman's now be able to reproduce hundreds of ** Apologia,” forgetting that that work them." But the lack of memory and the contains professedly a history not of his absence of a journal are serious binlife, but only of his religious opinions; drances for an historian, and such admis. and for this reason he speaks of the sions do not allay our fears. With some school at Ealing, in which Newman rose feelings of wonder we read of Rugby as almost at a bound to the head, “where, giving itself up, after Dr. Wooll's time, before long, he was followed by his no to “historical and philosophical speculaless remarkable and even more precocious tions," and it is not without amusement brother, Frank Newman. From boyhood that we come across some remarks on the the two brothers had taken the opposite relation of a public schoolboy to his head sides on every possible question, and per. master. Mr. Mozley had been unsuccesshaps the fact that one of the born dispu- ful in his application to Arnold for the tants was more than four years younger admission of his brother James, the future than the other accounts somewhat for divinity professor, to Rugby. The boy their respective lines of divergence. It was a few months too old; and Mr. Moze they argued at all on an equality, the ley was reconciled to the decision, which younger must be the cleverer, the elder at first keenly disappointed him, by the more mature.” On this point Dr. New fact that his brother had a hesitation in man, in his “ Apologia,” says nothing ; his speech, and, moreover, that there nor is this description warranted by any were “some points of satal resemblance"