counter-marching his host of wooden war-sary's return, by the latter gallantly waiv. riors,

ing his right of execution in the lady's

case; an unlooked-for act of generosity With an eye

utterly overcoming her lord, who, in conAs fixed as marble, with a forehead ridged And furrowed into storms, and with a hand

sequence, lost the game, and handed over

the stakes. Trembling, as if eternity were hung In balance on his conduct of a pin.

The imaginative Frenchman's game

with living chessmen was not entirely Who, asks he — with a mind well tuned evolved from his inner consciousness. to contemplation would waste attention An old traveller avows that the kings of on the chequered board ? The poet would Burmah used to play.chess in that grand have endorsed Bishop Beveridge's argu- fashion. Describing Akbar's palace at ment: “Either chess is a lottery or not. Delhi, in 1792, Hunter says the pavement If it be a lottery it is not lawful . . . if it of one of the courts was " marked out be not a lottery, then it is not a pure re. with squares in the manner of the cloth creation; for it depends upon man's wit used by the Indians for playing the game and study, it exercises his brains and called pachess. Here, it is said, Akbar spirits, as much as if he were about other used to play at the game, the pieces being things. So that being on one side not represented by real persons. On one side lawful, and on the other side no recre- of the court is a little square apart, in the ation, it can on no side be a lawful recre- centre of which stands a pillar supporting ation."

a circular chair of stone, at the beight of Neither bard nor bishop would have one storey. Here the emperor used to countenanced the good people of Darling- sit to direct the moves.” One of Auston and Bishop Auckland in parting with tria's many Don Johns had a room in bis their coin to see the vicar and school- palace paved with black and white marmaster of Heighington play chess in Red ble after the pattern of a chessboard, worth Park; not with wooden warriors, and there played the game with living but with boys and girls, attired in canvas pieces. A duke of Weimar turned his copies of fifteenth-century costumes, fig. soldiers to similar account, as did Freduring on the turfy board as kings and erick the Great and his marshal, Keith, queens, rooks and bishops, knights and when more serious evolutions were not in pawns. A propos of this novel device for hand. augmenting the Heighington school fund, Some half-century ago a futile attempt a journalist recalled to recollection Adrien to popularize living chess here, was made Robert's story of a like contest on the by opening the Lowther Rooms in West plains of Barrackpore between the chief Strand now known as Toole's Theatre of the Thugs and a representative of — for the purpose. The floor was marked John Company. Many attempts had been out as a chessboard, and men and women, made on ihe latter's life, all of which dressed in appropriate garb, were always proved ignominious failures; owing, as in attendance to serve the use of those the adepts at assassination believed, to who chose to pay a crown for the pleasure the protective powers of an old grey felt of playing chess under such unusual conhat, the favorite head-year of their foe. ditions. The players sat in boxes over. To obtain possession of ths talisman, and looking the board, directing the moveso put matters on a more equal footing, ments of their pieces. The taking of a the Thug leader challenged the governor man was always preluded by a clashing of to a game at living chess, undertaking to weapons in mimic combat, before the supply him with men, at the charge of captured piece retired from the fray. One twenty-five pounds sterling per man, it who tried his skill at the Lowther Rooms being understood that every taken found the battling of the men, and their on either side was to be put to death the fidgeting about their squares, anything and there. The governor promptly ac- but conducive to the concoction or carrycepted the challenge, staking his old hating out of artful combinations; while he against the surrender of those concerned was in constant expectation of seeing his in the attempts upon his life. After play- forces weakened by some piece or pawn ing for some hours, the Englishman cap. taking huff, and walking off the board, tured his opponent's queen and actual regardless of consequences. Neither wife, and then adjourned for luncheon, players or the public took kindly to the leaving the Thug chieftain in great per- new way of playing the old game, and turbation of mind regarding his prospec- want of patronage brought the experiment tive loss, an anxiety relieved on his adver- to an end in three months' time.

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In 1857, Count Platen gave a grand maiden against miss, and the queen's fancy ball in the Hanover Theatre; open- bishop's pawn of the gallant captain was ing it with a procession of magnificently the third victim. Mackenzie's tenth arrayed living chessmen, who, the parade move, after fine strategic manæuvres, was over, put themselves in position on a gi-a capture of a blue pawn, and three gantic chessboard, to enable two mock moves later his bishop vanquished a magicians to test their powers, and in so stately knight. The panoplied descendoing afford much amusement to the com- dant of Henry the Second, twirling his pany, who watched the varying phases of moustache, sought consolation among the the combat with great interest.

charming prisoners behind the wings. Only three years since, Captain Mac- On the twenty-fifth move Delmar made a kenzie and Mr. Delmar played a game at brilliant sacrifice of his bishop, which living chess at the Academy of Music, proved unfortunate, the captain's thirtieth New York. The stage was covered with move giving him checkmate. Doubtless alternate squares of black and white the loser found consolation in the fact Canton cloth, forming a board thirty-two that “the game throughout brought out feet square, surrounded by a red border. very happily the merits of the various The kings wore the costume of Charle-costumes.' magne, their jewel.decked robes differing but in color, one donning red, the other blue; their crowns being in one case gold, in the other, silver — or what passed for such. Rich dresses “ of the historical

From The Spectator. period " draped the forms of the rivalled queens, and jewelled coronets sat upon

A LAZY JOURNEY." their graceful heads.” The bishops wore highly decorated vestments, bore mitres, and carried croziers. The knights, wield- “Did you ever see such a winter as ing beavy pikes, were clad in bright ar- this?” asked one sufferer of another.

The rooks were distinguished by “ Yes, last summer,” was the answer. bearing miniature castles on their heads; And the melancholy epigram was present and the pawns were represented by pretty in my mind the other day, as I looked girls of uniform height, in amazonian listlessly from the window of the Siddons dress, and armed with spears and shields. Club, having returned from my holiday The players sat on raised platforms with outing, upon the usual procession of imtheir chessboards before them, a crier pure particles which make a London atannouncing each move, and pursuivants mosphere; and Wilkins, who never leaves conducting the piece or pawn concerned town, but stays there on purpose to abuse to its proper square. Captain Mackenzie it, asked me, in that tone of unoccupied first called : 66 Pawn to king's fourth.” depression which is peculiar to a club A dainty miss of sixteen, whose long window, whether I had ever seen such a black hair hung loose over her helmet, London fog as that in September. “Yes,” was led to her square, and when Mr. Del. I said, "this September, on the Italian mar's crier also made the same move, the lakes." For it is true that Mrs. Balbus two misses, standing face to face, sus. and myself had recently visited those pended hostilities for the nonce, and ex. climes of the perennial sun. Years lapse, changed smiles. The following move and I do not like to think how long it is brought the captain's knight to the king's since I chronicled, for the patient readers bishop's third square, and Delmar made of the Spectator, the story of a lazy rama similar move with his knight to his ble through nearer-lying regions, which I queen's bishop's square. Delmar's fourth ventured to describe under fictitious move was the capture of a red pawn by names, for fear of rousing susceptibilities. a bishop. Her rosy cheeks assumed a That was but my humor, which has passed, scarlet bue of mortification at being cap- like most humors, and leaves me in a tured at such an early stage of the game, mood of solid realism. These kind of and as the pursuivant led her off, she lialf-fairy fancies are but the cynthias of pouted petulantly. The pouting was re- a minute, and “no two dreams are like." peated on the sixth move, when Delmar, Terrefolle has assumed to me the comwho seemed to take a great fancy to the mon-place guise of France; Feuille-morte pretty pawns, pitted a blue-eyed pawn and Lau-qui-dort have evaporated in the against a red, and she, too, had to retire. guide-book into Avranches and Coutances, The next move was another match of land giddy and brilliant Trouville asks me

with scorn how I can have clared to para- | by my views. He spoke of imprudent phrase her into Trou-vilain ? How a diet, of the habit of servants to throw man's old work seems to jibe at him vegetables down the sink, and so forth, sometimes, as he takes it up, as if to say and for a long time persuasively. The to him, " It isn't you that did me, you garrison held out. The whole household know !" Three years after: and what lived upon brandy.and-water, and nothing changes have passed over the whole meno else. (After I had left, the local wine. tal and moral frame, gradual ministers of merchant sent me in a magnificent acthe law of growth, forerunners of the count for succulent drinks which I had final change! Illusions have been lived never seen. I resisted him before the down, and hopes have been disappointed : judge of the county, and had to pay. dreamed-of reconciliations have not come • My dear sir,” said an eminent legal exabout, and short, sharp partings have pert, to console me," the trick is obvious, come in where none such were feared, to and the books' palpably cooked. But toss about the cards of life in quite an- county.court judges always decide for a other deal. Unexplained estrangements tradesman versus a “gentleman,'” which have elbowed out old friendships, and is a pleasant reputation for justices to seeming accident has knit again, more sleep on; and I am glad I am not one of strongly than before, former ties which them. This is parenthesis; but I am had been all unloosed; trusted affections talking of migrations, and I migrated bave proved as rotten as tinder, where the from North Bitton on Silverstreak, this hot spark of self has fallen; and honor time guarding a strict anonymous, because has tumbled like a house without founda. it is not a good place for simple-ininded tions, when treachery and "expediency;” people to live in. At ast my cook took vanity and ingratitude, have sprung their to rolling about on the floor in fits, regulittle nines beneath it; till looking back, larly, when she “opened up "the scullery over a three years' space, its moral reads in the morning. And one evening, after as this, that there is nothing certain but various premonitory whiffs, there burst uncertainty. Of what we believed would forth between cod and mutton such an be, nothing has been; of what we pur- overmastering stink, that we literally posed to do, nothing has been done. But packed our clothes and fled into the dark. much has been done that we did not pur- ness, then and there. It was impossible pose; and much has been which we never even for that soliciting landlord, this time, believed in, and — nobody knows. Even to persuade me that it was the fish that scientific congresses have made mistakes; smelt. No cod could ever do it, even and only American weather-prophets are there. It was a Saturday night, as I well never wrong

remember; for we picnicked for the Sun. Can it be I, for instance, that but three day at the house of a comparatively sweet years since was dilating on the advantages and positively hospitable friend; and on of living in a valley, and scoffing at those the Monday we departed from the district who built their houses upon hills? How forever, leaving, as our last contribution, soon afterwards was it that the irony of a just action behind us, which, I trust, fate avenged the mountaineers, and the smells sweet, as in the poem, in spite of pale spectre of typhoid drove us forth bag surrounding example from the county and baggage, to join the hill faction at court downwards. once, and, as I now suppose, forever! So it was that we left that ancient town My landlord — he was at once of the legal upon the river, and found ourselves and house-letting persuasions, and there. another home, with all the conditions refore doubly acute — was a great admirer versed except as to Conservative memof those papers of mine, and for a long bers. Our lines are cast this time in a time convinced me out of my own mouth city by the sea, on whose grey-and-blue (as against my nose), when I suggested paitern we look down, from a height above smells. The thing was not possible, in it, over a sloping garden, which provides so sweet a valley. Moreover, he was one, us with the regulation lawn-tennis ground, he said, who had himself lost a thumb circled with a halo of vegetables. We through bad drainage, and was sure to be are our own landlords, taught by the bitter very tender of mine.

I lave every rea- experience of another's smells. Hence. son to hope, in the ordinary course of forth, at least, my smells shall be my own, justice, that he has by this time lost the and I will pay no rent for them. The other. I am not vindictive; but, as we bonny, bright town, which shall be called said in the Catechism, such is my desire. Sunbourne, lies before us in a tempting He persuaded me of many things, assisted | maze of tree-planted streets, which recall the green alleys and avenues of certain | about the purse, which were forcible, but foreign cities. They bisect each other at not convincing; and was met throughout odd angles, instead of running in a series by that steady persistency which wins of parallel lines to the water, after the campaigns and civilizes deserts, and com. duli, uncompromising fashion of most passes in lesser matters what it will. And seaside towns. And beautiful bits of so it came about that I found myself coin. green, sudden bursts of unexpected fields mitted to a foreign tour, this time upon and parks, with endless varieties of com- the understanding that we were to reverse fortable and tasteful homes, each to itself our former plan, - never stop more than in its own walled garden, and built in all two nights anywhere, and see as many the quaintnesses of parti-colored form lands as could be seen in the space of with which modern architects have exor- four weeks. And so we did. Belgium cised the grim, old barrack-spirit of mo- and the Rhine, Coblentz and the Mosel, notony, leave us but small room to regret Heidelberg and the Neckar, Lucerne and the cottage in the plain, and the enter the Reuss, Verona and the Adige, with a prising, but inventive, wine-merchant, or kaleidoscope of lakes and the climbing of his friend and backer, the county.court many mountains (in railway trains), chase judge. Before us a broad plain of level each other in picturesque confusion marsh, dotted with old castles and new through my brain, like the whirligig of gas-works, and other landmarks upon the spires and lowers which, after his famous wrinkled face of Time; and behind us, an visit to Oxford, made havoc with the head amphitheatre of breezy down, stretching of Mr. Verdant Green's papa. its arms out to the sea and folding Sun. It was with a sense of awe due to the bourne to its heart, as well it may, in occasion, that a day or two ago I took up gratitude for the balmiest air and the most the Times — no lesser medium would perpetual and buoyant sunshine which the have met the emergency and read spirit of man can crave for; and as a re- therein a letter of some proportions, by a sult, I have solemnly recanted to Mrs. professor of eminent fame, both in the Balbus all the theories I formerly ex. world of science and in that of Alpine pressed as to the proper requisites for a enterprise. It was couched in language residence; she has said, “ Yes, Tom,” in of much dignity and authority, and the each instance in a spirit of unmurmuring text of it was this. That, on the whole, adhesion; and I cannot tell how it is that the weather in Switzerland this summer I seem to realize that she fails to attach had not been fine. It was true that this any serious importance to my opinions. had been for some time freely reported in Indeed, she distinctly said, upon one oc. many prints and in various places, and casion, when I was emphasizing the im. that' a large number of tourists of the portance of living on a hill, that “we'd baser sort had come to the same conclugot to do it now, and it didn't matter.”' sion as the professor. But obviously it Some people have a way of putting things could not be accepted as a fact till it had which is fatal to argument.

received his counter-seal, and it was very I attribute it partly to the novelty of good of him to affix, as it were, his black the new home, and partly to the Machia mark to the weather, and to let unscien. vellian craft of which I am a master, that tific people feel sure that it had really for the three years which have passed rained. I thought it did at the time, mý. since that same lazy journey through the self; and now, of course, I know it. Cider lands, I succeeded in staving off When I came to the end of that letter, the fatal question of foreign parts. 1 tears of gratitude stood in my eyes. I leaned

upon the exquisite pleasure of that do not mean because I had come to the former tour, and the pity it would be to end of it, but from sympathy with the adspoil its memories; I insisted on the dis- mirable sentiment which wound it up. In agreeable characteristics of foreigners, spite of its raining in Switzerland - in. and the alluring qualities of home; I deed, whilst it was raining – the proquoted Sir Charles Coldstream on the fessor had heard how we had been wingeneral inadequacy of the Continent, and ning in Egypt, and felt called upon pub. his opinion even of the crater of Vesuvius, licly to express his devout thankfulness that there was nothing in it; I appealed that England was still a nation. It was to my advancing years (for which I was impossible for me - or, I should think, pulled up somewhat sharply); I pointed for England - not to feel this condescenout that I had seen it all, to be met by sion on the professor's part all the more, the undeniable counter that other people from his having gone rather out of his had not; I used household arguments way to show it, at least to the lay mind.

To the man of science, the connection | ently with nothing to criticise - and sci. between the nature of England and the ence, and the Times. So I, too, lifted weather in Switzerland may, of course, be up my voice and wept, and thanked God clear. But from the outside world, in that we have still critics to tell us of our that letter, that connection was artistically faults, and professors to let us know when veiled; so much so, that it was impossible it is raining. How it rained (for I am to conceive what one fact had to do with bound to confirm the professor, and to the other, except, possibly, that both had say that it did), I hope to be permitted to occurred to other people before, though show another day. I remember a dram. they had no authority to mention them. atist who was congratulated on having Let me add, however, that the letter was obtained the services of a certain actress a great comfort to me, because I had just for his new burlesque. “Yes,” he said, been reading, in the same unerring jour. “ I'm lucky. She can't sing, and she nal, an article on a text it has been per- can't dance, and she can't act. And sistently preaching of late, on what may she's very plain. Otherwise she's de. be called the monohippoid or one-horse lightful.” So might I say, that we were character of England in the matter of in Switzerland a fortnight, and never saw literature. I had derived therefrom the the mountains; and in Italy for another, melancholy information that we have no and never saw the sun. And we ate too novelists, no playwrights, no humorists, little, and paid too much. Otherwise, it no historians, no poets, and no orators, was lovely. only a large number of critics - appar


THE FOUNDATION OF ALEXANDRIA. - En- marked out the circuit of the walls, the directering Egypt at Pelusium, Alexander found his tion of the principal streets, and the sites of feet already there. The Egyptians crowded numerous temples, which were to be dedicated to welcome him, and, leaving a garrison in the to Grecian and Egyptian deities. The site was city, he marched across the desert to Memphis. on a narrow tongue of land stretching between Here the satrap Mazakes immediately surren- Lake Mareotis and the sea, and the plan of dered himself, and an immense treasure came the city was made to include the adjacent isle into the hands of Alexander. The whole of of Pharos, which was joined to the other part Egypt, indeed, submitted with alacrity, as a by a causeway. Two harbors were formed – relief from the insulting despotism of the Per- one on each side of this causeway — for ships sians. The Macedonian hero rested himself coming by sea ; and Lake Mareotis was utilized for some time in this ancient and magnificent for the reception of exportable produce from city, offering sacrifices to the god Apis and the the interior. The nucleus of the population other Egyptian deities, and entertaining the was mainly derived from the neighboring town people with gymnastics and musical perform- of Canopus. During the rule of the Ptolemies,

He then sailed down the western Alexandria grew immensely in size, in grandeur, branch of the Nile to Canopus, situated at its in population, and in wealth. Its museum was mouth. Seeing the advisibility of removing celebrated in all civilized lands, and the library the seat of government from Memphis to some of Alexandria (the destruction of which has spot upon the coast which would be more been the subject of contradictory statements) within his power, he deterinined to found a contained the finest collection of Greek ciassics new metropolis on the shores of the Mediter- in the world. In this most interesting city,

Hence arose the famous city of Alex. the East and West may be said to have min. andria, afterwards one of the most splendid gled as in a common centre; and from the con. and important capitals of the world — the great sequent interchange of ideas between the more seat of commerce for Europe, Africa, and In- ancient and the more youthful communities of dia, and an intellectual centre of the Greek the world, Christianity itself received some of race, which for several ages exercised a pow- those elements which rank among the philoerful influence over the philosophy and religion sophical influences of a later epoch. of the civilized world. Alexander himself


Cassell's Illustrated Universal History,


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