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director, and went to Goslar to put him. I hour every morning while he sipped the self personally under the cure-director's mixture. On the whole, perhaps the abhands. Lampe was at this time about surdity that mingled with the entire syssixty years old - a long, baggard figure, tem may have conspired not unessentially with wild, weather-beaten features, and with the change of diet and habit to any eager, sharp, and knowing eyes. He cures that were made by it. wore a Polish tunic, like that of which From the " cure.garden of Goslar to German students are still so fond, made the assembly of princes at Frankfort of velvet, and elaborately braided all the most pompous gathering of recent over; and as Lampe must now have some times — is a long step, but unfortunately special dress to appear at court with, it does not carry us clear of the ridiculous. corresponding to the novel dignity of Meding accompanied King George to that, cure-director, the king determined that glittering fiasco, and gives us vivid dethis Polish tunic should be his uniform. scriptions of all its state and circumstance; The queen presented him with a fine car- the splendid horses and equipages of the riage and two splendid greys, and Lampe sovereigns, their civil and inilitary retinue, in his gay coat drove up in great state the lesser glories of the ambassadors, the every morning to the Frankenberg clois- countless lackeys in all the colors of the ter, where the king resided, to ascertain rainbow, thronging the corridors of the the condition of his royal patients, and hotels and illuminating the dulness of brew the appropriate mixture for the next the streets. Into the politics of this reday. It was only to kings that Lampe markable assembly we shall not enter. condescended to pay a personal visit, for The king of Prussia simply stayed away, he too was a king, and exercised the most and that brought the whole array to despotic authority both over the inhab- nought. Meding dwells with much uncitants of the village of Goslar, and the tion on the daily dinners — the "table patients who now flocked to him. He d'hôte of kings "- which culminated in assigned to the latter the lodgings where the great banquet at the Roman Hall they must live, and if they complained or where the old emperors used to be went elsewhere, he pereinptorily refused crowned, and where now in memory of them all medical treatment; and in the these ancient times, when the coronation same way, if a villager did not do as he oxen were roasted whole at the public bade, he received no more lodgers, and market-place, a quartier de bæuf his. lost the income he derived froin them. torique was placed in the inenu, When

Ordinary patients had to come every the elector of Hesse rose from the table, morning and in all weathers to the "cure- he said in a dry, sarcastic way he had, garden," where Lampe sat in a little booth“Well, we have done our part, and now and received them one by one. His ex. for the rush to our doctors." The joke amination and consultation were was greatly relished, but it seems now ducted in the most rigorous silence; he almost sad to think how soon he and judged their condition by sight alone, and others of the sovereigns there present no one was permitted to utter a word, to were to find the results of that diet of make a complaint or explanation, or to princes much more difficult to digest than put a single question ; a code of simple they had then the least suspicion of. signs had been established, by which the King George was very liberal with little information the mysterious physician money in big sums, but had, remarkably desired to learn as to the effects of his enough, a very high idea of its value in treatment could be conveyed in solemn little amounts. Fräulein Schubert, a wellsilence by holding up finger or thumb, or known operatic singer of the time, had fist, in various combinations. The old pleased him much by her performances, shoemaker must have had a sense of and learning that she had suffered what humor; some of his prescriptions seem for her was a serious loss, he asked her so exquisitely absurd that he could hardly one day how much it was, and she said have given them without a laugh in his nineteen hundred thalers some £300. sleeve. Meding called one morning on He promised to make it up to her, but Professor Pernice of Gottingen, who held added that he had not so much over at a high legal position at the court of Han- present, but would make a point of paying over, and found him in his room, standing her in due time. His habit was to lay on one leg and drinking a brown decoction out once a month a definite sum for his of herbs. He had come to Goslar to be personal expenditure, and he took a very cured of extreme corpulency, and Lampe strict account of the disbursement of this ordered him to stand on one leg for an monthly budget. A hundred thalers

con

spent from this personal fund seemed to submission to King William. But, as him much more than half a million spent Meding shows, his restoration was at that in the general administration of the court. time far from being so hopeless as it now But he did not forget Fräulein Schubert. seems, and the secret organizations of the He took a hundred thalers a month from blind king were not the least formidable this source, and laid them by for her reg of the enemies that then threatened ularly in a special box. In the course of Prussia. It is noteworthy, too, that nineteen months he had accumulated strongly legitimist as King George had enough to make good her loss, and caused always been, he based this new struggle it to be sent to Fräulein Schubert, who not on divine right, but on the democratic had probably by that time given up ex- principle of popular choice. The people pecting it.

of Hanover had the right to choose their Meding, of course, narrates very mi- own ruler, and every member of the comnutely all the negotiations and preliminary munity had a right to participate in the movements of the fatal year 1866, and the choice. His idea now was a monarchy impression his narrative leaves upon us founded on a plebiscite, and his right was is that Hanover suffered its judgment to the grace of God coupled with the affec. be paralyzed by a fear of Prussia, and tions of his people. Adversity usually drifted uncertainly from step to step till it petrifies the views of pretenders and emi. found itself in actual combat with that grants into an impracticable rigidity; it power before it could draw breath, and expanded those of King George, and this swallowed by her entirely before it could adaptability is a quality he is not com. draw another. Prussia was from its situa- monly credited with. tion a sort of natural, though not declared, The last sight we get of the king in enemy of Hanover. Hanover stood be these volumes is at the Duke of Bruntween one part of Prussia and another, swick's villa at Hietzing near Vienna, and, what was worse, between Prussia which the duke placed at his disposal in and the seacoast. Little difficulties were 1866, and in which he lived for several always arising, and annexation was long years after that fatal crisis. This villa talked of. King George was in a dilem- was furnished in a peculiar style : the ma. He shrank from siding with Austria, chief salon was decorated after Chinese because that would provoke the future taste; the walls were covered with Chi. vengeance of Prussia ; and he hesitated nese tapestry; round the roof hung rows to side with Prussia, or even to give the of Chinese bells, which the slightest pledge of neutrality which Prussia de- breath of wind made to tingle; on the sired, because that would only help his floor lay a Chinese straw mat; motley natural enemy to become great. In what. Chinese lanterns hung from the ceiling, ever direction he turned, Prussia was still and Chinese porcelain figures, as large as the peril, and he ran into it from his very life, stood here and there in the room. circumspection to avoid it. He left Han. The smoking-room was furnished like a over with no intention of fighting against Turkish salon, and the room which the Prussia; he awoke one morning and king occupied was ornamented in Scottish found himself at war with her; in a few fashion : the heavy, richly-gilt chairs and weeks he was a dethroned king, and he tables were covered with silk of Scotch never saw his country again.

tartan; the walls were decked with Scotch Some current mistakes are disproved weapons and tartan plaids, and the paintby facts mentioned by Meding. The an. ings represented picturesque scenes from nexation of Hanover is often ascribed to Sir Walter Scott's novels. Meding says the king's obstinate and inflexible adher- that in this room, where he passed so ence to his hereditary rights; but it ap- much of his time with the king transacting pears that he was quite ready to make the secret work of conspiracy, he never concessions of territory, and actually could escape a strangely uneasy and myswrote King William, addressing him terious feeling ; the Stuarts came always " Dear William,” and begging for an ar to the recollection, and overshadowed the rangement on some such basis. But work with evil omen. The suggestion Bisinarck had made his mind up for an. was natural, and its premonition has so nexation ; it was there the inflexibility far come true. The great events of 1870 lay; and the letter was never answered. drove the Guelphic claim to Hanover out Then it is commonly said that once the of the sphere of practical politics, and it is annexation was settled, King George already as much a tradition of the past as ought to have bowed to the inevitable, the Jacobite cause. King George died and saved at least the family property by l in 1878, and his son, the present Duke of Cumberland, may find it easier he eliciting a large demand. Had we to would certainly find it wiser -- to accept draw up the list best adapted simply to the situation, and accepting the situation command a large sale, we should have left means merely giving up a hopeless dream, Mr. James Payn and Professor Tyndall and getting instead the Duchy of Bruns where they are, secured from Mr. Edwin wick, to the throne of which he is legal Arnold, the author of “The Light of heir, besides the old property of the family Asia,” not the author of “ The Sick King in Hanover, amounting to some two mil. of Bokhara,” and “Tristram and Iseult," lions sterling

a poem on Egypt; extracted from Dr. Farrar an essay on the meaning of the Apocalypse; obtained a criticism of England (instead of his sketch of New En

gland) from Mr. Howells, or failing Mr. From The Spectator.

Howells, from Mr. Henry James; asked WHAT MAKES LITERATURE POPULAR?

Mr. Froude for an estimate of the imagMESSRS. LONGMAN'S spirited attempt inative power and weakness of Carlyle ; to issue a magazine for sixpence which Mr. John Morley for a paper on the capac. may fairly compete with, and, if possible, ities and incapacities of English journalexcel in intrinsic worth as well as popu. ism; Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, for an larity, magazines of double the price, article on the sins of Mr. Gladstone's brings strongly before us the secret of government, - and Professor Bryce, for genuine literary popularity with the great one on its merits; while the whole might majority of readers, - a point on which it close with a paper from Mr. Ruskin on the is by no means easy for any critic to de. art and poetry of Rossetti. Messrs. cide, unless he suppresses for the mo: Longman would say, if they criticised our ment all reference to his own individual suggestion, that it violates their first rule, taste, and considers calmly the class of not to meddle either with religion or with books which win from the reading public politics. Well, that is just the rule which the most signal signs of favor. Messrs. seems to us to destroy their best chance Longman, we see, regard Mr. James of popularity, for it is the most distinctive Payn as the novelist to whom they would note of modern feeling that there shall be most naturally turn when looking for great no subject of supreme popular interest popular favor, while they ask the brilliant excluded from the survey of our popular author of “Vice Versâ ” to lend them the literature; and though it may be wise to supplementary aid of his talents. They admit contributions to that survey from justly consider Professor Tyndall one of all sides, it is foolish and unmeaning to the most popular writers on physical sci-exclude such subjects artificially from any ence, while they ask Professor Owen, - a journal which professes to appeal to the somewhat eccentric choice, to give imagination and to minister to the intelthem his judgment on the present state of lectual life of man. If Messrs. Longthe controversy as to the origin of spe. man's magazine fails to secure the popu. cies. They go to Mr. Howells, the clever larity which it would otherwise deserve, it American novelist, for his sketch of a will be through this obsolete reluctance New England village; ask the author of to meddle with subjects on which men are “ John Halifax, Gentleman,” for verse; fiercely at issue with each other. publish “A Gossip on Romance

" from

It will be observed that in our suggesihat lively essayist, Mr. R. L. Stevenson; tions for a popular programme, we have and put before us some of the observa- included soine writers who have a firsttions made by Mr. Freeman during his rate reputation with the most fastidious recent tour in the United States on those critics, and some who have not, but only American usages of speech and practice a first-rate power of securing readers. It which struck him most. This is not a bad is in fact to some extent a matter of accisixpennyworth, and as regards some of dent, whether a man of first-rate powers the authors chosen we could not offer a will or will not choose subjects on which suggestion likely to have improved the be can hope to interest the great mass of popularity of this first number. But there readers, or whether or not a man who has are clearly one or two omissions, while the happy art of interesting a great numone or two of the authors whose papers ber of readers will or will not have the are here published, seem to have been power to deal with great subjects in a selected rather for the purpose of stamp-vivid and adequate way. The result is ing the magazine with a reputation for that some really great writers are thor. care and learning, than for the purpose of oughly popular, and that some extraordi

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66

narily popular writers are not by any of those divinest altars. Fronting this means great, and that a magazine which The builders set the bright pavilion up, needs in the first place to be read, if only Fair-planted on the terraced hill, with towers that it may gain the ear of the public, On either fiank and pillared cloisters round. ought, at least at the outset, to secure the Here is a great stream of vivid impresaid of both classes of writers. Now, sions, some of them made vague by names what is it that constitutes the popular ele, which to the ordinary reader only conceal ment in style, as distinguished from real the meaning, though none the less impospower to treat the subject in hand withing on that account, some of them dislucidity and force? We are inclined to tinct and clear, — all of them studded think that it is the power of producing a with vivid points of color, many of which rapidly-moving series of vivid and novel distract the attention from the general impressions, clear in detail, which seem effect of the great scene painted. to illuminate a subject without always really doing so. We have intimated, for

Tamarind trees and sal, instance, that Mr. Edwin Arnold,' the Thick set with pale sky-colored ganthi flowers, author of “ The Light of Asia,” a poem impress the casual reader much more than on Buddhism which has now reached its tamarind trees alone would do. Then, ninth edition, would probably write a much the stainless ramps of huge Himâla's more popularly effective poem on Egypt, walls," by which we suppose is incor- or on any other subject of the moment, rectly) meant * ramparts,” tickles the ear.

-than Mr. Matthew Arnold, whose po- Then, the idea that, by looking upwards, ens many of us know by heart, and, in- thought climbs higher till it seems to deed, regard as part and parcel of our stand in heaven and speak with gods,” truest intellectual life. Let us compare produces a kind of spurious sense of untheir methods of work. Here is a very imaginable exaltation ; and finally, we effective passage from “ The Light of

receive a number of really vivid impresAsia,” describing the situation of Sid. sions of the mountain-heights, which are, dârtha's Palace of Pleasure, fronting the however, grotesquely contrasted with the Himalayas :

plain as a praying carpet” at the foot of

Yet not love the mountains. That is art of the spangly Alone trusted the king; love's prison-house kind, art which relies on the sparkling Stately and beautiful he bade them build,

detail in it much more than it relies on So that in all the earth no marvel was Like Vishranvan, the Prince's pleasure-place. the wholeness of the effect, which, inMidway in those wide palace-grounds there deed, deliberately sacrifices wholeness of

effect to startling fragments, just as in A verdant hill whose base Rohini bathed, another passage Siddartha is described Murmuring adown from Himalay's broad feet, as standing, To bear its tribute into Gunga's waves. Southward a growth of tamarind trees and sâl, His tearful eyes raised to the stars, and lips Thick set with pale sky-colored ganthi flowers, Close-set with purpose of prodigious love. Shut out the world, save if the city's hum Came on the wind no harsher than when bees

No true poet would have written that Hum out of sight in thickets. Northwards word “ prodigious,” but it will waken the soared

attention and catch the memory of many The stainless ramps of huge Himâla's wall, who would never have noted or recalled Ranged in white ranks against the blue — un- a simples and more natural phrase. It is trod,

the word of a clever man trying to be. Infinite, wonderful — whose uplands vast, come a poet by virtue of standing on And lifted universe of crest and crag,

intellectual tiptoe ; and we cannot imagShoulder and shelf, green slope and icy horn,

ine a worse way of becoming a poet, or a Riven ravine, and splintered precipice

better Led climbing thought higher and higher, until

way. of winning popular attention, It seemed to stand in heaven and speak with if he can but keep up continuously the gods.

strenuous efforts. Now, take a Beneath the snows dark forests spread, sharp mountain picture, as described by Mr. laced

Matthew Arnold, and one sees the differ. With leaping cataracts and veiled with clouds : ence at once, the wholeness of the ef Lower grew rose-oaks and the great fir groves fect, the subordination of the details : Where echoed pheasant's call and panther's

rose

same

In front, the awful Alpine track
Clatter of wild sheep on the stones, and scream Crawls up its rocky stair ;
Of circling eagles : under these the plain

The autumn storm-winds drive the rack Gleamed like a praying.carpet at the foot

Close o'er it in the air.

cry,

a

Behind, are the abandoned baths

nates link from link in the sequence of a Mute in their meadows lone;

scientific process. Mr. Ruskin, again, The leaves are on the valley paths,

though one of the most beautiful writers The mists are on the Rhone;

of our day, bas gained his popularity The white mists, – rolling like a sea,

greatly by the faults as well as by the I hear the torrents roar.

beauties of his effects. But his failing is Yes, Obermann, all speaks of thee, –

not in the style, but in the eccentricities I feel thee near once more.

of his judgment itself, which often man.

ages to distort and bring into undue promI turn thy leaves, I feel thy breath

inence points which, startling as they are, Once more upon me roll,

are startling by their faulty perspective, That air of languor, cold, and death, not by their truth of effect. And again, Which brooded o'er thy soul.

is it not Mr. James Payn's fault as

novel-writer, a fault which practically A fever in these pages burns, Beneath the calm they feign;

adds enormously to bis popularity, - that A wounded human spirit turns

he is too amusing, indulges in too much Here, on its bed of pain.

light comedy, and imparts the effect of a

spurious piquancy to his pictures of life? Yes, though the virgin mountain air Certainly, that is Canon Farrar's fault as Fresh through these pages blows,

a religious writer. His rhetoric is far too Though to these leaves the glaciers spare fond of impressive contrasts or combinaThe soul of their white snows;

tions; his style is sensational; and it is

the sensationalism of his style that wins Though here a mountain murmur swells

popularity for sermons often much more Of many a dark-boughed pine;

valuable in substance than they are in Though as you read, you hear the bells

form, though it is the over-rhetorical Of the high-pasturing kine;

form, and not the valuable substance,

which catches the public ear. It will be Yet, through the hum of torrent lone And brooding mountain bee,

observed that in regard to politics, we There sobs I know not what ground-tone

have selected much more lucid and teinOf human agony.

perate writers than in regard to any other

subject which can stimulate passion, and Mr. Matthew Arnold, like a true poet, this, we think, rightly, for on politics the groups the effects of the Alpine scene judgment of the great majority of readbefore him round the memory of a solitary ers is beginning to be an educated judgdweller in those scenes, whose motives ment, and intolerant of tinsel. Even the for shrinking from the world he was de Daily Telegraph has found this out, and sirous to recall, and nothing could well for the most part keeps its special teleexceed the spiritual grandeur of the pic: graphese for the arcana of social or geoture. There are no beads of insulated graphical mysteries. The secret of all color in it; nothing that is not subordi- popular writing not also good writing is, pate to and in keeping with the whole. we are convinced, first, a power of rapid

In the other popular writers we have movement, not to say rhapsody, which mentioned, we find the same swift move. carries men on, and, next, a power of ment with the same brilliancy of detail. striking out sudden lights to startle and It is this which makes Professor Tyndall awaken them. Sometimes, as in scienso effective a popularizer of science, fortific exposition, and, again, in the painting instance. Mark the rapidity with which of really great historic scenes, these habits he narrates and the skill with which he are consistent with true art; but even selects his words, so as to produce a when they are not consistent with true graphic conception of a minute phenome. art, they are almost always at the bottom

In this very paper in Longman's of a great popular reputation. Magazine, what can be happier, for the purpose of stamping his meaning on his readers, than his use of the expression, “the wreck of a molecule,” for its chem

From All The Year Round. ical decomposition by the action of light? It paints exactly what he desires to draw attention to, and paints it most vividly. COWPER, who like many another good In science, detail is everything, and the man, would put under ban every recre. very faculty which often spoils poetry and ation in which he did not himself delight, the higher imaginative writing, discrimi- | portrays the chess-player marching and

non.

LIVING CHESS.

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