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you must be wanting some new ones, do rate as though he hired them in the let me send you a few dozen to-morrow," bazaar. Mrs. A. is not enlightened on you know she will be hurt if you decline the subject, and what money transactions them on the plea of having obtained yes- pass between the two worthies does not terday a supply hemmed by Mrs. Brown's transpire. schoolchildren; while if you have the The etiquette of calls in India is, that temerity to say that you prefer to buy they should be paid by the last comer be. always in the bazaar because the jáhrans tween the hours of twelve and two, and any there are so much cheaper than anything one is at liberty to call on all the people your friends can offer, and with your who have arrived at a station before him. many children you are obliged to con- Everybody in society, on going to the sider expense, you may be sure that Mrs. chief town of a province, leaves à card at Smith will never think so well of you Government House, and receives an inagain after manifesting what she con- vitation to a dinner or ball with “ R. S. siders so lamentable a want of anything V. P. to So-and-so,” in the corner. These like proper feeling.

mysterious letters have been known to Your servants sometimes involve you cause some difficulty to India-born offiin amusing little difficulties, either by cials of the “ uncovenanted ” class, who, lending your property to your friends, or by obtaining the wished-for distinction of by borrowing theirs for you. You are a gazetted appointment, find themselves going to give a large entertainment, and admitted to a society above the level of desire your khansamah to hire for you in their earlier days. There is a story, said the bazaar such extra crockery as will be to be wholly true, of a worthy couple who required. You are charged so much for were anxious, before going to a new sta. the use of the china, and pay the money, tion, to part from their old neighbors with thinking the sum asked by no means un- every graceful and appropriate forin of reasonable for such nice plates as you farewell; and long and sadly they pon. had, especially those white ones with a dered over the cards they were to leave. blue crest upon them, a lion rampant, “ I know the ladies do write something in with a motto curling round him. It just the corner of their cards when they are occurs to you whether it would be worth going away,” said the wife, “ but I don't while to buy those plates, and to wonder like to ask anybody what it is, because what they would cost; but other things that would show we did not know ourput them out of your head, and by the selves.” She had better have asked, poor time you go out to dinner the next even- lady, or else put nothing at all, for her ing you have forgotten the china. Then, husband, who was familiar with no com. when a plate of soup is put before you, bination of letters without words save £ you see the blue lion again : there he is s. and T. O., suggested she should look too on all the other plates round the through all the cards she had received. table, with the same moito, word for word, She did so; there was none with P. P. C., just as it was upon the plates you hired. but there was a card of invitation to an This rather surprises you. Has your entertainment at Government House ; hostess really so few soup-plates of her that must be right surely the mysteriown that she must borrow of your Parsee ous initials good enough for high oificials friend, and that for small dinner-parties? must be good enough for her, and so the You have spied a most unexpected lean- station was convulsed with laughter when ness in this land of Egypt, you think. in every house appeared a farewell card But then the fish comes round, and there from is the lion again — and there he is on

MR. AND MRS. Da Costa, every piece of ware for every course of the dinner. At last you speak.

R. S. V. P. “I had some plates like this, with just It is rather amusing to watch the arrival the same blue lion on them, from the on horseback of a visitor who wisely wears bazaar, for my ball supper.”

an ugly and unbecoming sola topee (cork Your hostess brightens visibly. “Then helmet) to screen his head from the fierce that explains it,” she cries. • We could sunshine, while a sais runs behind carrynot think what was the matter that night, ing the tall glossy bat which his master for we had barely enough plates to eat brings into your drawing room and strokes our dinner off.”

during his visit. It is always hopeless to The mystery is solved: your khansa. give one's naine to a native servant, its mah borrows Mrs. A.'s plates of her mangled remains would be long past reco khansamalı, and charges you at the same ognition by the time they reached his


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mistress; so the proper thing to do after | unkindest words spoken, but is is very ascertaining that a lady is at home, is to true; and true too that while the hard send in your card, or " ticket," and wait and bitter words are born of idle want of until the servant returns to give you her thought, the good deeds spring from ten“salaam.” Ladies get very much per- derness of heart, and from consideration plexed sometimes as to the personal iden- and sympathy for tl:e wants of others. tity of their visitors. Thus, when a pair Nowhere else, probably, does one form of friends go round together to make calls such close and intimate friendships, desduring their holiday in the hills, how is a tined sometimes, as long years of absence hostess, who never saw either of them be- weaken the old links with home, to grow fore, to discover from their occasionally stronger even than the lies of blood. It rather bashful conversation which gentle is a melancholy fact that a long sojourn man is Mr. Jones, and which is Mr. in India does and must cut off the exile Smith ? If she ask them to dinner after from his own family; they have forgotten wards for different evenings, she is sure the old early days whose memory he cher. to find the man she took for Smith re- ishes so fondly, while he has acquired sponds to Jones's invitation, and vice new tastes and interests of which they

know but little, and feel very seldom an In the wholesale system of calling inclination to learn more, and so when the pursued in the hills it often happens that first novelty of his return bas worn off, you have to entertain at dinner guests the old Indian begins to feel himself an whose personal appearance is entirely un- outsider in the family circle, and to wish koown to you. These ladies, whose hus sometimes for more congenial society, bands are unable to get leave from work until he ends by settling down amongst in the plains, have called upon your wife the tried friends of his exile, feeling that without seeing her, and she has returned however delightful it is to be able to see the visit with the same result; so you are his relations when he will, his true home both dependent on the quickness of your is with his own compeers. own faculties to discover from their pre- People say the character of Indian soliminary talk which is the most important ciety has altered greatly in the last twenty Jady whom you must take in to dinner; years. Before the introduction of croquet, you know her name of course, and prob. when everybody rode or drove at sunset ably all about her, but you have no idea on the Mall, it was an important thing to which of your guests she is. As the first have your carriage appointments perfeci visitor is seen approaching, a servant en- of their kind, and your horses such as ters and announces, " A lady comes.". So should challenge the admiration of your you go out and receive on your threshold friends. Now, though croquet has been an uiter stranger, to whom you offer your killed by Badminton and tennis, the Mall arm to the, and make your is almost deserted, and the few people self as charming as circumstances permit

, who hasten through it are on their way until the announcement of another lady, to garden parties of one kind or another, whom you must receive in the same man- utterly reckless as to the appearance of ner, and so on until all the party is assem- the vehicle in which they sit, and preferbled.

ring an inexpensive tum-tum, or even a Amongst the peculiarities which strike hired gharry, to the elegant conveyances the visitor in India are what are called of the good old times. “acting appointments.” Official No. I The lavish hospitality which was needgoes to England, and his place is tempo. ful before the days of dak bungalows and rarily supplied by Official No. 2, who en hotels, is so no longer; but in no other joys a larger salary for the time; then country of the world are you sure to re. No. 3 is moved up to “act” for No. 2, ceive irom people upon whom you have and so on downwards, until to the outsider not the slightest claim, help such as you it really seems sometimes as though no would bardly dare to hope for from your one were doing his own, but everybody nearest relatives : nowhere else will you, some other man's work.

as an utter stranger, be taken in and In writing of society in India, and de- nursed with untiring tenderness and kind. ploring its obvious faults and shortcom- ness, and this too where nearly all the ings, one turns with grateful pleasure to fatigue of nursing falls upon your enterrecord its almost universal and thorough tainers themselves, and not upon some kindness. It sounds paradoxical to say old trustworthy servant, as it would do in that India is the country of the world in an English house. And all this is done which the kindest deeds are done, and the | as a matter of course: you are ill and

VOL, XL, 2032

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alone, therefore you must be taken home native Arab dynasties. But they proved by some motherly soul who, be she young to be implements which as often cut the or old, will treat you as her own and only hand that wielded them as those against child all through the period of your ill. whom they were directed. ness, and be your fast friend ever after. Perhaps not the least singular circumwards if you have only the common stance connected with the piratical wars courtesy to say “thank you ” to her for of the Mediterranean is the fact that their her goodness.

latest and ablest historian is a Roman We may laugh at Indian society, suffer Dominican monk. Padre Alberto Guglielperhaps from its faults, and be irritated motti, of the Order of Preachers, is the or disgusted by its weaknesses and fol. author of a series of valuable works all lies, but never let us deny the generous dealing with marine matters, and espekindness for which it is still remarkable, cially and peculiarly with the Papal navy. the good qualities which come to light Perhaps to the general reader the very when any passing breeze is strong enough phrase “ Papal navy” may appear almost to blow aside the foliage of that noxious incongruous. Yet a Papal navy once explant of gossip which does its best to isted, and its captains and sailors were stifle and to overshadow them.

amongst the most valiant and skilful of all those who manned and navigated the fleets of the Mediterranean. Still more incongruous does it appear to think of a

cowled friar in his cell inditing treatises From The Cornhill Magazine. and narratives about naval doings, which MOSLEM PIRATES IN THE MEDITERRA- not only manifest the most complete

mastery of technical details, but have as ACROSS the blue waters of the Mediter. breezy a salt savor of the sea in them as ranean Sea two irreconcilable enemies, Dibdin's songs! The phenomenon is Moslem and Christian, have glared at partly accounted for when we learn that each other for centuries: to the north Padre Guglielmotti is a native of Cività Spain, France, Italy; to the south, Mo-Vecchia, and that his boyish reminisrocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli. The waves cences include listening with eager delight that wash those shores have many a time to the yarns of an old sailor who was wont been dyed with the blood of the valiant to sit on the quay on holiday afternoons and the helpless, the strong soldier and and recount his adventures.' But Padre the trembling child. They have been the Guglielmotti's natural bent and aptitude liquid battle-plain for belted knight and for maritime things have been cultivated turbaned Turk during many troubled by assiduous and intelligent study. On years, and along the coasts of Italy from navigation, gunnery, and fortification, on Villafranca to Sicily there are few miles marine topography and meteorology (esof territory which have not at one time or pecially as regards the phenomena to be another been scorched and ravaged by observed in the Mediterranean), this DoAfrican fire and sword.

minican monk speaks with science and There are no pages of European history authority. One is tempted to exclaim, more full of wild romance and stirring “What a fine sailor wasted !" But it adventure than those which record the must be remembered that for thousands deeds of the Moslem pirates in the Med- of stout fellows able to take part in iterranean; and of all these pages those doughty deeds afloat, all the seaports in which embrace the period from 1500 to Italy could perhaps not furnish one other 1560 are by far the most important and able to chronicle them as the Padre Alinteresting. Not that a fierce maritime berto has done for us. He brings to the warfare between the Turks and Christians performance of his task some valuable did not exist long before; but during this elements which are supplied by the period piracy on the part of the former learned leisure of a cloistered life ; and a took a more powerful development, by mass of very varied erudition is fused, so reason of the protection afforded to these to speak, into homogeneity by the glow of lawless marauders by the sultans of Tur- a strong and steady enthusiasm. key, who invested sundry of them with The leading incidents of the piratical important dignities, and even with sov- warfare waged by the Mussulmen against ereignty. Within those sixty years the the Christians in the Mediterranean are Ottoman emperors made use of the pirate to be met with scattered throughout the chiefs to forward their own ambitious aims pages of many chroniclers and historians. in northern Africa, and to drive out the Jacopo Bosio in his well-known history of

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the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, * alarms inflicted on their respective counknown later as the Knights of Malta – tries by the Mussulmen pirates. At the records many of them; as does Agostino same time, the traditions of the ancient Giustiniani in his “Annals of Genoa,"crusades against the infidel were revived Pietro Bembo in his “ Rerum Venetarum and warmed by all the religious exerHistoria,” Guerrazzi in his “Lise of An- cises, the public preachings, and the visits drea Doria" (the latter, despite its power to famous sanctuaries, which belonged to and elequence, not always to be relied on the Jubilee year. The Borgia pope, Alex. in detail), and many others. But Padre ander VI., who then sat on the throne of Guglielmotti has for the first time col. St. Peter's, proposed an alliance of Chris. lected and co-ordinated these scattered tian princes and peoples against the Turk. records into a historic whole, and has Almost every European nation had vital added to them much valuable original cause to desire the overthrow of the Mus. thought, and many hitherto inedited doc. sulman power. The shores of France uments, the fruit of his diligent research- and Spain were constantly exposed to

The work we are now alluding to is piratical ravages. Venice waged a fierce entitled “La Guerra dei Pirati, e la war in the waters of the Levant to defend Marina Pontificia, dal 1500 al 1560.” | her possessions. Even the inland counIt is rare to meet with a book so interest- tries of Hungary and Poland were ening at once in matter and manner. The gaged in a struggle against the hordes of author's character and tone of mind Bajazet. Italy, from Genoa to Reggio on might furnish as valuable a study to the the Mediterranean, and from Venice to psychologist as his facts afford to the Taranto on the Adriatic, had suffered by historian. He is endowed with a fresh the fire and sword of the barbarians. ness and vigor of imagination which en. The most sanguine hopes were excited in ables him to realize to his own mind the the public mind by the announcement that events he chronicles, almost as forcibly the sovereigns of France and Spain (at as if he had witnessed them. One result that date Louis XII. and Ferdinand V., of this power is that be writes of distant surnamed the Catholic) were about to put incidents with a lively personal interest, out all their strength against the common which the majority of mankind are unable foe. Matters went so far in the councils to feel even for the passing life around of Rome, that the pope nominated as them. Three hundred and fifty years captain-general of the Christian armies have not fossilized the men of the Cinque Pierre d'Aubusson, grand master of Cento for Padre Guglielmotti. He loves Rhodes; and the Papal master of the and hates them with a heartiness worthy ceremonies composed the formula of of Doctor Johnson. As a counterpoise, prayers to be recited on the distribution he has a genuine love of truth, and would of ihe crosses, and the blessing of the not willingly misrepresent even a Barbary common standard of the league. pirate! But his manifestations of impar- At the same time active preparations tiality are such as an honest man might went on to provide the contingent of display towards his neighbor and contem. twenty galleys which the pope had promporary in the flesh; and they neitherised as his contribution to the Mediterrahave, nor affect to have, any Jove-like air nean fleet. The captain of the Papal of serene tolerance, or scientific imper- navy at this time was Lodovico del Mosca, turbability. For him humanity is still of a noble Roman family, now extinct. warm and palpitating in parchment chroni- For a long period it had been customary cles of three centuries ago.

for the Papal government to keep a The year 1500 of our era was the Jubilee squadron of war galleys cruising along year. Rome was full of pilgrims from all the coast of the Roman and Tuscan parts of Europe. Her hostelries were over- Maremma, and a considerable way to the Howing; the ports of her maritime terri- south towards Naples, for the protection tory were populous with foreign vessels ; of Italian commerce against the pirates. the sea in those days was a more fre. The number of these vessels was, in quented highway than the land; and the 1500, increased from three to twelve; concourse of travellers arriving from the namely, three galleys, three brigantines, different coasts and islands of the Medi- three low coasting barges, two galleons, terranean accumulated a mass of testi- and a vessel called balniere or baloniere, mony as to the vexations, injuries, and which was a long rowing boat, something Storia della sacra religione et illustrissima milizia Siam. Thanks to the sean

like the canoes used by the natives in di San Giovanni Gerosolinitano. In fol. Roma, 1594

amanship and vigilance of Captain del Mosca, and his


colleague, Lorenzo Mutino (also a Roman), ! bored in proportion to the weight of the the great mass of pilgrims who came by balls came into use. And whilst on the sea reached Rome without accident or subject of mediæval artillery, we may spoliation; and there was abundance of mention a curious etymology maintained provisions in the ports of the State and by our author. In a previous work he the hostelries of the city. During the mentions the first example of the use of whole time of the Jubilee, Mosca's little the word mitraille - in Italian metruglia squadron was incessantly cruising along to express a quantity of projectiles the coast_from Cape Argentaro to the fired off together, in the year 1453: Circæan Promontory, and amongst the Guerrazzi writes it in Italian with an i, little islands off the Tuscan and Neapoli- and it is precisely this orthography which tan shores. The name of Mosca was a has blinded him to the true etymology of word of fear to the pirates, who prudentiy the word. In his “Life of Andrea Doria kept out of his way, and left the seas free Guerrazzi writes : “ Cartouches filled with to peaceable folks bent on piety or profit. ball received the name of mitraglia, the Besides fulfilling these, his normal duties, etymology of which word is unknown to Lodovico del Mosca busied himself in us.” Had he written metragliu he would preparations for the great allied cam- more easily have perceived the derivation paign against the Turk, which was then of the word from the Italian verb mettere, in prospect. Under his supervision six to send, to emit. Of course its ancestor new galley's were at once put on the a little further removed is the Latin mit. stocks in Cività Vecchia. Moreover, he tere. But, as Padre Guglielmotti well obwas quick and vigilant enough to make serves, the desinence in aglin is not an excellent bargain for his sovereign the Latin, but belongs to the idiosyncrasy of pope by buying, at a very low price, all the Italian language, which has other exthe artillery which King Frederick of amples of it; as pedonaglia, foot-soldiery, Naples, then flying from his kingdom, had nuvoiaglin, a mass of clouds, expressing collected at Ischia. It is said to have the agglomeration of a number of similar been worth fifty thousand ducats, and was objects. purchased for thirteen thousand !

With all these preparations, and others The two captains, Mosca and Mutino, on a great scale made by Louis XII., shipped the guns and munitions at Ischia, king of France and eigneur of Genoa, and brought them up the Tiber to the and by Ferdinand the Catholic king of Ripa, whence they were conveyed by land | Spain, inighty results were expected from through the Campo di Fiori to the Castle the Christian alliance against the Turk. of St. Angelo. The procession greatly The French king had prepared a fine fleet excited the public interest and curiosity, and army under the command of Count and the line of march was crowded with Philip of Cleves Ravenstein; whilst the spectators. “There were thirty-six great troops of his most Catholic Majesty were bombards, with eighty carts pertaining to led by the famous Gonsalvo of Cordova, them; some drawn by horses, some by surnamed the Great Captain. . But these buffaloes, harnessed singly, or two, four, Christian princes were more intent on and even six together; two wagons laden their own aggrandizement than on effecwith arquebusses for ship's boats ; nine tually protecting their peaceable subjects with about forty smaller bombards (bom- from piracy and rapine. Both looked baridelle) placed three, four, or six on each with greedy eyes on Naples; and both wagon; twelve with ordinary pieces of used the war against the Turks as a preartillery; as many more for the service of text for collecting sea and land forces, twelve big guns; thirty-seven carts with and taking Frederick of Naples by suriron balls; three with gunpowder; and, prise. In fact, Count Philip of Cleves finally, five laden with nitre, darts, and Ravenstein, without taking counsel either bullets. Splendid artillery of excellent with the Venetians, or with the grand workmanship and great power, escorted inaster of Rhodes, entered the Archipel. by two thousand men under arms, without ago, making a mere pretence of waging mentioning the companies who marched war on the Ottoman government. He before and after each wagon.” Thus assaulted Mitylene, bombarded it without Padre Guglielmotti. He points out that, effect, put about to the westward, and lost according to this irrefragable evidence, on the voyage the flagship on which he the ancient bombards were still highly himself was, and soon afterwards another valued at the beginning of the sixteenth of his biggest ships with nearly all her century, and that this was about their crew. Similarly the army of the Spanish latest period. Thenceforward, cannon | king, under the command of Gonsalvo,

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