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the French persist in their design; and Madagascar is three hundred miles from that the only branch of the Polynesian the nearest African coast, a channel surely Malays with “go” in them should be wide enough for anybody, while on the subjugated, for no reason, except that eastern side there is the wide water of France wants to increase her sugar-pro- the south Pacific. English statesmen ducing empire. The Hovas are not as cannot forfeit an alliance essential to the tameless as the Arabs, but they will not good order of the world for such visiontake kindly to planter administration. ary dreams, nor even to protect the inde

When, however, we are asked, as the pendence of a Malay race whose progress Standard asks us, and as the missionary towards civilization they have watched world in a week or two will be asking us, with interest. They may regret, as we with one mouth, to prohibit the French do, most heartily, that French statesmen enterprise, we must hesitate to answer in should have fixed their eyes on Madagastbe affirmative. It hardly lies in our car; but they can do no more, without mouths to declare that the subjugation of endangering interests far more important the African Maoris is in itself an unen- than the right of Queen Ranavalona to durable injury to the world. The Hovas be rid of the counsel of a French resiare not in themselves a feeble people, but dent. There is something, after all, though a strong one, and though their best" gen- we may not like it, in the French and erals, Forest and Fever,” will not help Portuguese argument that they only conthem against their new opponents, Saka- quer the half-civilized, because the British lavas disciplined by French officers, they have already conquered all the savage are sure to make such a fight of it as to races of the world. There is no obtain good terms. As to the feebleness room for anybody, because of the British or unfairness of the pretexts used by the flag; and the less we needlessly obtrude French consuls, that does not rest on that fact upon mankind, the better for our English conscience, we having, on the peace. whole, behaved well in Madagascar, while the talk about our “interests” and Prot. estant hopes and Jesuit intrigues is talk merely. We cannot go to war to secure Protestant missions against Catholic ri

From The Queen. valry, and the French will not persecute Protestants as such. Those who believe There is a German proverb to the that the republican government of France effect that every one has his own way of is going to conquer Madagascar for Jes- saving and spending money. As the stin. uit benefit, have a faith which, if it can- giest person has sometimes a sudden fit not remove mountains, can at least remove of extravagance, so the most lavish man facts out of the way; and as to our inter- often cherishes some petty economy. ests, our interest is not to give France a People who expend large sums carelessly sense of being throttled by Great Britain in certain quarters will grudge small in all directions. The English people are amounts on other items. Nearly every not going to annex Madagascar, and it is one has his special economical hobby, not their business to protect the Malagasy some one thing he dislikes to see used against an invasion which will possibly wastefully. A respect for paper and string fail, and which, if it succeeds, is certainly are very common forms of this fancy. no worse than the French conquest of Editors of papers professing to answer Cambodia. We might as well be asked the questions of correspondents complain to intervene on behalf of the Tonquinese, frequently of the manner in which their or those tribes of the Congo for whose querists write on the most minute scraps subjugation M. de Brazza is so anxiously of paper, and cross their communications, pleading with Paris. As to the cry that rather than send a whole sheet. String ihe French in Madagascar will endanger is nearly universally hoarded; to roll up our alternative route to India, we are sick the string after opening a parcel is alınost of the argument. The French can “en-instinctive. Yet paper and string are not danger our route" a great deal better such costly articles that the most ecofrom Marseilles; and we cannot defend nomically-minded persons should thus the whole world, because at some future spare them. As a rule, the most popular time, under

undefined circum- economies are the most useless ones. It stances, it may be more difficult for Brit. is generally in some trifle that the saving ish ships to reach Calcutta. It would be emotion shows itself. Have you not all easier io monopolize the ocean at once. I known instances of a lavish expenditure,

ECONOMY.

some

combined with a thrifty, all but stingy, modern Jeames or Mary Jane would live care in some one petty item? An amus- in a family where the joints were weighed ing list might be made of the economies out, the faggots counted, and so many of the extravagant. Conveyance hire is inches of candle and no more allowed for the pet economy of some people; they the use of each domestic? A century will live well, dress well, but grudge every later the famous “Bess of Hardwicke sixpence expended in locomotion. Per- was an equally careful housekeeper. sons of this class live in chronic warfare “ Avoiding superfluities or waste of any. with cab-drivers, and are full of ingenious thing” is to be the rule of her establishcontrivances to save a few pence by walk- ment, as laid down in the household books ing to some particular railway station or that have come down to us; and it is cu. omnibus-halting place. That they fre- rious, in perusing documents like these, quently spoil a new hat or dress by an to observe how careful our ancestors were expedition through the rain, rather than to look into every trifle of their domestic pay an additional shilling for a cab, is an expenditure. From that interesting recoverlooked consideration; their economi- ord of English home life in the fifteenth cal hobby being carriage hire, not dress. century, the “Paston Letters,” we learn Mrs. Gilpin, who, “though on pleasure that it was the custom, even in families she was bent, yet had a frugal mind,” has of good social position, to make their many successors. Many persons embark daughters, as well as their sons, self-supon a costly tour, and embitter their whole porting whenever opportunity offered. journey by a resusal to add a few shillings The young ladies were admitted to the to the many pounds they are expending; houses of the nobility to be trained in all denying a pour boire here, and a porter's polite accomplishments, but appear to fee there, with little saving in expense have been expected to supplement the and great loss as to comfort. Their pet sum paid for their board by “making economy is to save these little additional themselves generally useful." * In a let. charges, and they must gratify their hob. ter dated 1469, Margaret Paston begs her by. Our ancestors were probably, on the son, Sir John Paston, to "purvey for your whole, far more economical than we are. sister that she may be with my Lady OxEconomy and thrift are greatly praised in ford or my Lady Bedford, or some other these days, but appear to have been more worshipful person.” Agnes Paston (mothgenerally practised in bygone centuries. er-in-law of Margaret), writing in 1457, We read of the abundant hospitality of sends 26s. 8d. to Lady Pale, to pay for the great houses of past days; but refer the board of her daughter Elizabeth, add. ence to books like those which record the ing a message to Elizabeth herself, “ that household expenses of the Earl of North. she must use herself to work readily, as umberland or Countess of Hardwick in other gentlewomen do, and somewhat to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, show help herself therewith.” Readers who how carefully every expense was regu. have patience to wade through the corre. lated by the noble heads of the family. spondence of this Paston family will find

The Earl of Northumberland did not some curious instances of the thrifty arthink it beneath his dignity to lay down rangements of the period. Agnes Pasrules regarding the exact quantity, of ton appears to have been a very notable meat, drink, and even of candles and fag- housekeeper. When her son Clement gots to be used by his servants, specify- was under the care of a tutor in London, ing minutely the difference in diet to be his mother kept an accurate list of his observed at the tables of the various do- clothing; and when writing to request mestics, and descending to the smallest this gentleman to send her "faithful word minutiæ of household arrangements, even in writing how Clement Paston doth his to the number of clean tablecloths allowed endeavor in learning,” adds a string of to the upper servants. One clean cloth directions regarding his wardrobe ; how was to serve them for a month; but as certain “gowns were to have new naps the earl only possessed eight tablecloths set upon them, and be otherwise altered for his own use, the servants' hall was and modernized. Her other letters abound probably still more scantily supplied, and with similar domestic details, as do those the linen had to be used economically. of her daughter-in-law Margaret. They The allowance of food per head is suffi- do not, however, give a very pleasant piccient, though the dietary of the under ture of the family life of the period, unservants is of a coarse quality, with little variety in its items salt meat and black noble families, to complete their education in good man.

* Young gentlemen were in like fashion admitted to bread forming the usual menu; but what ners and the habits befitting their station.

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less the Pastons were exceptionally ill. I in their bargain had not the unexpected tempered people. Elizabeth Clare (a arrival of succors from the Prince of Or. cousin), writing to Sir John Paston in ange put the Spaniards to flight without 1454, gives a strange account of the ill. further parley. The incident is an amus. treatment his sister Elizabeth (then of a ing illustration of the hold economical marriageable age) received from her considerations may take on the mind; it mother Agnes. “She hath been for the is not every one who would think of so most part beaten once in the week or ingenious a plan for saving money when twice, and sometimes twice in the same treating with a ferocious enemy. day, and since Easter, ber head broken in one or two places,” writes Mrs. Clare; and goes on to beg Sir John to endeavor to arrange a marriage for his sister, and lo reiease her from the tyranny of her

From Our Own Country.

MR. GLADSTONE AT HOME. parent. Margaret Paston does not appear to have agreed better with her daugh- HAWARDEN CASTLE, the seat of the ters. Writing in 1469 regarding the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, forms one boarding out of her daughter Margery, of the greatest attractions in the county the mother candidly acknowledges that of Flint, and doubtless will long continue she and the young lady-“ be either of us to draw a constant stream of visitors deweary of the other;” and her dismay at sirous of viewing a locality so intimately the proposed return home of her other connected with one of England's greatest daughter, Anne, is amusing to read. statesmen. The house is distant about “Withi me she (Anne) shall but lose her two miles both from the Queensferry. Sta. time and move me, and put me to uneasi. tion on the Chester and Holyhead' Railness.” It is not surprising that one of way, and from the Broughton Station on the daughters married a man below her the Chester and Mold Branch, but the self in rank, probably glad to take the greater number of tourists probably profirst opportunity of escaping from her ceed by road from Chester, which is a home. The “good old times” had their drive of just six and a half miles each dark side in some matters. It would be way. The Castle stands in grounds of its easy to cite a long list of great people own, with a park outside, to which visremarkable for economical tendencies, itors are freely admitted. More than onefrom Cato, Queen Elizabeth, and the Duke third of the entire county is owned by of Marlborough, down to our own days. only thirteen proprietors, of whom the In many instances some of these individ- largest is Lord Hanmer, with seven thouuals exhibited a strange mixture of stin- sand three hundred and eighteen acres, giness and generosity, as Elwes, the no- while Mr. Gladstone is the next largest torious miser, more than once gave away with six thousand nine hundred and eight large sums in charity. Motley, in his acres, of which many are immediately “Dutch Republic," tells a quaint story of round about his residence; and there are the economical views of the burghers of very few properties of similar extent which Antwerp. in 1577, during their struggle comprise more agreeable and diversified with Spain. The patriots had taken the scenery — charming vistas can be seen castle of Antwerp, but the greater part of | amongst the oaks, limes, and elms, inter: the city remained in the hands of the spersed with pleasant peeps of ivy-covered Spaniards. As the pay of the Spanish ruins and mossy walls. It is a matter of troops was much in arrears, it occurred notoriety that Mr. Gladstone delights in to the citizens that a monetary considera- wielding the axe, and in performing the tion might induce the enemy to come to rough manual labor of the common wood

The leading merchants of the man. He has here abundant materials town agreed to furnish three hundred on which to exercise his skill, and if the thousand crowns if necess

essary; but pru. visitor arrives at a favorable moment he dently mindful of the fascinations of may perchance see a tree several feet in ready money, sallied out on the bridge diameter which has been felled by one of dividing the old town from the new, and the most intellectual men of the time, or held up purses of gold containing half view the prime minister of England, with this amount, to the view of the Spanish shirt-sleeves rolled up, engaged in lopping mercenaries. As the careful burghers timber or cutting firewood, for Mr. Gladexpected, the sight of the glittering ireas. stone is in no way ashamed of his purure raised a mutiny in the Spanish ranks, suits, and has even had himself pho. and they would doubtless bave succeeded | tographed stripped to the shirt whilst

terms.

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engaged at bis work. His axes, which ruins; and looking from this direction, are said to exceed thirty in number, many three windows will be noted at the end of of them costly presents from ardent ad the ground floor of the modern structure. mirers, are, however, too sacred to be The two on the left belong to the library, exhibited, and are amongst the few things or " Mr. Gladstone's room,” his study and at Hawarden which are not open to the sanctum. Should you be permitted to public gaze. The church at Hawarden is enter this — which is, however, by no at the northern end of the village, and means the only room in the Castle in externally is a plain old building, with a which books are located — you will find low tower and dwarf spire. As almost all it a room not twenty feet square, neither except the bare walls was destroyed by fire lofty nor imposing, crowded up with about a quarter of a century ago, the in- books, papers, and furniture, busts, china, terior is new, and it is trim and well kept, medallions, and other articles indicative as a church should be. The principal ap- of a man of culture and taste. There is proach to the churchyard leads through little room left for moving about ; the everrather elegant iron gates, bearing over growing books, constantly encroaching on them the inscription, “ Enter into His the limited space, are disposed irregularly gates with thanksgiving,” and passes a on every side, and are mainly held back to venerable yew-tree close to the church back on what may be described as elon. porch. On entering this the visitor has gated tallboys, an arrangement of which almost in front of him the reading-desk, Mr. Gladstone is said to be exceedingly at which Mr. Gladstone reads the lessons proud, but which is by no means peculiar whenever he has an opportunity, and on to this house, and is adopted by many lit. his right the bare, uncushioned, family erary men as a convenient method of bench — for in this church there are only storing many volumes in a small area. open benches, and none of those comfort- The nature of the books in this room in. able old family pews with curtains, where dicates a man of wide and various tastes a man of quiet turn of mind can take a rather than a bibliomaniac. The eye does nap. In a nook close to the chancel there not light upon masterpieces of binding, is a fine recumbent effigy in white marble or upon thin folios which are valuable of Sir Stephen Richard Glynne, Bart. more from their title-pages than for their (born September 22, 1907; died June 17, contents. The reception and dining 1874), through whom the Hawarden es. rooms of Hawarden occupy the side of tate came to its present possessors; but the house facing the garden, and just outthe other slabs and ornaments are paltry side them is the gravel walk, which is the and have no public interest. The living favorite walk of the great man when he of Hawarden is stated to be worth £4,000 can get no further abroad. The apartper annum, and it is held by the premier's ments, as a whole, are respectable rather son, the Rev. Stephen Gladstone, who than magnificent, and many retired grolives at the rectory, bard by the church cers have larger rooms and far more gates, a building which has a most repul- gorgeous furniture. Mrs. Gladstone, it is sive exterior, though it is said to be a well known, has been a valuable assistant comfortable house to live in, and is often to her husband throughout his life. She used by the rector's father as a residence has helped him in his work, and shared in in preference to his own larger and more his triumphs. One of the most interest. pretentious house. This latter is a half. ing things to be seen at Hawarden in conmile away, well hidden amongst lofty nection with this lady is her Orphanage, a trees. There are several approaches to building which lies close to the house, in the park and house, of which the upper the stable-yard : and it is pleasant to see one, in the middle of the village, close to the well-cared-for children returning home the Glynne Arms, is the most imposing, with rosy cheeks from their rambles in the and the lower one the most picturesque. park, and to bear the walls echo with their There are two castles, the old and the laughter. Simplicity of life is seldom as.

The former, now a venerable ivyo sociated with persons of great distinction, covered ruin, is a building of great an. and so it seems strange to have in one tiquity, having a history extending back week the same individual shouting excited earlier than the Norman Conquest; and it addresses at the hustings, or addressing a looks down upon its modern castellated rapt audience in the House of Commons, neighbor, with its formal parterres and and then laboring with the axe; or a lady neat surroundings. The best general standing on a balcony by the side of her view of the new castle is obtained from victorious husband, thanking a gesticu. the slope leading downwards from the old | lating and noisy crowd, and then quietly

new.

IX.

returning to care for her fatherless chil. dren; whilst it is even inore difficult to Favonian Zephyrs to the pines believe that at the simple desk in the Carol and whisper. As Day closes, library, which is called “the political ta- They faint, and fail. The Sun declines ble," many of the schemes have been In splendor, and a “waste of roses : evolved, and the passages penned, which have carried the name of Gladstone throughout Europe, and far beyond. Such roses as, to mortal eye,

Bloom only at sweet Morn and Even : When portals, opened in the sky,

Display some forms and hues of Heaven.

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II.

From Blackwood's Magazine.

XI.
URBS ROMA VALE!

Bursts from yon domes and towers, afar,

“AVE MÁRIA !” softly pealing : PART II.

Planet on planet, star on star,

The hyacinthine Night revealing.
I.
WHEN Beatrice averred that she

XII.
Would die a “vergine vezzosa,'
She little thought her lot would be

Then, too, - as one supremely sings,

O'er men who sail upon the ocean, To live, - a buxom“ cara sposa.”

And dear friends parted, twilight Alings

A lengthening shade of soft emotion : And so, while "traversing the cart,"

XIII. (Like Prior's convict, long delaying !) My Valediction finds my heart

And pilgrim, freshly on his way, Again, O Roma ! yonder straying,

Love-stricken, halts: and listens, sighing,

To far-off chime, which seems to say,
III.

“I mourn, for lovely Day a-dying."
Where vine-enwreathed volcanic hills,
Bright lakes, groves, flowers, -a fair crea.

XIV. tion !

Thus, o'er my bosom steals the power Teach “uncouth swain, to the oaks and rills" Of sweet, of saddened recollection : To pour an artless inspiration :

It is, (Be still, my heart !) the hour

That brings me - prandial refection !
IV.
Where ring-doves, from high elms, their wings

XV.
At rest, coo soft refrains of pleasure : Egeria's “Elysian " Well —
By lofty crag, a woodman sings

I grieve to state – is not the true one: His "rich, Virgilian, rustic measure : Some pestilent Reformers tell

That they have found a truer new one : V. With drowsy murmur hum the bees :

XVI. Grey oxen pace with languid cumber :

But 'tis the Fountain Byron saw : By gelid fountain's moss-grown trees,

And charming lines he wrote about it:Goatherds and goats at noontide slumber.

Where ancient error rules the law,

“Take it in faith : and nothing doubt it.” VI. Blest Georgic life! Quaint “Works and

Days!”
Enchanted scenes of rural story,

“The Paip, that Pagan fu'o' pride," By Mantuan Bucolic lays

(Stern but Time-honored designation !) 'Ennobled with a sylvan glory!

Still forges, fast by Tiber's side,

His bolts of excommunication :
VII.

XVIII.
The Pincian. – What golden light!
What verdant palms ! What fountains Still wons in great and stately house :
gleaming!

Still fasts, and feasts, on goodly diet : All Rome beneath. — A lovely site

So doth, in ancient cheese, a mouse
For “passeggiate,” and day.dreaming.

Possess her little soul in quiet.
VIII.

XIX.
How oft I quit my pen and desk

Yet in these days, when actions rude To wander o'er the healthful Pincian,

Are niinisters of faith unstable, 'Mid scenery Peruginesque,

Unblest invaders may intrude, And almost Lionardo Vincian!

And realize a feline sable !

:

XVII.

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