the pen with his left, that he scarcely fifty men for its defence, pushed forward seemed to have incurred any change but upon the infantry of this legion, cantoned a difference in his handwriting."

in three different houses, who we almost In consequence of the reduction of the entirely cut to pieces. We numbered rifle corps, Ferguson, whose regiment was among their dead about fifty, and several then in Nova Scotia, found himself on his officers, among whom, we learn, are a recovery with no recognized post in the lieutenant-colonel, a captain, and an adarmy, and it depended upon the command- jutant. It being a night attack, little er-in-chief's inclination whether he should quarter could of course be given, so that see any service at all. He was, however, there are only five prisoners. As a rebel very popular among his brother officers, colonel, Proctor, was within two miles, and it is recorded that he showed "an with a corps of artillery, two brass twelveardor for distinction and eminence with pounders, one three-pounder, and the out exciting proportional envy." He militia of the country, I thought it hazard

was the friend of every man's merit, and ous, with two hundred men, without artik had no enemy to his own; and one of lery or support, to attempt anything furhis comrades, who kept a journal of the ther, particularly after Admiral Gambier's war, mentions that although “careless of letter. his own life to a fault, he was ever atten. “The rebels attempted to harass us in tive to the means of preserving these our retreat, but with reat modesty, so under his command.”

that we returned at our leisure, and reIn the autumn of 1778, he had command embarked in security. of the land portion of a combined military “The captain who bas come over to us and naval force, which was despatched is a Frenchman named Bromville. He from New York to root out a nest of rebel and the deserters inform us that Mr. privateers, which preyed upon the trade Pulaski has, in public orders, lately diof that city from Little Egg Harbor in the rected no quarter to be given; and it was, Jerseys. His troops only amounted to therefore, with particular satisfaction that, three hundred men; and as the armament the detachment marched against a man, was delayed by contrary winds, the enemy capable of issuing an order so unworthy managed to get away with some of their of a gentleman and a soldier. We larger vessels. The remainder, however, had an opportunity of destroying part of were burnt, to the number of ten or the baggage and equipage of Pulaski's twelve, by the sailors; while the soldiers legion by burning their quarters; but as destroyed the haunts and storehouses of the houses belonged to some inoffensive their crews on shore. Meanwhile a de-Quakers, who, I am afraid, may have serter brought intelligence that Pulaski, a sufficiently suffered already in the conPolish adventurer in the service of the fusion of a night's scramble, I know, sir, Congress, lay up the country with three you will think with us that the injury to companies of foot, three troops of horse, be thereby done to the enemy would not a detachment of artillery, and one field- have compensated for the sufferings of piece, and that he had neglected to occupy these innocent people." An American ä narrow bridge over a gully or creek historian, in treating of this expedition, about half a mile in his front. This news declares that the British, “cumbering immediately decided Ferguson to attempt themselves with no prisoners, killed all a surprise, though the enterprise was be- they could," but takes no notice of the yond the scope of his instructions. In consideration shown by troops flushed his report – in forwarding which Sir with success for the votaries of the unHenry Clinton described him as " that popular doctrine of peace-at-any-price. very zealous and active officer" - he says, When Sir Henry Clinton advanced in that although an immediate return had the following spring to dislodge the enemy been ordered, “as the wind still detained from the posts of Stoneypoint and Ver us," and so tempting a prize lay near, “I | Planks Neck, Captain Ferguson was de prevailed upon Captain Collins to enter tached with a special command before the into my design, and employ an idle day in army, and became a busy actor in the an attempt that was to be made with subsequent operations. Stoneypoint was safety, and with a probability of success. more than once taken and retaken, being Accordingly, at eleven last night, two apparently easy to carry, but difficult to hundred and fifty men were embarked, hold; and as it appeared that these vicisand after rowing ten miles, landed at four situdes in its fortunes were due to a this morning within a mile of the defile, defect in the works, the charge of reformwhich we happily secured, and leaving ing or supplying that defect was intrusted

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to Ferguson, "an appointment unusual, took up his quarters there. In the night as be did not belong to the corps of en- Cochrane arrived, and immediately atgineers, who, nevertheless, do not seem tacked, while Ferguson's detachment preto have taken umbrage at it.”

pared to repulse what they believed to be He was now major; and that he might an attempt of the Americans to retake erect what works he thought proper, “it the post. “Ferguson

- as usual at the was proposed that he should remain in head of his men attempting to parry the defence of the place. Flattered with a bayonet with his sword, received a this opportunity to execute what he had thrust in the only arm of which he had ofter been meditating, he proceeded to any use; but while he raised his voice to realize some of his favorite ideas; and encourage his men, he was known to his while he looked for an attack with all the friend Major Cochrane, who put a stop to anxiety of a person who waits the result the conflict. Ferguson called for the of an interesting experiment, he had the man who had wounded him, and giving mortification to receive an order to evacu- bim a piece of money, commended his ate Stoneypoint and join the army at New alacrity, saying: 'We should have known York, now destined to carry the war into our friends sooner from their mode of a different quarter of the continent. In attack.'' a letter to a friend on that occasion, full This wound, in the climate of the Southof regret, he says: “Never did a fondern States, for some time threatened him mother leave her favorite child with more with the loss of his other arm. But he reluctance than I did that place.” He continued his march, riding between tivo had, however, the consolation of promo- orderlies, and often obliged, to have the tion to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in command of his horse, to hold the reins America, and the prospect of employment in his teeth; and as soon as the wound elsewhere. Although his engineering improved, he again took the field. Dur. activity was put a stop to, his energies ing the seige of Charleston, he was emwere to find another and even more con- ployed, along with Colonel Tarleton, in genial field for exercise.

clearing the country of parties of the enSouth Carolina had been decided on as emy, who endeavored to harass the bethe sphere of the principal operations of sieging army; and on one occasion, fall1780, and a powerful army was despatched ing in with an American convoy, he took from New York by sea for the reduction two hundred horses, forty wagons, all of Charleston. A small force, under their baggage, spare arms, and accoutreMajor-General Paterson, was landed at ments, with fifty prisoners, without the Tybee, in Georgia, with orders to pene loss of a man. It was owing to their astrate into South Carolina, it being desired sociation at this time that Ferguson and that bis advance should receive the atten- Tarleton have frequently had their names tion of the enemy, while the rest of the coupled as the most dashing leaders of army again put to sea, and suddenly ap- light troops and irregulars that the conpeared before the city, which was the test with the revolted colonies produced. objective of their operations. Paterson's Tarleton was unequalled as a wielder of route lay through a very difficult country, cavalry, Ferguson unrivalled as and on his anks moved Major Ferguson mander of riflemen; and by the rapidity with a corps of riflemen, and Major Coch- of their movements and the valor of their rane with the infantry of the British attack they became a terror to the disaf. legion. Their duties were to reconnoitre fected. “Ferguson,” observes Washing; the districts round, clear them of enemies, ton Irving in his “Life of Washington, and collect boats and wagons for the use was a fit associate for Tarleton in hardy of the main body. One incident of this scrambling partisan enterprise: equally advance indicates how it was that Fergu- intrepid and determined, but cooler, and son contrived to obtain such an ascen- more open to impulses of humanity." dancy over the hearts of those with whom The American generals had established fortune brought him into contact, and tes- a chain of posts to keep up the connection tifies to his courage and composure. He between the beleaguered city of Charlesand Cochrane had taken different routes, ton and the districts in which they were when they heard that one Macpherson supreme, to enable them to communicate was in command of a large body of rebels with the garrison, and to afford supplies at his own plantation on the road to and reinforcements. These the British Charleston. Both determined simultane- commander determined to destroy; and ously to surprise the place; but Ferguson the surprise of the strongest and most reached it first, found it evacuated, and distant of them, that commanded by Gen

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eral Hager at Monk's Corner, was en-| then offered by the king and Parliament trusted to Tarleton and Ferguson. It of Great Britain. A numerous militia was was completely successful; large captures soon enrolled, who “ followed Ferguson were made, and the rebel force put to the with the utmost spirit and confidence.” sword, made prisoners, or dispersed. In They were allowed to name their own the course of the marauding, some dra. officers, who also acted as civil magisgoons. of the British legion broke into a trates; and every endeavor was made to house and insulted some ladies residing secure that these appointments should there. The ladies were rescued, and des- only be given to fit and proper persons. patched in a carriage to a place of safety, Ferguson,” says his biographer, and the dragoons apprehended. “Major ercised his genius in devising a summary Ferguson, we are told, was for putting of the ordinary tactics for the use of the dragoons to instant death;" but Colo. this militia ; and had them divided in nel Webster, a superior officer, who had every district into two classes – one of by this time arrived, did not think his the young men, the single and unmarried, powers went that length, and they were who should be ready to join the king's sent to headquarters and flogged. “We troops, to repel any enemy that might in: gladly record one instance," says Wash- fest the province; another of the aged ington Irving, who narrates the incident, and heads of families, who should be "in which the atrocities which disgraced ready to unite in defending their own this invasion met with some degree of pun. townships, habitations, and farms. In ishment; and we honor the rough soldier his progress among them he soon gained Ferguson for the fiat of 'instant death,' on their confidence, by the attention he with which he would have requited the paid to the interests of the well-affected, most infamous and dastardly outrage that and by his humanity to the families of brutalizes warfare.”

those who were in arms against him.” After the surrender of Charleston, dis- “ The precise point,” remarks Lord positions were made to consolidate and Bolingbroke in a striking passage, organize the recovered province, and Fer. which the scales of power turn, like that guson was chosen for a service for which of the solstice in either tropic, is imperhe had peculiar qualifications, and which ceptible to common observation; and in gave a curious practical illustration of one case as in the other, some progress the views he had expressed in early years must be made in the new direction before

the militia question. Under widely the change is perceived." But when in different conditions, and in a far-distant after years events are traced back to their scene, he was to exhibit some of those causes, and the period of equilibrium be. qualities which, more than a century between the opposing forces is narrowed fore, had enabled the great Montrose to by. diligent investigation, the interest achieve such astonishing results with ma. heightens as the crisis is approached. It terials previously neglected or regarded is emphatically so in the case of the events with contempt. Among the inhabitants we are about to trace; for competent of the Carolinas, where not a few Scottish judges have expressed the opinion, that Highlanders had settled, there were many on the success of the Southern campaign loyalists or “ Tories;" for, by a strange of 1780 depended the integrity of the coincidence, the old English party names British empire. “We are come,” says had been applied to the two great sections Bancroft, the American historian, in dealinto which American society was then di- ing with this phase of the great struggle, vided. Ferguson's genius inspired him to the series of events which closed the to utilize the military force which here American contest, and restored peace to lay dormant; and when the scheme of the world. In Europe the sovereigns of arming the well-affected in their own de Prussia, of Austria, of Russia, were of. fence” took shape, he was appointed ma. fering their mediation ; the United Neth, jor to the 71st Regiment (Frazer's High- erlands were struggling to preserve their landers) on the British establishment, neutrality; France was straining, every and with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in nerve to cope with her rival in the four America, intrusted with the duty of mar. quarters of the globe; Spain was exhaust. shalling the militia over a large tract of ing her resources for the conquest of country. In the proclamations he issued Gibraltar; but the incidents which over. in his new character of administrator, he threw the ministry of North, and reconcalled upon the people of South Carolina ciled Great Britain to America, had their to restore the civil government of their springs in South Carolina." country under the favorable conditions In the second week of September Lord



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Cornwallis commenced his march towards the Cherokees, which were understood to North Carolina, having detached Fergu- be but slightly guarded at Augusta. The son to the western confines of South Car- leaders of this “ western army” sent exolina. The latter had with him his own presses to their friends in south-western corps of light infantry, and a body of roy- Virginia and North Carolina, who soon alist militia, his force being, variously joined them. This formidable gathering estimated at from four hundred to twelve made Brown discontinue his pursuit of hundred men. “ His orders were,” says Clark, and return to his station at AuWashington Irving, “ to skirr the moun. gusta ; but of this Ferguson at first had tain country between the Catawba and no intelligence, and continued his advance the Yadkin, harass the Whigs, inspirit the into the lion's jaws. When he became Tories, and embody the militia under the aware of the state of affairs, he halted, royal banner. . He had been chosen and began to fall back towards Cornwalfor this military tour as being calculated lis. "Threatened,” says Washington to gain friends by his conciliating disposi- Irving, “ by a force so superior in numtion and manners, and his address to the bers and fierce in hostility, Ferguson people of the country was in that spirit: issued an address to rouse the Tories. We come, not to make war upon women The Backwater men,' said he, have and children, but to give them money and crossed the mountain ; Macdowell, Hamprelieve their distresses.' From other ton, Shelby, and Cleveland are at their sources we learn that he added," he hoped head. If you choose to be trodden upon they would excuse him, if meeting with forever and ever by a set of mongrels, their husbands or brothers in the field, he say so at once, and let women look out should use them a little more roughly.” for real men to protect them. If you de· Ferguson, however," continues the sire to live and bear the name of men, American author, “had a loyal hatred of grasp your arms in a moment and run to Whigs, and to his standard flocked many camp.' He at once determined what rancorous Tories, besides outlaws and course to pursue. Of the parties opother desperadoes ; so that, with all his posed to him he wrote thus to Cornwalconciliating intentions, his

progress lis : through the country was attended by many They are become an object of conseexasperating excesses.”

I should hope for success Moving on Cornwallis's left, he had against them myself; but, numbers comadvanced to Ninety-Six, "acting with pared, that must be doubtful. · Three or vigor and success against different bodies four hundred good soldiers, part draof the rebels," when he was informed by goons, would finish the business. SomeColonel Brown, who commanded the royal thing must be done soon. This is their forces at Augusta in Georgia, that a body last push in this quarter.” On receipt of of rebels under one Clark, who had been this letter, Cornwallis at once set Tarleton repulsed in an attack on that post, were in motion with the light infantry, the retreating by the back settlements of Car- British legion, and a three-pounder; and olina. Brown added that he was going to it is easy to imagine with what alacrity bang on their rear, and if Ferguson would that dashing officer would press forward cut across their route, they might be into the succor of his friend But unfortutercepted and dispersed. As this was nately a previous despatch, in which Fer. consistent with his general duty, he guson had “ earnestly expressed his wish

gave way to his usual ardor," and to cover a country in which there were so pushed on into Tryon County. He was many well-affected inhabitants,” and for more adventurous than his comrade, and that purpose announced his intention to meanwhile the clouds were gathering thick make a stand on King's Mountain — the about him. Near the Broad River his name ought to have been a good omen party encountered a body of Americans, fell into the enemy's hands, and they has. "pursued them to the foot of the moun- tened to overwhelm him. At Cowpens, tains, and left them no chance of safety on Broad River, the western army was but by fleeing beyond the Alleghanies." joined by Williams, another American They spread the account in these regions leader, who with four hundred and fifty of Ferguson's force, its distance from its horsemen had been acting against Fersupports, and the possibility of over- guson. The combined force has been whelming it before succor could arrive. described as “a swarm of backwoodsmen, Numerous bodies of backwoodsmen and the wild and fierce inliabitants of Ken others were already in arms, with the in- tucky, and other settlements westwards of tention of seizing presents intended for the mountains, under the Colonels Camp


bell and Boon; with those of Helston, his rocky lair, and meditating a furious Powell's Valley, Barclay, Bottetourt, Au- sally. He now rushed out with his regugusta, and Fincastle, under the Colonels | lars, made an impetuous charge with the Cleveland, Shelby, Sivier, Williams, bayonet, and dislodging his assailants Brand, and Lacy." They mounted a large from their coverts, began to drive them proportion of their force on fleet horses, down the mountain, they not having a and hurried on in hot haste. King's bayonet among them. He had not proMountain was a strong position ; but it ceeded far when a flanking fire was opened had the fatal defect of Majuba Hill, for by one of the other divisions : facing the sides were clothed with wood, which about and attacking this, he was again afforded cover to the assailants, and spe- successful, when a third fire was opened cially favored their style of fighting. The from another quarter. Thus as fast as trees were lofty forest ones, and among one division gave way before the bayonet, them were

strewn large boulders and another came to its relief; while those rocks. “As the Americans drew nearer, who had given way, rallied and returned they could occasionally, through openings to the charge. . . . Ferguson found that of the woodland, descry the glittering of he was completely in the hunter's toils arms along a level ridge forming the crest beset on every side; but he stood bravely of King's Mountain. This Ferguson had at bay, until the ground around him was made his stronghold boasting that if all strewed with the killed and wounded, the rebels in hell should attack him, they picked off by the fatal rifle. His men would not drive him from it.'” The were at length broken, and retreated in Americans formed themselves into four confusion along the ridge. He galloped columns, and proceeded to attack from all from place to place, endeavoring to rally the points of the compass. For ten min. them, when a rile-ball brought him to the

a furious and bloody battle” was ground, and his white horse was seen kept up, with the two central columns careering down the mountain without a alone; then the others chimed in, and for rider." fifty-five minutes more there was an al- “Resistance,” remarks Ramsay, "on most incessant fire, while “the regulars the part of Colonel Ferguson was in vain, with their bayonets could make only a but his unconquerable spirit refused to momentary impression.” Ramsay, the surrender. After repulsing a succession American historian of the Revolution in of adversaries pouring in their fire from Carolina, who was himself a member of new directions, this distinguished officer Congress, and wrote soon after the events received a mortal wound.” he describes, and before the passions of “He had,” says Dr. Adam Fergusson, the great struggle had subsided, but who “two horses killed under him, while he yet speaks with the highest respect of the remained untouched himself; but he afterBritish commander, relates how, when wards received a number of wounds, of the picket was driven in on the main which it is said any one was mortal, and body, “Colonel Ferguson with the great- dropping from his horse, expired while est bravery ordered his men to charge;" his foot yet hung in the stirrup. The how that charge had no sooner been suc spirit which thus refused to be subdued, cessful than another body of Americans, being now no more, the officer on whom " from an unexpected quarter, poured in the command devolved, though brave and a well-directed fire;" how " the British equal to the trust, was compelled to acbayonet was again successful, and caused cept of quarter for himself and the few them also to fall back; " and how, when men that remained under his command.” another relay of adversaries “ascended Poetic fantasy might find a subject for the mountain, and renewed the attack meditation in the fact that the device of from that eminence, Colonel Ferguson, the house of Hanover, the riderless white whose conduct was equal to his courage, horse; should have been the emblem of presented a new front, and was again suc victory to the rebel host on this wellcessful; but all his exertions were un contested field ! “ The army of mounavailing." He is said to have encouraged taineers,” observes Washington Irving, his men with a silver whistle, “which were little aware of the importance of was heard sounding everywhere through the achievement. The battle of King's the din of the conflict.” But Washing Mountain, inconsiderable as it was in the ton Irving's description is so graphic that numbers engaged, turned the tide of we cannot resist quoting it: “ Ferguson, Southern warfare. . . . It changed the exasperated at being thus hunted into his aspect of the war. Cornwallis had hoped mountain fastness, had been chafing in I to step with ease from one Carolina to

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