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We have heard, too, of the defeat and stood; as, for instance, when we remark death of General Braddock in the same that in the Seven Years' War the Protes. parts. Still better do we remember the tant powers of Europe were ranged on struggle between Dupleix and Clive in one side, we should go very far astray if India, the defence of Arcot, and the deeds we tried to make out that it was Proteswhich led to the founding of our Indian tantism that prevailed in India or in Canempire. All these events were part of a ada over the spirit of Catholicism. desperate struggle for supremacy between What I have undertaken to show is England and France, and yet most of that the extension of England into the them took place after the Treaty of Aix. New World and into Asia is the formula la-Chapelle in 1748 and before the com- which sums up for England the history menceinent of the next war in 1756. of the eighteenth century. I point out
We have then one great conflict lasting now that the great triple war of the midfrom 1744, or a little earlier, to the Peace dle of that century is neither more nor of Paris in 1763, through a period of less than the great decisive duel between about twenty years. It ended in the most England and France for the possession disastrous defeat that has ever in modern of the New World. It was scarcely per. times been suffered by France except in ceived at the time, and has been seldom 1870, a defeat which in fact sealed the remarked since; but the secret of that doom of the house of Bourbon. But fif- second Hundred Years' War between teen years later, and just within the life. England and France, which fills the eightime of the great statesman who had teenth century, was that they were rival guided us to victory, England and France candidates for the possession of the New were at war again. France entered into World, and the triple war which fills the relations with our insurgent colonies, middle of the century is, as it were, the acknowledged their independence, and decisive campaign in that great worldassisted them with troops. Once more, struggle. for five years, there was war by land and We did not take possession of the New sea between England and France. But World simply because we found it empty, are we to suppose that this was a wholly and had more ships than other nations by new war, and not rather a sort of after which we might carry colonists into it. swell of the great disturbance that had Not, indeed, that we conquered it from so recently been stilled ? It was not for another power which already had possesa moment concealed or disguised that sion of it. But we had a competitor in France now, in our hour of distress, took the work of settlement, a competitor who vengeance for what she had suffered from in some respects had got the start of us,
This was her revenge for the loss of namely, France. Canada, namely, to create the United The simple fact about North America States. In the words which on a later is this, that about the same time that occasion became so celebrated, “She James I. was giving charters to Virginia called a new world into existence to re- and New England, the French were founddress the balance of the old.”
ing further north the two settlements of Thus these three great wars are more Acadie and Canada; and, again, about closely connected together than they the time that William Penn got his charmight appear to be. But how closely ter for Pennsylvania from Charles II., the connected they are we shall not see until Frenchman, Lasalle, by one of the greatwe ask ourselves what the ground of est feats of discovery ever achieved, quarrel was, and whether the same ground made bis way from the Great Lakes to the of quarrel runs under all of thein. At sources of the Mississippi, and putting first sight it appears to be otherwise. For his boats upon the stream descended the the war of England and France does not whole vast river to the Gulf of Mexico, at any time stand out distinct and isolated, laying open a great territory, which imbut is inixed up with other wars which mediately afterwards became the French are going on at the same time. Such colony of Louisiana. Such was the relaimmense complex medleys are character-tion of France and England in North istic of the eighteenth century: What, America at the time when the Revolution for instance, can the capture of Quebec of 1688 opened what I have called the have to do with the struggle of Frederick second Hundred Years' War of England and Maria Theresa for Silesia? In such and France. England had a row of thrive medleys there is great room for historical ing colonies lying from north to south mistake, for premature generalization. along the eastern coast, but France had What is really at issue may be misunder- the two great rivers, the St. Lawrence
and the Mississippi. A political prophet produce a war; and it is only in those comparing the prospects of the two col- three wars of the middle of the eighonizing powers at the time of our Revo- teenth century that they fight quite visilution, and indeed much later, might have bly and evidently for the New World. been led by observing what an advantage In the earlier wars of William III. and the two rivers gave to France, to think of Anne, other causes are more, or certhat in the future North America would tainly not less, operative, for the New belong to her rather than to England. World quarrel is not yet at its height.
But now it is most curious to observe And again in the later wars, that is the further that not only in America France two that followed the French Revolution, and England in that age advanced side the question of the New World is again by side, but in Asia also. The conquest falling into the background, because of India by English merchants seeins a France has fairly lost her hold both upon unique and abnormal phenomenon, but America and India, and can now do no we should be mistaken if we supposed more than make despairing efforts to rethat there was anything peculiarly En-gain it. But in those three wars, between glish, either in the originality which con. 1740 and 1783, the struggle as between ceived the idea, or in the energy which England and France is entirely for the carried it into execution. So far as an New World. In the first of them the idea of conquering India was deliberately issue is fairly, joined; in the second conceived at all, it was conceived by France suffers her fatal fall; in the third Frenchmen; Frenchmen first observed she takes her signal revenge. This is the that it was possible, and saw the manner first grand chapter in the history of in which it could be done ; Frenchmen Greater Britain, for it is the first great first set about it, and advanced some way struggle in which the empire fights as a towards accomplishing it. In India, in. whole, the colonies and settlements outdeed, they had the start of us much more side Europe being here not merely decidedly than in North America; in In- dragged in the wake of the mother coun. dia alone we had at the outset a sense of try, but actually taking the lead. We inferiority in comparison with them, and ought to distinguish this event with a very fought in a spirit of hopeless self-defence. broad mark in our calendar of the eighAnd I find when I study the English con. teenth century. The principal and most quest of India that we were inspired decisive incidents of it belong to the latter neither by ambition, nor yet by mere de- half of the reign of George II. sire to advance our trade, but that from But in our wars with Louis XIV. before first to last, that is, from the first efforts and in our wars with the French Revoluof Clive to the time when Lord Wellesley, tion afterwards, it will be found on examiLord Minto, and Lord Hastings estab. nation that much more than might be lished our empire over the whole vast supposed the real bone of contention be. peninsula, we were actuated by fear of tween England and France is the New the French ; behind every movement of World. Let us look first at the wars of the native powers we saw French intrigue, William and Anne. The colonial quesFrench gold, French ambition, and never tion had been growing in magnitude until we were masters of the whole counthiraughout the seventeenth century, while try got rid of that feeling that the French the other burning question of that age, the were driving us out of it, which had de quarrel of the two Churches, had been scended from the days of Dupleix and falling somewhat into the background. Labourdonnais.
Thus when Cromwell made war on Spain This consideration, then, that both in it is a question whether he attacked her as America and in Asia France and England the great Catholic power or as the great stood in direct competition for a prize of monopolist of the New World. In the absolutely incalculable value explains the same age the two great Protestant States, fact that France and England fought a England and Holland, who ought in the second. Hundred Years' War. This is interest of religion to have stood side by the ultimate explanation. But the true side, are found waging furious war upon ground of discord was not always equally each other as rival colonial powers. Now apparent, even to the belligerents them. it was by the great discovery and settleselves, and still less to the rest of the ment of Louisiana in 1683 that France world. For as in other ages so in that; was brought into the forefront of colonial occasional causes of difference frequently powers, and within six years of that event
between such near neighbors, the Hundred Years' War of England and causes often sufficient in themselves to France began.
In the first war of the series, however, and at the same time by stirring Tippoo the colonial question is not very promi. Sooltan to war with the East India Comnent. But it is prominent in the second, pany. And he actually carries out this which has been called the War of the plan, so that the whole struggle is transSpanish Succession. We must not be ferred from the British Channel into the misled by this name. Much has been boundless spaces of Greater Britain, and said of the wicked waste of blood and when the Irish shortly afterwards rise they treasure of which we were guilty when we find to their bitter disa tment that interfered in a Spanish question with France cannot spare them Bonaparte, but which we had no concern, or terrified our only General Humbert with eleven hunselves with a phantom of French ascen- dred men. dency which had no reality. How much When this war was brought to an end better, it has been said, to devote our by the Treaty of Amiens in 1802 the reselves to the civilizing pursuits of trade !sults of it were such as to make that But read in Ranke how the war broke treaty a great epoch in the history of the out. You will find that it was precisely English empire. In the first placé Egypt trade that led us into it. The Spanish is finally evacuated by France, in other succession affected us because France words Bonaparte's grand scheme of atthreatened by establishing her influence tack against our Indian empire has failed. in Spain to enter into the Spanish monop. His ally Tippoo Citoyen Tipou as he oly of the New World, and to shut us
had been defeated and slain irrevocably out of it. Accordingly the some time before, and General Baird had great practical results of this war to moved with an English force up the Red England were colonial and commercial, Sea to take part with General Hutchinson namely, the conquest of Acadie and the in the final defeat of the French in Egypt. Asiento compact, which for the first time in the colonial world at the same time made England on the great scale a slave- England remained mistress of Ceylon and trading power.
Trinidad. Still more true is it of our wars with But the last war, that which lasted from the French Revolution and with Napoleon 1803 to 1815, was this in any sense a war that the possession of the New World was for the New World? It does not at first among the grounds of quarrel. As in the sight appear to be so; and very naturally, American War France avenges on En- because England from the beginning had gland her expulsion from the New World, such a naval superiority that Napoleon so under Napoleon she makes Titanic could never again succeed in making his efforts to recover her lost place there. way back into the New World. But yet This indeed is Napoleon's fixed view with it was so, as I find after a closer examinaregard to England. He sees in England tion. In the first place look at the origin never the island, the European State, but and cause of it. It was at the outset a always the world.empire, the network of war for Malta. By the treaty of Amiens dependencies and colonies and islands England had engaged within a given time covering every sea, among which he was to evacuate Malta, and this for certain himself destined at last to find his prison reasons, which this is not the place to and his grave. Thus when in 1798 he discuss, she afterwards refused to do. was put in charge for the first time of the Now why did Napoleon want her to leave war with England, he begins by examin. Malta, and why did she refuse to do so? ing the British Channel, and no doubt It was because Malta was the key of glances at Ireland. But what he sees Egypt, and she believed, certainly not does not tempt him, although a few without strong reasons, that Bonaparte months afterwards Ireland broke out in a would in a moment reoccupy Egypt, and terrible rebellion, during which if the con- that the struggle for India would begin queror of Italy had suddenly landed at the again. Thus the war was ultimately for head of a French army, undoubtedly he India, and further I find that though by would have struck a heavier blow at En. the retention of Malta we did effectually gland than any she has yet suffered. But and once for all ward off this attack, yet no, his mind is occupied with other we did not ourselves know how successful thoughts. He is thinking how France we had been. We still believed India to once seemed on the point of conquering be full of French intrigue; we believed India, until England drove her out; ac- the Mahratta and Afghan princes and the cordingly he decides and convinces the Persian shah to be puppets worked by the Directory that the proper way to carry on French, as indeed they had many French war with England is by occupying Egypt, | officers in their service. I imagine that
the great Mahratta War of 1803 seemed
From Temple Bar. to Lord Wellesley to be a part of the war
ROBIN. with France, and that Sir Arthur Welles. BY MRS. PARR, AUTHOR OF “ADAM AND EVE.” ley believed that at Assaye and Argaum he struck at the same enemy as afterwards
CHAPTER XXXVIII. at Salamanca and Waterloo. On the MADE thoughtful by the contents of other band we can trace throughout Na- Mr. Cameron's letter, it did not seem poleon's desperate effort to break through strange that for the rest of the evening the toils with which England has envel. Christopher should be unusually siient. oped him. He tries for a time to make He did not tell Robin he felt so weary something of Louisiana, and then sells it that mere ordinary speaking was an effort to the United States in order that at least to him. In his own mind he set down England may not get possession of it. He this sense of fatigue to his late indispositakes possession of Portugal and Spain tion. " That attack has pulled me down,” in order to compensate bimself in South he said, “and made me weaker than I and Central America for what France has thought myself.” lost in North America, and Colonel Malle. There had been a time in Christopher's son tells us, in his Later Struggles of life when his weakly health, except so far France in the East " what a destructive as it interfered with his comfort, was a privateering war the French were able to inatter of very little concern to him; the keep up in the Indian Ocean from their world had not held out many attractions, island of Mauritius long after their naval and he was not disturbed in the least to power had been destroyed at Trafalgar. think he might possibly be called on to It was by the English conquest of ihis leave it early. But since Robin had been island and by its retention at the peace his wife, and more particularly since this that the Hundred Years' War of England renewal of a good understanding between and France for the New World came to an them, Christopher had been conscious of end.
a desperate clinging to life, of building These are the facts which show that the on the future, counting on long years to eighteenth century ought always to be come, to be spent by Robin and him to. thought of as the period of the world-wide gether. expansion of England. They show at the "I feel rather tired,” he said at length, same time that this proposition is much noticing that Robin had put down her more pregnant then might at first sight book and was looking at hiin. appear. At first sight it seems to mean “ Still you don't seem disposed to merely that the acquisition of Canada and move." that of India are greater events in intrin- • No, that's just it. I could drop off to sic importance than other more conspicu- sleep here where I am, sitting in my ous events nearer home, such as Marlbor-chair.” ough's victories, or Chatham's politics, or “Get along,” she said, giving him a the national struggle with Napoleon. It shake; "you go up-stairs, and I'll tell really means that the expansion of En: them about calling us, and giving us our gland is at the bottom of one class of breakfast early.” events just as much as of the other. At Naturally a light sleeper, Robin was first sight it may seem to mean that the surprised to find Christopher already European policy of England in that cen- asleep when she went into the room, and tury is of less importance than its extra. so soundly that he did not hear her enter. European policy. But it really means that Hepseemed to continue sleeping until the European policy and the extra-Euro- morning, when, between three and four, pean policy are but different aspects of he was awakened by a fit of shivering, ihe same great national development.increasing in violence, and becoming so So much has been shown; much more severe, that Robin implored him to let might be shown. For this single concep. her send for a doctor. tion brings together not only the Euro- No; he thought it would pass; it was pean with the colonial affairs, but also the but a return of his cold. If she would military struggles with the whole peaceful put some more clothes on the bed, and, expansion of the country, with that indus- as soon as they were stirring, ask for trial and commercial growth which during some hot tea, he thought he should be the same century exceeded in England all better. previous example. But enough - jam But in spite of all that Robin could do, tempus equum fumantia solvere colla. her suggestions and remedies were of no
J. R. SEELEY. avail; a terrible pain in the side seized
him - it was like the sticking of a knife From the servant Mr. Cameron learned each time he drew a breath. He got rest- the cause of the summons, and with less, feverisli, and the suggestion of a ready sympathy at once obeyed it. How doctor again made, he no longer opposed strangely altered seemed their relative it.
positions since they last met! then Mr. The next day Christopher was an- Blunt's hectoring and bluster had comnounced to be suffering from a severe pletely cowed the sensitive organization attack of pneumonia and pleurisy follow- of the curate; his loud voice jarred upon ing on his previous indisposition. The him and drove him to silence. Now it doctor viewed the case gravely. “He was Mr. Cameron who spoke, Mr. Blunt has caught cold again; got another chill,” who listened, banging on every word of he said. And Robin feared he had; but, assurance and encouragement the other unacquainted with illness as she was, a gave him. cold, which he frequently caught and al- Skilled in administering comfort, Mr. ways recovered from, gave her no serious Blunt found himself gaining courage; he alarm.
was another being since Mr. Cameron “He'll soon be all right again, don't had come. But what would happen when
he left him? There was still to be bridged “Oh, I quite hope so. Why? Were over that two hours' journey in the train, you thinking of sending for some one to and the drive from the station. Oh, the help you ?"
The wish was put warily. delay was sickening! "No; I can do all the nursing he wants. “Shall I go up with you? Would you But he had thought of going to see his like it?” father.”
Mr. Blunt almost broke down under “Ah! I'm afraid he will have to put the weight of his gratitude ; it was the that off for some little time now. Would very thing he had been longing for, but il not be as well to ask his father to come had not dared to ask. Those who never and see him?"
put themselves out to accommodate oth“Not at present, I think; we shouldn't ers, when wanting favors for themselves care to.” And seeing there was actually are apt to overestimate their obligation. at present no necessity, the doctor did It was nothing to Mr. Cameron to acpot urge it further.
company him to London. He would have The next day, however, Christopher made the same offer, only more readily,
Then his mind began to to the poorest parishioner. wander; and Robin, frightened beyond “ Then pick me up at my lodgings as measure at a symptom always distressing you go past,” he said; and
away he rushed to those around, sent off a telegram to to run in at the rectory, so that they might Mr. Blunt:
know for what reason he had
gone away. “Come directly this reaches you. “I'll walk down with you," said GeorChristopher is very ill.”
gy; and there she was standing when Again and again Mr. Blunt read these Mr. Blunt drove up, ready with cheery words over. The sighit of them seemed words and good wishes to start them on to paralyze him; he was seized with the their way. certainty that his son was dying — per: " And tell Mrs. Christopher if she haps even dead before now. What should wants any help to send for me; I'm a he do? When did the next train go? first-rate hand at sick-nursing, you know.” Already he had summoned a servant and sent him to seek information.
Who, at parting, shall say what their The next train was the 5.50, there was next meeting may be ? none before; it was now three o'clock. Mr. Blunt and Robin had never seen Three hours to wait! How should be each other since that day when Christoendure them? The suggestions that went pher bad come between them; then, furicoursing tlırough his mind seemed like to ous, exasperated, their thoughts had been madden him.
centred on themselves, their anger on “ Go to Mr. Cameron,” he said at each other. Now, when, with noiseless length, in desperation. “ Ask him to steps and knees that trembled under him, Say — I want him.”
Mr. Blunt found himself at the door of He had meant to send word that Chris. the sick-room out of which Robin had topher was ill, but was unable to speak come, both he and she seemed to have his son's name. At the moment when he merged their individuality. For her, he was going to mention it, his voice had was Christopher's father : for him, she failed him.
was Christopher's wife. Had he taken
come to me.