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What Muses there were, were up to the which is the true genius loci of all places elbow in soapsuds. Was there ever such that have a past, we threw ourselves down a commentary on the Sic transit gloria and feigned slumber. On the grass, and mundi ? Hard by there is still a shrine, under the trees around, our Delphic fol. but it is dedicated, not to Apollo, but to lowing likewise flung themselves, and Saint Elias, who, despite his nominal were soon sleeping and snoring in good patronage of the little chapel, is com- earnest. Then we opened our eyes, gazed pletely overshadowed, as in so many other at the bright blue sky through the dark Greek churches, by the Mother of God. green foliage, listened to the distant mur. That is the title she is always given; no mur of the most sacred fountain in the metaphorical word like a Madonna being world, and pondered many things. employed to mitigate the stern directness The midday siesta over, we were in. of the doctrine with which the blessed vited to the house of the head man, and among women is associated. Her face, there regaled with dried olives, curds, as pictured in sacred Greek frescoes, is sour bread, Castalian watercresses steeped neither gentle nor sad, but awful, far- in vinegar, and what I should call turpen. away, austere, I might almost say ab- tine if my hospitable friends had not stract. You may see something of it in offered it as wine. As we ate, women Cimabue. But the Italians soon made and children came and timidly glanced at the Mother of God in their own more us; one young creature very beautiful, buman image, and dowered her with and holding a child in her arms as none tears, smiles, and indulgent pity. Nor but a Greek or an Italian mother knows does one see among Greek believers the how to hold a child. All these people same vulgar familiarity with things sup- are picturesque by unconscious and inev. posed to be sacred that strikes one among itable instinct. That laborer leaning on the sacristans, beadles, and ciceroni of his spade is a picture. That matron marchItaly. The little church was literally coving to the well is a flawless composition. ered with mural decorations, all of them That fellow lying along the wall is attidedicated to the lives of saints, or to the tudinizing unawares. The various group story of the Redemption. One of these around us as we fed arranged itself as at represented “the Resurrection ; " and the prompting of some cunning artist. while my companion and I were admiring But were we really going? Would we not it for its artistic value, the retired mar- stay three days? If we would they would iner, who evidently thought that to us kill a kid, and we would all be merry toheretical Englishmen the theme of the gether. The temptation would have been fresco was novel, attempted to describe it great but for the reflection that for three to us in short, crisp sentences denuded mortal days we should never be able to of copulatives, and compressed to accon- stir without being accompanied by the modate his extremely limited acquaint. whole population of Delphi. They at. ance with the language in which he tried tended us somewhat on our way, and then to speak. But his enthusiasm made bim once more we were in the company of the roughly eloquent; and when, accompany. mountains. We returned to Amphissa ing the words with pertinent gesticulation, by Chryso, a far more flourishing place and winding up the story by narrating the than Castrì, though nothing more than a triumph of Christ over Death and Hell, good-sized village. A little way below it, he exclaimed, “Cristo morto; Cristo just as the Gulf of Corinth began to sepolto: niente a Dio! Sorge Cristo, Ev. broaden out to our gaze, we met a civil viva Cristo !” all the male denizens of engineer, with two attendants and a the. Delphi crossed themselves at mention of odolite. He was making a survey for a the name, and Apollo and the Pythia road from Scala to Delphi. So, by-andand the Muses seemed, as Milton says, by, Delphi will be accessible by carriage; " with bollow shriek the steep of Delphos and those who want to see it as it still is, leaving."
had better make haste. For the company Close by the church is the Monastery of Mr. Cook will soon invade the Casta. of St. Elias, containing one monk. Un- lian Fount, and the personally conducted der an ilex-tree he spread out a mattress tours of Mr. Gaze will become familiar and pillows, that we might repose ; and as with the shrine of Apollo. You will teleit was impossible to get rid of our retinue graph or telephone to the Pythia Hotel even for an instant, much as we naturally for a bed, and the oracles of the place desired to be left to that silent solitude will be valets and couriers.
From The Spectator. fine point on the humor of Dickens, and “PHIZ" AND "BOZ."
catching - especially in the illustrations
“ Master Humphrey's Clock" — that WHEN Mr. Dickens was making his delightful vein of extravagance, which a last tour in the United States, the follow- lesser artist of a duller wit would have ing incident occurred at one of the West- swollen into sheer caricature, he gives us ern towns, where he gave a series of read. two such finely differentiated figures as ings. The programme included the trial the delightfu Dick and the whimsical scene from “ Pickwick; a very large and Chuckster, and then Quilp, with the “dogattentive audience was assembled, and all like smile" and the bow-legs; Codlin, seemed pleased, with the exception of Short, Jerry, the dancing dogs, and Whisone individual, a burly and emphatic per. ker. The latter we hold to be the most son, who, accosting a member of the characteristic four-legged portrait in existreader's party, inquired whether the gen- ence. Think of him, as he stands at tleman to whom he had been listening was Mr. Witherden's door, steadily turning a really Mr. Dickens. “Certainly, that is deaf ear to the mild remonstrances of Mr. Mr. Dickens," was the reply. 6. He who Abel, and the “Dear, dear, what a naughty wrote • Pickwick'?” “Yes, the same.” Whisker!” of the old lady; as he dashes " Then you just tell him,” said the ag. off, full of purpose, with the Marchioness grieved questioner, "that he knows no hanging on behind the little carriage, in more about Sam Weller than a cow knows the act of losing her one shoe forever, and about pleating a shirt !”. How often has as he submits to be hugged by the resone heard the same thing (not so graphi. cued Kit, and say whether playfulness, cally expressed) said by disappointed lis- obstinacy, good living, and a serene conteners to the heavy, lumpish, drawling sciousness of being master of the situarendering of the “Sam” of whom one has tion, could find more perfect expression so totally different an idea, by the humor. in the form of a pony. Again, think of ist to whom we were accustomed to think the half-tipsy horror in the faces of Mrs. ourselves entirely indebted for him! Jiniwin and Sampson Brass, the susThat Sam could never have“ bestowed a pended motion of the teaspoon in the wink the intense significance of which hand of the cruelly disappointed motherpasses description" on anybody, or been in-law, and the lifting of her warning fincapable of catching the tone of the ger, as Quilp interrupts the calumnious friendly swarry” of the Bath footmen. description of his nose, by" Aquiline, you That Sam was a hoarse, vulgar lout, hag ! Could anything beat the expresneeding a great deal of room to turn him- siveness of that little picture, with the self round in, and no more like the smart stolid men in sou-westers, who have been fellow who plays a return match with Job dragging the river (it is to drown the Trotter in Mr. Nubbles's kitchen, than dwarf, in the end, so that there is a touch thie Single Gentleman of the "Old Curi- of iron grimness in this conceit), and are osity Shop" is like the pathetic figure of requested by Quilp to "keep everything Master Humphrey seated in the corner they find - upon the body.” It is a good by the clock, though the identity of these plan to turn at once from this scene to two is indicated to the reader in a passage the fine picture of Quilp's corpse, when which both the author and the illustrator the river, after it has “toyed and jested seemed to have overlooked. The truth with its ghastly freight,” has flung it on is, our Sam Weller — the Sam of that the bank, amid the weeds and stones and frank Western farmer
is. Hablot stumps of a lonely place, where pirates Browne's Sam Weller, and it is impossi. had been hung in chains. · The reaches ble to accept any other. This is a strik- of the winding river, the long, flat shores, ing instance of the power of the distin- the rough, heavy, numbered posts, the guished artist whom we have so lately heavily swooping birds of prey, the tum. lost, and who is indissolubly associated bled, dishonored corpse tossed there, head with one of the most precious of the treas. downwards, with the clenched land, ures of memory – that of the books that bared arm, and one leg, with the claw-like delighted us, and the fancies that were foot in its torn stocking, crooked over a realities to us in early days. It is, how. stump, form a composition that “Phiz” ever, only one among many, for every one has rarely excelled. And if he has been of the characters in the works of Dickens the one interpreter of Dickens who and Lever which have a peculiarly strong adorned every humorous conception which hold upon the memory, mean and are he touched, he has also done away with what “ Phiz” has made them. He put the much of the mawkishness of Dickens's
sentiment, and modified his vulgarity. rably characteristic. Miss La Creevy is Edith Dombey, Lady Dedlock, and Mrs. sheer caricature, and this is a pity. Merdle are instances that will occur to “ Phiz” might have made them “ every one; the three are caricatures in fortable couple.” the books, but they are sympathetic per- It is difficult to believe that “ Phiz" sonages in the artist's presentments. It might not have induced Mr. Dickens to is, indeed, owing to the two fine illustra. suppress the introductory chapter of tions of the Carker episode, that the whole “ Martin Chuzzlewit,” – it story of the elopement in “Dombey and passed in vulgarity and puerile, would-be Son” fails to strike the reader at once as humor by any of his earlier “Sketches,” simply a mock-heroic treatment of the feat or even by certain parts of his “ Pictures of “cutting off one's nose to spite one's from Italý” (which we take to be the lowface.” When “ Phiz” fails as the illus- water mark of his performances) — for trator of Dickens, it is because he has had the frontispiece to that work, in some re. to illustrate a failure; he never missed the spects, the author's best, is one of Mr. humor of the author, because he always Hablot's Browne's happiest achievements. felt it; the sentiment he probably de. So graceful is the conceit, so beautiful is spised. The self-conscious, affected the musing, vision-seeing figure of Tom Esther Summerson, in “ Bleak House,” | Pinch, with all the aerial fabric of the would be altogether odious; the less tire- story floating round him, that we cannot some, but feeble and lachrymose Amy bear to reflect that a real Tom Pinch Dorrit; and the shadowy Mary Graham, would be an insufferable idiot, and that a of “ Martin Chuzzlewit,” would be no real Pecksniff could not take in even such bodies, but for their portraiture by a fool as he. “Phiz." Both author and artist failed · Phiz” found Mr. Dombey a difficult equally to interest the reader in Madeline ideal to portray, and made no less than sevBray. Kate Nickleby is charming; enteen sketches, before he hit upon that Ralph, one of Mr. Hablot Browne's mem. one to which he generally, not always, adorable works; Squeers, though carica. hered. Mr. Dombey, in his courting days tured, is adınirable; Smike, the Ken- at Leamington, is not like Mr. Dombey wigses, and the Crummleses, are very talking about “a cold spring” to deceive clever; Morleena in the barber's shop, the world; but the artist's perplexity is not with the coal-heaver who is on the wrong surprising, for the author varied bis Domside of “the line,” scratching his head in bey considerably, making him merely a puzzled disconcertedness, is as good as pompous ass in the first part of the story, Mr. Pickwick going down the slide; but intensifying his purse-pride and folly in Nicholas Nickleby's ladylove, with a big the second part, and turning him into a face, and no figure inside her clothes, is brute and the dupe of the coarsest chicanas feeble a creature as Minnie Gowan in ery in the third. This tendency to ex“Little Dorrit."
aggeration, a note of Dickens's' lack of The tea and quarrel scene between education which, but for his wonderful Mrs. Gamp and Mrs. Prig is one of the humor, must have been fatal to his ficauthor's masterpieces; the same may cer- tions, was in most instances toned down tainly be said of the illustration, from the by the sympathetic, but more refined toppling pippins on the bedstead, and the taste of the artist, who, after “ Pickwick," extinguisher bandboxes, to the symptoms almost always avoided caricature in ilof inflammation in the faces and tempers lustrating Dickens. In his illustrations of the ladies. Wonderfully good, also, is to the works of Lever and Ainsworth, the scene of Mr. Pecksniff's discomfiture; " Phiz" showed that he could enter into the detected humbug's face, as he rests and render human interests, emotions, his head against the wainscot, “ with and passions which were out of the range an expression of disconcerted meeks of Dickens's humor and of narrative ness enormously ridiculous,” is perfect. power, Among the semi-comical, as distinguished To Mr. F. G. Kitton we are indebted from the broadly farcical characters whom for a slight memoir of “ Phiz,” which is
Phiz” had to portray for “Boz," Tim chiefly concerned, as it ought to be, with Linkinwater is highly meritorious; the the artist. The man chose to live in re. smiling, yet anxious solicitude with which tirement, to “keep himself to himself” in he watches Nicholas Nickleby's début, the the strictest sense of the phrase; and he wave of his pen with which he invites the was in his right so to choose, and it is the brothers to silence and motionlessness, the artist, and not the man, with whom the tilted stool, the natty shoes, all are admi- | public are concerned. We do not want
to know for what reason “ Phiz” and accomplished painters avoided caricature
Boz." quarrelled in 1859, just after and forced humor ; but those two works “Phiz” had illustrated " A Tale of Two are full of both, and they failed either to Cities,” with etchings which come nearer illustrate, or to palliate them. We doubt to those in “ Barnaby Rudge” than any whether any of the thousands of readers other of the artist's works of this kind. to whom the Pickwickians, Dick Swiv• Phiz” was not the only friend whom eller, Mark Tapley, Pecksniff, Peggotty, Dickens lost, for he had played the part Barnaby Rudge, Maypole Hugh, Grip, of iconoclast to himself. The quarrel, Guppy, Skimpole, and Inspector Bucket, however, was a disaster for the readers of are images as familiar and recognizable Dickens. Mr. Marcus Stone and Mr. as their own in a glass, have the least idea Luke Fildes illustrated “Our Mutual of the personages of either story, or have Friend and the fragment of “ Edwin ever cared to form one, by the assistance Drood." Mr. Kitton truly says that these l of Mr. Stone and Mr. Fildes.
ADULTERATION IN THE OLDEN TIME. — As Search after Claret,” by Richard Ames, a thin early as the reign of Edward the Confessor, quarto, the last leaf is occupied by the followwe find it recorded in Domesday Book that in ing advertisement: “If any vintner, winethe city of Chester a knavish brewer, “malam cooper, etc., between Whitechapel and Westcerevisiam faciens, in cathedra ponebatur sterco- minster Abbey, have some tuns or hogsheads ris" - in other words, the offender was taken of old rich unadulterated claret, and will sell round the town in the cart in which the refuse it as the law directs for sixpence per quart, of the place had been collected, and to this this is to give notice, that he shall have more degradation was often added corporal chastise- customers than half his profession, and his ment. In many towns in the sixteenth cen- house be as full from morning to night as a tury, we find “ale-tasters,” whose duty it was conventicle or Westminster Hall the first day to inspect the beer. In 1529, for example, the of term.” Later, the vintners became more mayor of Guildford ordered that the brewers scientific in their operations. Addison (in make a good useful ale, and that they sell none “The Tatler,” No. 131, 5710) alluded to a until it be tasted by the “ale-taster.” The ale certain fraternity of chemical operators who was not only tasted, but some of it was spilt wrought underground in holes, caverns, and on a wooden seat, and on the wet place the dark retirements to conceal their mysteries taster sat, attired in leathern breeches, then from the eyes and observations of mankind. common enough. If sugar had been added to “These subtle philosophers are daily employed the beer, the taster became so adherent that in the transmutation of liquors, and by the rising was difficult; but if sugar had not been power of magical drugs and incantations raise added, it was then considered that the dried under the streets of London the choicest prod. extract had no adhesive property. A less ucts of the hills and valleys of France; they coarse, but not dissimilar, method was also squeeze Bordeaux out of the sloe, and draw applied by the earlier inspectors to test the champagne from an apple." purity of milk. The frauds of the vintners or
Country Brewers' Gazette. wine-sellers attracted some share of public attention in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as shown by municipal records, fugitive tracts and broadsides. In August, 1553, a cer- A GIANT BIRD. - In the neighborhood of tain Paul Barnardo brought into the port of Rheims, recently, M. De Lemoinne found suffiLondon some wine, and there is extant ancient remains of a remarkable bird (of new order in council directing the lord mayor to species), belonging to the eocene epoch, to find five or six vintners to rack and draw off give a fair idea of its structure. A thigh bone the said pipes of wine into another vessel, and of the same animal had before been discovered to certify what drugs or ingredients they found by M. Planté, the well-known physicist, at in the said wine or cask to sophisticate the Meudon; it was about eighteen inches long.
At a later date the records of the Com. The bird was of gigantic size, having a height, mon Council contain a certificate from the when erect, of at least ten feet. The skull was lord mayor to the lords of the council, stating comparatively large, and less disproportionate that the wines of a certain “ Peter Van Payne” than that of the ostrich. In the opinion of M. had been drawn off his presence, and that Alph. Milne-Edwards, judging by the skeleton, in eight of the pipes had been found bundles the bird had affinities to the duck, but it has of weeds, in four others some quantities of peculiarities which forbid the ranking of it in sulphur, in another a piece of match, and in any of the present natural groups. It has all of them a kind of gravel mixture sticking been called Gastornis Edwardsii. Various to the casks; that they were conceived to be anatomical details, with a representation of unwholesome and of nature similar to others the skeleton, are given by M. Meunier in La formerly condemned and destroyed. In “The Nature, 466.
No. 2002. – November 4, 1882,
CONTENTS. I. THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY,
Macmillan's Magazine, II. ROBIN. By Mrs. Parr, author of “Adam and Eve.” Part XVIII.,
Temple Bar, III. COMETS. By R. A. Proctor,
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