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shrewd, accomplished of women,” says | allowance from England seems to have Thackeray married, 1658, Ernst Au- been withheld. gust, Bishop of Osnabrück, and brother One child only, her daughter Luise, re. of the Duke of Brunswick. This lady, mained to cheer the solitary mother. called in our history books “the electress After some shadow of scandal, into the Sophia," is the direct ancestress of our details of which history now vainly tries present royal family. In 1672 her hus- to pierce, Luise, one morning, was found band succeeded to the possession of to have left — to have fled from her loneHanover, and to the electoral dignity. ly mother; but a few lines informed the In 1714, a few weeks after his mother's distracted Elizabeth — "I have gone to death, her son, George Ludwig, succeeded France, there to be reconciled to the true Anne on the throne of Great Britain, as Church, and to enter a cloister.” This George I. This boorish, ungraceful prince was a heavy blow to the still fervently recalled no suggestion of his bright moth- Protestant widow of Frederick. Luise er, but seemed to have absorbed a terri. became Abbess of Maubuisson; but hers bly large infusion of the characteristics was no austere, cloistered seclusion. She of his ungainly father. The English na- lived gaily, went to court in Paris ; and tion specially settled the succession on had, as Śöltl tells us, “ many children.” Sophia and her Protestant descendants, Her conversion brought with it no retirewbile passing over the claims of all her ment from the world, no asceticism of the brothers and sisters.
cloister. Her brother Edward, and his brother Her last child having thus left her, Philipp, were sent to Paris to “finish Elizabeth could turn for comfort only to their education,” a plan which was not Lord Craven. We must now pass at a attended with happy results. They were leap, and without regard to the tangle of probably glad enough to go, and to escape petty events, to the Peace of Westphalia, from the weary routine, from the in. which, in 1648, virtually concluded the trigues, littlenesses, spites, of their moth- Thirty Years' War, and settled, among so er's mock court in Holland.
many other things, the question of the Elizabeth does not seem to have been Palatinate. very successful in educating or in secur- The primary cause of that memorable ing the love of her children. Her daugh- peace was the thorough exhaustion of the ters, Elizabeth and Sophia, voluntarily combatants, and especially of the Catholic left their mother to go to Kassel or to powers. Exhaustion only, inability to Heidelberg. In 1645 her son Edward continue the conflict, could have conmarried Anna, daughter of the Duke of strained Rome, Spain, Austria, to grant Nevers, and turned Catholic; his apos. toleration to German Protestants. The tacy being doubtless a serious sorrow to result of thirty years of wastefully wicked his mother. Karl Ludwig wrote very an. war; of a war in which oceans of blood grily to his recusant brother; but the life were unnecessarily shed, and in which of Edward was thereafter lived apart from unspeakable human misery was caused, the main current of the career of his gave to Protestantism that for which it family: It is certain that Edward mar- had contended at the beginning; and ried in Paris, where he found favor and Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist had to live countenance, without his mother's knowls together in mutual toleration, each belief edge or consent, and that this step and holding its own as best it could in Gerhis perversion were a sore surprise to many. Henceforth the disciples of Loy. ber. Pbilipp had a quarrel in the Hague ola could not kill, oppress, or extirpate the with a certain debauched Sieur d'Epinay; followers of Luther or of Calvin; and and on the day following, January 20th, worn and wasted Germany, which had 1646, Philipp, assisted by his myrmidons, been for so long the scene of civil war, the killed D'Epinay; for which offence he bad battlefield of ruin, was no more subject to to fly Holland. In 1655 Philipp was killed the lust of Hapsburg universal dominion, at the siege of Rethel.
or to the bloody tyranny of priestly rule. In 1644, the noble Luise Juliane, the Despite of angry protests, and of much generous mother-in-law of Elizabeth, died." negotiation,” Karl Ludwig could obtain
The conduct of Rupert and of Maurice no more than this — the restoration of the in the civil wars had alienated the En- Lower Palatinate; while the Upper Palglish government from Elizabeth Stuart, atinate remained annexed to Bavaria. and, to some extent, she had become an Both Max and Karl Ludwig were electobject of dislike to the nation. During ors; Bavaria being the eighth electorate, the late years of the Protectorate her I and ranking above Kurpfalz. The spirit
of Gustavus had been at work up to the dignation at having to apply for her own close of the sad, long war. It is notice to her own son, and then the sense of her able that the Swedes were the strongest necessities lends poignancy to her pite. force then left in the field with power to ous appeals. It seems that she received fight. Wrangel (with whom was associ- 1,000 guilders a month from Holland. ated io command, Turenne) was the last She writes to Karl Ludwig, August 23rd, Swedish general. He entirely overran 1655:“I do not ask you much. I pray Bavaria, and, that done, no barrier stood do this for me ; you will much comfort between his victorious army and the gates me by it, who am in so ill condition as it of Vienna. This crowning success in. takes all my contentment from me. I am duced Maximilian, and compelled the em- making my house as little as I can so that peror, to agree, on equitable terms, to a I may subsist by the little I have, till I peace. When Max demanded an armis. shall be able to come to you ; which since tice, he was, at first, held at Vienna as a I cannot do because of my debts, which Majestätsverbrecher, or traitor guilty of I am not able to pay, neither the new nor high treason; but it was soon seen that the old, if you do not as I desire I am Max had not capitulated without very sure I shall not increase. As you love sufficient cause. He wished to stipulate me I do conjure you to give an answer.” that the Lower Palatinate, if he had to In writing from the Hague to Prince cede it, should remain Catholic; but to Rupert on April 29th, year not given, she this the victors would not agree. To the says (Bromley's "Royal Letters”), “The last, Sweden did good service to Protes- next week I hope to hear Louysa's justitantism. When the terms of peace be fication against all her calumnies." came known, the Catholics were furious; The years just preceding 1660, were the Reformers were obstinate; but maugre times of trial for the poor ex-queen, who all objections, necessity had dictated an found herself in sore straits and without enduring treaty. Maximilian of Bavaria much hope of better times. The battle died at Ingolstadt the 27th of September, of Worcester was a very real fact; the 1651.
Restoration was very uncertain. The And so, as Kurpfalz, though with sadly Stuarts were much dispersed over Europe. shorn territory, Karl Ludwig, the son of Rupert and Maurice were pursuing their the Winterkönig, returned to Heidelberg, adventurous careers as corsairs; and she and to his desolated, wasted, miserable was soon to lose Maurice, who was land. Even the great Library of Heidel- drowned at sea. Elizabeth's debts inberg had been transported to the Vatican.creased; and creditors became pressing. Karl Ludwig married, 22nd February, She was too poor to visit Rhenen. Wid. 1650, Karoline, daughter of the Landgraf owed, childless, friendless (but for Craven), Wilhelm V., of Hessen. On the roth of and hopeless, her last years before the April, 1651, a son, Karl, was born to Karl Restoration must have been, even to her, Ludwig; and in 1652, he became the fa- sorrowful and lonely. ther of a daughter, Elizabetha Charlotta. But the Restoration came, and her nephWhen first he resumed residence in the ew sat upon the throne of Great Britain. Old Palace of the Palatinate, his sisters Elizabeth desired at once to return to her Sophia and Elizabeth were with him in native land, but Charles II. urged her not Heidelberg. The new Palatine's mar- to think of coming to England. His com. riage was not a success. He entered into prehensive tenderness for women did not an undisguised intrigue with the Horär- include any fondness for an aged aunt, lein, or maid of honor, Degenfeld, and his impecunious, unfortunate, importunate. wise left him in indignation, and returned | The money that he wanted to spend upon to her father in Kassel.
the female sex was required for Mrs. Karl Ludwig was the most hateful of Palmer and others of that sort. But the children of Frederick and Elizabeth. Elizabeth was not to be deterred. She He withheld from his brother Rupert Ru- had determined to return to England, and pert's inheritance. He would not allow on May 17th, 1661, she landed at Marhis mother to come to Heidelberg, nor gate, and travelled on to London. Her would be pay to her the money that was arrival was little noticed. Her old friends justly hers. He refused ber her jointure, were all gone, and her popularity had van. and would not give her her dower of ished also. She had outlived the conFrankenthal. He was karg und geizig, temporaries of her youth, and a genera. mean and avaricious. There is soine- tion had arisen that knew her not. She thing pathetic in Elizabeth's letters to was slightly regarded, with an indolent Karl Ludwig. They express a mother's in. I curiosity, as the titular queen of a remote country, which was all but unknown to sess a touch, at least, of the poet; and Whitehall.
we, in England, have been most successThe England to which she returned was ful in developing this ideal historian. for Elizabeth a changed England. Be- Elizabeth can never have been beautia tween her youth and her age stood the ful. Pepys, who may be credited with great shadow of the Protectorate, and the some critical judgment of female charms, mighty image of Cromwell separated her saw her in Holland when he went with brother and her nephew. Craven alone his patron to bring over Charles II., and remained ever tender, ever true. She records of the queen of Bohemia, that lived in Drury House, Drury Lane. From “she seems a very debonair, but a plain that mansion she removed to Leicester lady.” Mr. Pepys hits the mark. Her House, Leicester Square, and there five pleasant, lively manner would last into days after her removal to the new dwell- her age, and the loss of youth would only ing, on February 13th, 1662, Elizabeth render the fact plainer. Tour portraits of Stuart, dowager electress Palatine and her are known to us. The one by Hontitular queen of Bohemia, died.
thorst, in the National Portrait Gallery, is German literature contains very many a performance of little mark or likelihood. works of authority and research about There are two at Hampton Court; one (No. the great Thirty Years' War, but no one 128) is a full length, also by Honthorst, historian has set bis mark upon the sub- in which she is depicted in a dark dress ject. Germany separates in such matters with a large ruff; the hair red, the face more carefully than we do. She keeps rather pointedly oval, with an expression poet and historian as things apart; we of some shrewishness, caused, apparently, mix the two qualities and functions. by sorrow. The mouth is thin and tightly
The great historian, resembling in that compressed, and the expression is scarce. respect the poet or the dramatist, must, ly lovable. The other Hampton Court when depicting a personage, create a work (No. 765) is by Derick, a good paintcharacter. The hints of history are the ing, badly hung, and the youngest portrait equivalents, of the suggestions of imag. of Elizabeth that is extant. The face is ination. The historian must see clearly round, like that of James in youth, and both outside and inside the person that the expression is happy. It is the prinhe would portray, and must combine into cess Elizabe with all life opening in an art-whole the complete portraiture, hope, when the young Count Palatine has round and finished, of the hero or heroine crossed the sea to woo her for his bride. of history. This task is the duty of every Honthorst was teacher of painting to the true historian, but it can, necessarily, be princess Louisa. discharged but by few; since to fulfil it To the Royal Academy we owe those satisfactorily requires qualities which recent exhibitions of the works of the nearly rival those of the poet or creator." old masters," which are the clelight Carlyle is the one man in the domain of alike of the art critic and of the historical history who, through many absolute crea. student. In the winter exhibition of 1880 tions, really fulfils the ideal requirement; appeared a portrait of Elizabeth (No. 127) but yet another instance may be cited in by Mierevelt, which belongs to the highFroude's picture of Mary Queen of Scots. est class of portrait art, and which is the In its higher aspects, history needs an best existing portrait of the queen of Boimagination only just below that required hemia. It was painted in Holland, and by a great poet.
represents Elizabeth at about the middle To piece out the imperfections of evi- of her career. Beneath the veneer of dence; to read, by insight, the motives of femininity we recognize the ignoble feaaction and the depths of character; to tures of James. The modelling of every feel, by instinct, the passions that once feature resembles that of her father's face. fired a man or woman, long since dead, He had very protruding eyes; they are and but imperfectly depicted by the chron- seen, softened, in this portrait. The asicler – these are difficulties which can pect is serious; the face is painted in only be overcome by a man of high and repose, but is full of character, and the penetrating imagination, who possesses spectator feels that he stands in the presalso a judicial power of criticism. It is ence of the true Elizabeth. Her hair is given but to few to realize, with any ob- red and the complexion is opaquely white. jective force, the body, form, and pres. The lips are ugly, thin, and are closely ence; the true and living images of human compressed. The forehead is poor and beings that once existed; of times that narrow. Obstinacy, rather than firmness, are past. The great historian must pos- is expressed. The shape of the face is
oval, cvith a somewhat pointed chin. The rows punished their errors and their defidress is a study of a royal costume of the cient judgment; but neither duplicity nor period. The portrait is full length, and treachery, even in such a distracted and gives the physiognomy of the whole fig-immoral day, can be charged against
The bearing is that of a woman them, nor can they be accused of cruelty accustomed to play the queen; the hands or found guilty of tyranny. The impresare fine; and the totality of the being ex- sion that they leave, if thin, is pure. His pressed agrees fully with all that we know, nature, if weak, was tender; her characor can divine, of the superficial, though ter, though shallow, was clear. They amiable character of the pleasure-loving were nobly steadfast in the faith, and they but unfortunate daughter of the house of resisted the temptations of interest to Stuart. This portrait is quite admirable deny their religion. and masterly. The face, in its still gravity, Frederick was, at least, a gallant, genis not altogether lovable or attractive. tle, and accomplished carpet-knight. You retain an impression of shrewdness Elizabeth was graceful and gracious as and vivacity, coupled with a mean intel- princess and as queen. Their conjugal lect, and with a calculating heart. fidelity and true attachment render ihem
Elizabeth and Frederick were light, models, as royal married lovers, in their trivial characters, and were, it must be dissolute century. They had vanity withadmitted, somewhat shallow weaklings; out ability, ambition without success. but the romance of history may still re. Their capacity, though but small, was gard with a certain tender interest their equal to that of Ferdinand; was certainly lives, their loves, and their misfortunes. superior to that of Philip II. CircumBehind and around their careers stands stance made the difference of success, the great portent of the Thirty Years' and caused the revolution of their wheel War, with all its crowd of historical fig- of fortune. For many reasons we have ures, with all the turmoil of its important thought it good to try to snatch them events.
from a submerging oblivion, and to place To the general public in England, the on record a brief, if imperfect, picture of Bohemian royal couple have subsided that English princess who was once queen almost into mere names, vaguely realized of hearts and queen of Bohemia. through the mists of a by-flown time.
H. SCHUTZ WILSON. They were set to sink or swim in a period, and among conflicting powers that were too terrible and too powerful for their small idiosyncrasies. Hence, in part, the pathos of their story. In
From The Fortnightly Review. India, in the country in which deadly
THE ANALYSIS OF HUMOR. snakes do most abound, the natives walk There have been many attempts to de. about with bare legs; and Frederick and fine wit, but no one, at least to my knowl. Elizabeth had no armor that saved them edge, has ever essayed a precise definition from being easily bitten by the poison of of humor.* This, however, is in reality ambition and the venom of vanity: Ag: less remarkable than it may at first sight gression, to be successful, must be backed appear. Wit, even in its later and transby mental power and by warrior prowess formed signification, is a word of respect- they had neither. Ainbition should be able antiquity in the language. Humor, made of sterner stuff than that of which at least as used to denote that particular they were composed. Vanity impelled quality of ideas, or particular faculty of them into ambition; impotence reduced persons, which is now expressed by it, is them to misfortune; but they bitterly ex- à much later addition to our vocabulary. piated their faults, and their miscalcula- As long ago as Locke's day, to go no tion of their own means or of the help of farther back, our modern signification of others.
wit had been added to its older meaning James, owing to weak legs, had to lean of “cleverness," "intelligence," " ingenuupon the shoulders of men; Frederick ity," etc. " Wit,” says Locke, “lies most and Elizabetli, owing to their want of in the assemblage of ideas, and putting mental and physical force for great enter. those together with quickness and variety prises, were compelled to depend upon the help of others, and they leant upon * No. 42 of "The Spectator" purports to discuss broken reeds as on the German Prot. the nature and composition of humor, but it will be estant princes, the Union, James and false provocatives of nirth, in which no attempı is
seen that it is really a general disquisition on true and Charles. Heavy losses and serious sor
made to discriminate between wit and humor,
wherein can be found any resemblance or humor should ever have been formulated ; congruity, thereby to make up pleasant inasmuch as the writer who has done pictures and agreeable visions to the most for the analysis of wit would himself fancy.” The obvious imperfections of seem to have accidentally and unconthis definition were corrected by Addison, sciously stumbled on what appears much who observes that “every reseinblance of to resemble the very object we are seekideas is not that which we call wit, unlessing. It certainly looks as if Sydney Smith it be such that gives delight and surprise had at one time become very “warm ”in to the reader." “These two properties,” | his search, as the language of the chil. he adds, “seem essential to wit, more dren's game has it; and that had he, in particularly the last of them. In order, his extremely acute review of "
“Edgetherefore, that the resemblance of ideas worth on Irish Bulls,” but carried bis inbe wit, it is necessary that the ideas quiry a single step farther, he would have should not lie too near to one another in lighted on the definition sought. Prothe nature of things; for where the like. pounding to himself the question, “ What ness is obvious it gives no surprise.” is an Irish bull ?” he answers it as folEarly, therefore, in the last century a lows: “We shall venture to say that a definition which contains the substance bull is an apparent congruity and real inof Sydney Smith's later analysis of the congruity of ideas suddenly discovered. quality of wit had already been formu. And if this account of bulls be just, they lated.' Humor, however, has only within are (as might have been supposed) the the last two or three generations been very reverse of wit; for as wit discovers stereotyped in its present meaning. real relations that are not apparent, bulls Down till late in the eighteenth century admit apparent relations that are not real, it was indiscriminately employed in its The pleasure arising from wit proceeds modern and in an older and quite different from our surprise at suddenly discovering sense; and it is not a little curious to re- two things to be similar in which we sus. flect that many of the greatest masterspected no similarity. The pleasure aris. of the humorous could not, in their own ing from bulls proceeds from our discove day, have been congratulated on their ering two things to be dissimilar in which “liumor” without great risk of misunder- a resemblance might have been sus, standing. To Sterne or to Goldsmith it pected.”. And he goes on to remark with would have appeared but an equivocal perfect justice that " the stronger the apcompliment to be described as a humorist, parent connection and the more complete a name which more often at that period the real disconnection of the ideas, the connoted a foible than a gift. We find greater the surprise and the better the Sterne applying it to his friend Hall bull. The less apparent and the more Stevenson in precisely the same apolo- complete the relations established by wit, getic spirit as Addison fifty years before the greater gratification does it afford.” had applied it to Sir Roger de Coverley: Whether this is a complete definition as a synonym, namely, for a whimsical | even of wit itself – considered, that is to but harmless and well-meaning eccentric. say, in its emotional as distinguished “I have observed in several of my pa. from its intellectual effects, we will inpers," says Mr. Spectator," that my quire bereaster; but accepting it provisfriend Sir Roger, amidst all his good qual-ionally as accurate, let us examine the ities, is something of a humorist; and antithesis of which it forms a factor in that his virtues as well as imperfections the passage above quoted. Here, then, are as it were tinged with a certain ex. the first point to be remarked is, that it travagance, which makes them particu- the definition of wit has been correctly larly his and distinguishes them from framed, it will follow that the bull cannot, those of other men.' And in the same by reason of its more limited extension, way writes Sterne to his friend Steven- be the converse of wit. For though the son: “She (my wife), swears you are a essence of wit may be in the discovery of fellow of wit, thougz humorous,” where unsuspected similitudes under apparent the dominance of the idea of eccentricity dissimilitudes, it cannot be said that the over the modern meaning of the word bull is merely the disclosure of unsus. comes out with remarkable clearness. pected dissimilitudes under apparent si. The philological history of the word militudes. The ideas which the maker of “wit" has been marked by no such curi- an Irish bull combines are something ous vicissitudes as this.
more than dissimilar: they are mutually In one respect, however, it is somewhat exclusive. They are either contradictory singular that no precise definition of in terms or physically incompatible in