« VorigeDoorgaan »
“He will not come, I am sure, to give through the opening in the trees over the you a moment's uneasiness.”
broad country, lying like a dream in that “Mr. Erskine, I must say more to you," mystical paleness which was neither night she said, drawing closer, putting once nor day. Underneath, the river rushed more her hand on his arm. It must not joyously, noisily, through the night - not be on that ground – nothing must be said still, like a southern stream, but dashing of ine. Cannot you understand ? He over the stones, and whirling its white must not come; but not because of me eddies in foam against the bank. The nothing must be said of me. If it was sound of the water accompanied the quick your sister, oh would you not under current of his thoughts. He had a long stand?"
walk before him, having, come without He took her hand into his in the pro. preparation and left in haste and disfound feeling of the moment. “I will try pleasure. But seven or eight miles of to do — what I should do if it were my country road in a night of June is no such owo sister," he said, resting it in his. “It punishment. And the thoughts that had was my fault; I ought to have known." been roused in him, made the way short.
“ There was no fault,” she said faintly; How different - how different would be “an accident. I knew it must happen the fate of that other daughter of Lin. some time. I was prepared. But, Mr. dores'! It was only when he reached Erskine, it is not because I could not his own gate that he woke up with a start meet -- any one. Do not think that for to remember indeed how different it would me only - It is because because | be. The bare little white house, with its
But if you understand, that is little plantation, its clump of firs on the all."
hilltop, its scanty avenue
- the little es. “Let me walk back with you to the tate, which could almost be said, with house,” John said.
scornful exaggeration, to lie within the “No, no; it is alınost wrong to speak park of Tinto - the position of a small to you in this clandestine way. But what squire's wife, - was it likely that Lord can I do?
And you who know — all Lindores would smile upon that for his parties If I said anything to my daughter? John's heart, which had been brother, it might make a breach. There so buoyant, sank down into the depths. is no one I could speak to but you. I He began to see that his dream was should have had to suffer helplessly, to ridiculous, his elation absurd. He to be hold my peace.”
the brother, in that sweetest way, of Carry “ Believe me — believe me,” cried John, Lindores! But nevertheless he vowed, "all that a brother can do, I will do." as he went home somewhat crestfallen,
In the midst of this misery, which he that he would be a brother to her. She felt to the bottom of his heart, there rad had given him her confidence, and he had through him a secret stir of pleasure. given her bis promise, and with this bond Her brother! – the suggestion went no worldly prudence nor rule of probabilithrough all his veins. Strange encounter ties should be allowed to interfere. of the dream with the fact ! The cold, trembling hand he held in his gave him a thrill of warmth and happiness, and yet his sympathy was as strong, his pity as profound, as one human creature ever felt
ELIZABETH STUART, QUEEN OF BOHEMIA. for another. He stood still and watched her as she flitted back to the house, like a shadow in the gathering darkness. His The next great event which was of heart ached, yet beat high. If it should vital moment for Europe and for Elizaever be so, how different would be the beth was the advent, from over-seas, of fate of the other daughter of Lindores'! the great Schwedenkönig, Gustavus Adol
how he would guard her from every plus. In July, 1630, the Swedish delivvexation, smooth every step of her way, erer landed on German soil. He had strew it with flowers and sweetnesses! completed his conquest over Poland. He He resumed his way more quickly than knew well that the Polish war had been ever, hastening along in the soft darkness fomented, he knew that Sigismund had which yet was not dark, by the scaur been supported by Austria; he knew that, the short cut which had alarned his if Wallenstein could create a fleet, the groom. To the pedestrian the way by house of Hapsburg, eager for universal the scaur was the best way. He paused a moment when he reached it, to look out
* See Living Age, No. 1976, p. 275.
From The Modern Review.
dominion, and then in the zenith of its strong, bright Gustavus. No cause ever power and success, would attack him in had a nobler champion ; but his kingly Sweden itself; and he defended his king- and knightly mind was expressed through dom by attacking her enemies. The very his broad, lofty forehead; through his successes of Ferdinand drew down Gus- well-opened, blue, and steadfast eyes; tavus Adolphus upon him; the supine through a figure and bearing which apness of the German Protestant princes proach to an ideal of great manhood. called forth the great Swedish defend His religion was that of a royal man; his of Protestantism. " Universal monarchy politics those of a noble king. Fervent, must be repressed by neighboring na- and even rash in fight, generous in victions at great bazard and inconceivable tory, the first captain of his time, he expense, provided such nations are only fought for an abstract cause and defended protected by a small interposition of oppressed humanity. Stern where sternocean." Wallenstein and Spain were ness was necessary, he was full of “flow. preparing a fleet to attack the navy of ing courtesy" and princely manners. His Sweden when that navy bore Gustav army was well paid and was restrained Adolf and his army to German soil. within the limits of strict discipline. It
Nor was it by any means the safety of was a moral force, which paid, and did Sweden alone which called Gustavus into not plunder its way through the territory the field. "Mich treibt ein anderer Geist” of friend and foe. In this respect the
.“ I am actuated by other motives,” said Swedo-German army differed from those the king. It was the cause, the great of the Liga, of the Empire; and even from cause, of Protestantism and of true reli- the troops of Mansfeld. “Der Krieg gion, that weighed most heavily upon his müsse den Krieg ernähren"-"War must soul. Hear hin for a moment; his voice support itself,” said Wallenstein; and the still seems to speak vitally to us across armies of Tilly, of Wallenstein, of Mansthe abyss of two hundred and fifty years. feld, simply devastated any territories that " I embark in a war, far from my own do- they had to occupy. minions, and seem to court those dangers In earlier years, Gustavus had been a and difficulties which another man might half suitor for the hand of Elizabeth labor to decline; but the Searcher of the Stuart, and was therefore likely, being of human heart will see and know that it noble mould, to have a kindly feeling towas neither ambition that tempted me, ward an olden love. The Light of the nor the avarice of extending my domin- North, the Aurora Borealis of the Baltic, ions, nor the appetite of fighting, nor the was now happily married to Maria Eleamischievous temper of loving to interfere nora, sister of the Kurfürst Johann Georg. in my neighbors' concerns. Other object Gustav was born on December 9th, 1594. I have none than to support the afflicted James I. died in 1625, and had been and oppressed, to maintain the religious succeeded by his son, Charles I. Charles and civil liberty of society, and to bear was her brother, and Elizabeth might, permy testimony against a tyranny over the haps, hope more from a brother than even whole human race.
from a father. And Gustavus described his lofty mo- Charles was very willing to do anything tives truly. If the Protestant princes of to help his sister so long as the doing Germany were supine, her Protestant involved no action. So soon as Gustavus people were worthy; nor could the king appeared victoriously upon the scene, endure the spectacle of Jesuit rule, Charles tried to delegate to him the task through Kaiser and through pope, carried of restoring Elizabeth to the Palatinate. out by means of blood and fire, of force On November 7th, 1632, Sir Henry and fraud; of infrahuman persecution by Vane, successor to Roe, met the Swedish the priest. Gustavus is a singular his- king at Würzburg, and Vane thus reports torical apparition in respect that he com- Gustavus's answer: “If Charles wished bined the earnestness of a Cromwell with sincerely to bring about the restitution of the graces of a Cavalier. He was not the Palatinate (no question more of BoGott-betrunken, or God-intoxicated, as hemia) and wished it in good faith, he Novalis said of Spinoza, but he was God- must afford such assistance as justly merinspired. A hero of conscience, he was ited the appellation of royal.” If Charles also a hero of charm. He could not only contributed money and an English army command the reverence, but also win the of twelve thousand men, he, Gustavus, love of men. In him force was tempered “would never sheath his sword until the by sweetness. Intense as clear, there Palatinate should be recovered.” Vainly was nothing gloomy or morbid about the I did Gustav expect anything royal (except,
perhaps, the portraits of Van Dyck) from tion was made from Vienna to the effect Charles, who was negotiating with Vi. that Frederick should resign the Upper enna when he should have been fighting Palatinate forever to Bavaria; that he, side by side with Sweden. If he had Frederick, should receive a small pension really wished well to his sister's cause, for his own life; that his eldest son should there was no way to help her but by fight be bred a Catholic at Vienna, and ihen, ing. Spannheim records that Jaines 1. having espoused an Austrian archduchess, felt, in his last days and hours, some com- be reinstated, at his father's death, in the punction and remorse with respect to the Lower Palatinate. Further, that FredPalatinate. Forty-eight hours before his erick should, on his knees, ask pardon of death, James charged his son Charles, the emperor. “as he hoped for a parent's benediction It was clear that Charles, who was inand that of Heaven," to exert all his pow- capable of royal or other decisive action, ers in order to reinstate his sister and her desired to lean upon Gustavus for the rechildren into their hereditary dominions; instatement of his sister. for (said James) it was my mistake to seek Charles urged Elizabeth to allow her the Palatinate in Spain. The italics are son to be educated as a Catholic in Vien.
na, but the ex-queen, whose character was Charles was' as incapable as had been much more positive than that of her unbis father of clear and noble action. stable brother, replied with noble anger
My God, sire !” exclaimed Sir Rich-that, “sooner than see her children ard Glendale, to the Pretender, when that brought up as Catholics, she would kill prince landed "for a hunting expedition,” them with her own hand.” Both Elizain“Redgauntlet"-"of what great and in- beth and Frederick remained always expiable crime can your Majesty's ances- steadfast in their religion, nor could any tors have been guilty that they have been prospect of advantage ever lure them punished by the infliction of judicial blind- froin it. ness on their whole generation !” In this All that Charles could do was to perindignant burst of Sir Richard Glendale, mit - but not as king - English volunWalter Scott summarized the essence of teers to fight for the Palatinate; and the the career of the Stuarts.
Marquis of Hamilton led some six thouFerdinand never refused to negotiate. sand volunteers, who did not do very Negotiations, as for instance that for the much, to Germany. These were speedily restoration of the Palatinate, amused oth- reduced to one English and one Scottish ers and did not hurt him. Besides, while regiment, and after a quarrel with Banier, people were negotiating they were not Hamilton resigned and his force melted likely to act; and this was true of Charles away. as it had been of James. Conscious of We cannot spare space to follow the his violent aggression in the Palatinate, great Swedish king through his glorious the emperor was ready to restore that campaign. He would have recovered the if any one could or would compel him to Palatinate in due time, as he did recover do só — but he would never give it up to for his kinsmen the duchy of Mecklenmere negotiation. Charles's ambassador burg which Wallenstein had seized; but at Vienna, Sir Robert Anstruther, had Gustavus could not turn aside from his been instructed to say to Ferdinand (22nd main purpose, which was to prevent the of July, 1630) that “the king, his master extirpation of Protestants and Protestant(Charles I.), acknowledged with grief and ism in Germany, in order merely to reshame that his brother-in-law, the elector cover the Palatinate without help from Palatine, disregarding his opinion and Charles. Making it a condition that concurrence, had acted formerly in refer. Frederick, if reinstated, should tolerate ence to the crown of Bohemia, not only Lutheranism in his dominions, Gustavus rashly, but unadvisedly; which imprudent sent to Holland for Frederick to join his measures ought chiefly to be attributed to armies. Frederick was unfit for any comthe ambition and inattention of youth; and mand in the warlike monarch's forces, but that it would highly become the emperor, he “was present” at Nürnberg, and at consistently with his accustomed clemen- that memorable passage of the Lech, at cy, to receive Frederick's submission, and which Gustavus's valor and strategy so reinstate him in his own dominions, inas- completely defeated the veteran Tilly, much as such an act of free and gratuitous After Breitenfeld, the king thought that favor would oblige the kings of England the Palatinate cause was hopeful, and to all posterity::
wrote to that effect to Charles, requiring To amuse Charles, a counter-proposi- / from the English king. “magnanimous
resolution,” an assistance in men and sitions high above their capacities. Fred. money, and the despatch of a fleet to cope erick constantly addresses bis wife, with the fleet that Spain was sending to "Mon très cher Cæur." the Baltic.
Elizabeth passed her widowhood at the Charles refused the necessary co-opera- Hague, or at Rhenen, in the province of tion, but explained that he was ready to Utrecht, secure under Dutch shelter. negotiate.
She was fond of hunting and of garden: And now Gustavus and Wallenstein, ing. Her children grew up around her, the two great captains of the age, each at and the still lively lady became the centre the head of an bitherto unconquered of a small but cultured circle of friends. army, met, for the first time, as opponents Elizabeth's little court was a model of in actual war on the fatal plain of Lützen. social gaiety, and flatterers called it the The battle was indecisive in result, though “home of all the muses and of all the victory leaned to the Swedes, as the Im- graces." Her elastic temperament was perialists vacated the field and retreated cheerful under misfortune. She could on Leipzig; but the battle involved the always enjoy any pleasure that the presmost terrible loss that could have hapent moment offered. Once, when hunt. pened to the Protestant cause - -Gustavus (ing, she was nearly seized by some SpanAdolphus fell in the arms of victory. fish soldiery, but escaped owing to a fleet
With the fall of Gustavus the cause of horse and her good riding. Henrietta the Palatinate seemed to be hopelessly Maria had been a bitter opponent at the lost. What other champion could replace court of England of the interests of the “Lion of the North”?
Elizabeth ; but when Henrietta Maria, After Lützen, Frederick became a prey herself a fugitive, came to Holland, Elizato deep dejection. He died of a broken beth received and comforted her. Both heart, of utter despondency, away from were Stuarts, the one by birth, the other wise and children, at Mentz, on Novem- by marriage; and their interests in Great ber 17th, 1636. His coffined corpse, after Britain were imperilled by the same foes. many wanderings, found its final resting. There may have been policy in Elizabeth's place in Sedan.
kindness. Her eldest surviving son, Karl His son and heir, Henry Frederick, a Ludwig, who had been educated by Fred: prince of promise, had pre-deceased his erick’s brother, grew up headstrong, selffather. On January 17th, 1629, father ish, and avaricious. When in England, and son went to see the trophies of Peter he sided with the Parliament, and even Hein as they floated in Dutch waters at sat in the Westminster Assembly of Die Rotterdam. The small boat in which vines. they sailed was run into by another craft, He ultimately obtained from the En. and speedily sank. Frederick was saved, glish Parliament a yearly grant of £10,but his heir was drowned. The son's 000 – £8,000 for himself, £ 2,000 for his last vain cry was “Save me, father!” mother; but Elizabeth was deeply grieved That last despairing cry of the sinking at her son's departure from the traditional prince rings still pathetically through his- and even natural politics of the house of .tory. Thus Karl Ludwig, the second son, Stuart. Her next sons, Rupert and Maubecame the representative of the ban- rice, fought, as is well known, and with ished Palatine family.
distinction, on the royal side, and this Elizabeth and Frederick were united was some comfort to the daughter of by a sincere affection and by a numerous James and sister of Charles. Ever after progeny. Misfortune borne in common, ihe execution of her brother, Elizabeth à faith' thoroughly shared, strengthened wore a mourning ring (a picture of which their union. Frederick's nature was ca- is now before me) on which a crown surpable of a deeper tenderness than was that mounts a skull and cross-bones, while of bis wise. His sondness for her was both are encircled by a lock of Charles's unquestionably great. Many of his letters bair. to hier (see Bromley's “ Royal Letters ”) Cousin Max, who thought that all inis. are still extant. In one he writes, “ Would fortunes arose from tolerance to Protes. to God that we owned some little corner tants, was getting on with the conversion of the earth in which we could live to to Catholicism of the Upper and Lower gether happily and in peace!” It were Palatinates. His plan was simple and to be wished that his prayer could have direct; every person who would not be. been answered. As private persons, they come a Catholic was driven out of the would have been most estimable, most territory. Max was fully determined to happy; but they were elevated into po- I root out heresy,
The “counter-Reformation” in Ger. | purest devotion. He was entrusted by many was being carried out with incredi- Elizabeth with the care of the fiery young ble cruelty and ruthless persistency. The Rupert, when both were taken prisoners hopeless and hapless peasants' war” was by the emperor. Craven paid for his freeextirpated with terrible inhumanity. Prot. dom a ransom of £20,000. Rupert was estant parents were expelled, and their detained for three years in mild captivity, children detained to be brought up as the object being to convert bim to the Catholics. Söltl, speaking of the oppres. Church cf Rome. During the dark days sion then exercised upon the unhappy - days dark for the Stuarts of the ProProtestants, says, “ Davon schweigt die tectorate, Craven's estates were sequesGeschichte” “ On that subject history is trated; though they were restored to him silent.” In Bavaria the popular threat to at the Restoration; but he found means an enemy remains to this day .“ Ich will still to help his mistress. In Elizabeth's dich schon Katholisch inachen!”. “I saddest lour, when she seemed to be will force you to become a Catholic!” and abandoned by all men, the faithful Craven this threat to tame and to compel dates remained by her side, and he returned from the counter-Reformation under the with her to England. There is no evihouse of Hapsburg. The Jesuit view dence of such a fact (indeed evidence on was, that heretics should be subjected to the subject would be very hard to proa yoke intolerable, but yet not to be cure), but history whispers that the pair shaken off. The papal ainbassador, Ca- were privately married. Certain it is that raffa, agreed with the emperor that her. nothing could detach Craven from her etics should be rooted out without pity side, and that his life and fortune – all and without scruple.
that he had — were unceasingly and loyalOn February 12th, 1637, Ferdinand II. ly devoted to her comfort and her service. died, and was succeeded by his son, Fer. In 1661 Pepys saw Elizabeth in London, dinand 111., who carried on the lines of "brought by my Lord Craven” to the his father's policy. “Mi fili, parvo mun. Duke's Theatre. A paladin of romance, dus regitur intellectu,” said the wise Ox- Craven remains one of the noblest inenstierna.
stances in history of a knightly, generous, The great war dragged its slow length unswerving devotion to a woman and her along, but we cannot spare space to follow cause. its fortunes.
Let us now glance for a moment at the Among the partisans who were at. domestic relations of Elizabeth. tracted, in part by her personality, to the She had around her, in Holland, four cause of Elizabeth, the most distinguished daughters – Elizabeth, born 1618; Luise, and the most constant was William, Lord, born 1622; Henrietta Maria, born 1626; Craven, afterwards Earl Craven. Chris Sophia, born 1630; and her two younger tian of Brunswick died May 6, 1626, and sons, Edward and Pbilipp, were also for Prince Maurice, of Nassau, had passed a time with her. away on April 23rd, 1625. Craven first Elizabeth, the eldest daughter, was the met Elizabeth when she was already a plainest of the sisters. She was quiet, refugee in Holland, and he quitted the melancholy, absorbed in study. In 1636. Dutch service in order to devote himself Ladislaus of Poland proposed for Elizato that of the ex-queen of Bohemia. beth, but she peremptorily refused to History contains few instances of a marry a Catholic prince. Des Cartes more chivalrous, romantic, self-sacrificing (born 1596) was the friend, the tutor, the friendship. His purse and person (Craven correspondent of this learned daughter of was rashly brave) were both zealously de. Frederick and of Elizabeth, who remained voted to the service of his royal mistress. unmarried, and ultimately became abbess Munificent in outlay, indefatigable in of the Protestant Stift of Herford, in military activity, reckless in contempt of Westphalia. She died in 1680. danger, Craven might well have adopted Of Henrietta Maria there is no vivid Christian's motto, “ All for glory and for record, but she married, 1651, Prince her;
the only difference being that Ragoczy von Siebenbürgen. Craven thought more of her than he did Luise was pretty, and was lively. She of glory: In Christian the passions had was a paintress of repute in her own little been mixed. Gustavus himself paid a circle, and seems to have loved gaiety and compliment to Craven's valor; and of all society. the volunteers Reay, Hepburn, and Sophia — the ablest and most beautiful others — who fought for her, and for the of the daughters — “one of the handPalatinate, Craven was animated by the somest, the most cheerful, sensible,