« VorigeDoorgaan »
h after! , Jalina Odes,
Lapton, there is a long narrative of a woman, who, ber| by their very extravagance, and that truly unique
traced many parallel passages. the cold in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, and thence coner te ber lame, Leonato gives out that she is dead ; and connubial rites. Overpowered with sleep, occape her fageral is performed at Messina, while in sioned by a narcotic given him in bis wine, he fails
reality she is concealed at a country residence. in bis enterprise, and his vessel and cargo are for
Geroado is borror-strack at baving occasioned her feited. Another ship is equipped, which he loses Must
MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM.
Of the general fable used in this most wild but we shall cite, occurs in Cooke's Vin- most beautiful production, no satisfactory account a abd Prancis I. one Raynacio Milan, for betra ying a fort to the French. His classify thein. Bottom and his friend, (it is conjec
was imprisoned at are so strangely incongruous, that it is difficult to wife petitions Don Garcias
, the governor, in his tured by Skottowe,) are perhaps broad likenesses favour, who refuses to listen, bat on dishonourable of the theatrical monarchs whom Shakspeare found
submits in the bickerings, jealousies, and ridiculous conproaches, bis courage failing, he prevails on his bably with a picture of the green-room politics of wife to resign herself to the governor's will. A the Globe.
of the fairies, whose exploits constitute the the sobappy woman, and she receives in return her most amusing, and whose dialogue is the most basband's lifeless body. The dake of Ferrara beautiful portion of this play, we can fornish nu
The superstitions of the east Doa Garcias lo marry the lady, orders him to be and the north, of Greece and of Roine, have been
examined in search of a clue to their history; even These narrations Shakspeare very probably saw,
the Dews and Peries of Persia have been thought and they might bave suggested the principal inci- their remote originals. But as we know
that a dents ia bis drama. It is ancertain whether he belief in their existence was general in Shak
acquainted with Cinthio's novel, as there was speare's age, the poet is abandantly justified for not any known translation of it in his time. His the skilful introduction of a popular superstition. chief model for the plot must have been the old play of Promos and Cassandra, in which may be
LOVE'S LABOUR'S LOST.
This is one of the few plays written by ShakThe improvement doabiless is immense. Cas- speare, the source of wbich has not been ascersandra is a degraded wretch, whom we may pity tained. It was probably borrowed from an obbat cannot respect; while Isabella is a glorious scure French novel; the dramatis personæ in a example of every virtue which cah beautify the great measure demonstrate this, as well as a palfemale character. All the other agents of the play, pable gallicism in Act IV. Sc. 1. viz. the terming a jastly say of Sbakspeare, that wbere he found
his sportively introduced, is not given correctly. The materials of lead, he has left them of gold.
genuine heroes were Joshua, David, Judas MaccaMUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING.
beus, Hector, Alexander, Julius Cæsar, Arthur,
Charlemagne, and Godfrey of Bulloigne, or someTAE principal incident of this very delightful times in his room, Gay of Warwick. Why, among comedy may be found in a Spanish romance, called the five who are introduced,
Hercules and PomTiraste the White, written in the dialect of Cata- pey are included, remains to be accounted for; lonia, about the year 1400. The same story is perhaps the error was intentional. pied by Bandello, who narrates it in the following
MERCHANT OF VENICE. terns :
The plot of this play comprises the chief circumFenicia, the daughter of Leonato, a gentleman stance of the bond, the auxiliary incident of the of Messina, is betrothed to Timbreo de Cardona ; caskets, and the episode of Lorenzo and Jessica. and Gerondo, a rejected lover, anxious to prevent The story of the bond is of oriental origin ; it first tress is false, and offers to shew him-a stranger Florentine novelist, from which our dramatist, soaling her chamber window. Timbreo accepts though indirectly perhaps, has taken bis materials
. enter the house of Leonato in the garb of a gentle - Ansaldo, to travel to Alexandria ; bat changes his mun. Fall of jealousy, he accuses the innocent mind, in the hopes of gaining a lado great wealth Fenicia to ber father, and refuses to marry her. and beauty
at Belmont, whose band is proffered to The to
lore. ** of the
Creath; and, in the agony of remorse,
acknowledges in a second attempt; and a third is made at the ex, his guilt. Timbreo is requested to espouse a lady pense of his godfather, who borrows ten thousand whose face he has never seen; and instead of the ducats from a Jew, on condition that if they are not stranger bride be expeets, is presented at the
nap- returned by a stipulated day, the lender may cut a vial ditar with his injured and beloved Fenicia. pound of flesh from any part of the debtor's body. Sach is Bandello's tale, which might bave reached Giannetto obtains the lady; but lost in delight with Stakspeare throagh the medium of the Cent His- bis bride, forgets Ansaldo's bond till the very day tories Tragiques, published by Belleforest, in 1583, it becomes due. He hastens to Venice, bät the and translated shortly afterwards. There are many time is past, and the usurer refuses ten times the palpable coincidences between the play and the no value of his bond. Giannetto's lady arrives at this vel; get the deviations are frequent, and not crisis, and causes it to be announced that she can
always judicions. But the inimitable delineations resolve difficult questions in law. Consulted in 1 of character, with which the drama abounds, are the case of Ansaldo, she decides, that the Jew
uaborrowed. Those rich humourists, Dogberry must have his pound of flesh; but that be sball and Verges, who, while they outdo nature, please lose bis head if he cuts more or less, or draws one
prode parças widos blancy
drop of blood. The Jew relinquishes his demand, | siderable light on the author's method in compo and' Ansaldo is released. The bride will not receive tion. money as a recompense, but desires Giannetto's The bond story in the Gesta Romanorum do wedding-ring, which he gives her. The lady ar not exist at present in any printed edition, thong rives at home before her husband, and immediately it might in Shakspeare's time; the Latin texth asks for her ring, which he being unable to produce, never been published, and as a curious specim she upbraids him with having given it to some of ancient English, we give a portion of the tran mistress. At length, Giametto's sorrow affects his lation from the Harleian manuscripts, written wife, and she explains the particulars of her the reign of Henry VI. “Then saide he, the journey and disguise. All this is closely followed barde me never seye bat that I would ba by Shakspeare; but the improbability of a lady's my covenante kept. Sothely, seyde sbe, a possessing so much legal acumen is skilfully re thou sbalt trowe afor your Sir Juge, and af moved by making her consult an eminent lawyer, yowe alle, I sey now, Sir Juge, ywithe a right w and act under his advice, and Portia is not guilty of dom of what I shall seye to yowe, ye have iba the licentious freedoms, imputed to her prototype howe moche. I have proferid this marchaopt in the novel.
the lyf of this knigte, and he forsahithe alle, a The chasing of the caskets is borrowed from the askithe the lawe, and that likithe me mochie, a English Gesta Romanorum, a collection of tales therefore lordinges, that beye her, herithe me wi much esteemed by our ancestors. Three vessels I shall seye. Ye kpowithc welle, that the kn were placed before the king of Apulia's daughter bonne bim never by letter, but that the marchar for her choice. The first was of pure gold, and shulde have power to kutte his Alesbe frot filled with dead men's bones ; on it was this in- boons, but there was no covenaant made of she scription : Who chuses me shall find what he deserves. ing of blode, thereof was nothing ispoke, and ther The second was of silver, and thus inscribed : let him set hand on him anon, and yf he shede o Who chuses me shall find what nature covets. It bloode with bis shavinge of the fleshe, forsothe th was filled with earth. The third vessel was of shalle toe kynge bare goode lawe upon him.” HI lead, but filled with precious stones; it had this horrible incident of cutting off the flesh had not inscription :
: Who chuses me shall find ichat God has curred in the several stories alluded to, it might be placed. The princess, after praying for assistance, been suggested by that atrocious decemviral law chuses the leaden vessel. The emperor applands the twelve tables, which empowered a creditor her wisdom, and she is united to his son. In the mangle the living body of his debtor, without play the inscriptions are changed; but the analogy of punishment for cutting more or less than is evident. The loves of Jessica and Lorenzo magistrate allowed. For the honour of the I bear much resemblance to a tale of Massuccio di man law, it is not recorded that the above inbur Salerno, who flourished about 1470 ; but this sub- decree was ever enforced. sidiary plot is not of sufficient importance to need a particular inquiry. In a work called The Orator,
AS YOU LIKE IT. printed in 1599, is the declaration “of a Jew, who SHAKSPEARE bas borrowed the plot of this exc would for his debt have a pound of the flesh of a sitely beautiful play from Lodge's Rosalynd, Christian,” which appears to bave suggested hints Euphues' Golden Legacye, of which we shall for Shylock's conduct before the court. “It is tempt to give a brief abstract. Sir John of B impossible," urges the Jew, “to break the credit deaux, at his death, left to his eldest
Salady of traffick amongst men, without great detriment to fourteen ploughlands, with all bis manors, hou: the commonwealth. For debt you bind all the and plate'; to his second son, Fernandyne, twe body onto a most loathsome prison, or unto an in- ploughlands; but to the youngest, Rosader, tolerable slavery. A man may ask, why I would gave his horse, his armour, and his lance, with not rather take silver of this man than bis flesh? | ieen ploughlands, for he thought Rosader wo But I will only say, that by his obligation be transcend his brother in honour as be did in co oweth it me." There is an old ballad in the Re- liness. Saladyne was discontented with the w liques of Ancient Poetry, whicb, if seen by the bis brothers were under age, and he resolved poet, might have been employed; and its date appropriate their property to himself. Ferr seems prior to his time.
dyne, he determined to keep at his studies w “No penny for the loan of it,
he ased his wealth ; Rosader was uneducated, For one year shall you pay,
Saladyne made him his foot-boy. But the pro You may do me as good a turn
spirited youth sparned at the degradation, Before my dying day.
“ why,” he asked, “has my brother felled But we will have a merry jest,
woods and spoilt my manors ?” Saladyne orde For to be talked long;
him to be chastised: Rosader seized a rake, You shall make me a bond, quoth he,
drove him from the garden, but would not b That shall be large and strong.”
him, when he solicited a reconciliation. To
mond at this time filled the throne of France, The stanza that follows might have originated which he had driven his brother Gerismond the strong circumstance of Shylock's whetting his exile, in the forest of Arden. Torismond knife, to cut away his victim's forfeit flesh : claimed a tournament and a wrestling match, " The bloody Jew now ready is,
Saladyne bribed a Norman wrestler to kill R With whetted blade iu band,
der, whom he induced to enter the lists. Ali To spoil the blood of innocent
Torismond's daughter, and Rosalyod, the daug By forfeit of his bond.”
of Gerismond, were preseut, with all the bear
of France. Two young men had been killed Gratiano and Launcelot do not appear to be the Norman, when Rosader stepped forwards borrowed from any of these sources, but a play noticing the company more than the combatan on the same subject certainly existed long before; fixed his eyes on Rosalynd: the struggle was and the originals of those characters might have and fierce, but victory at length decided for R been taken from it. The loss of this performance der. Rosalynd took a jewel from her neck,
son, Montanus and Pbæbe; but the poetical beau- | instances is exactly similar, allowing for a few trile di Labour Wonne, is taken from Boccacio; but by married first : but the lady's shrewish temper de
tbedaan Rosalynd's popalarity, banishes her 'froin court. tained, and Giletta has the satisfaction, in due time,
Alinda remonstrates, and the same sentence is of giving birth to two sons, both bearing a strong passed on both. The coasios resolve to travel, likeness to their father. Bertram, informed of his and Rosalynd, the tallest, dresses herself as a page: wife's absence, determines to return home. The they change their names to Ganimede and Aliena, count gives a great entertainment, and Giletta with and arrived at the forest of Arden, where they buy bis ring on ber finger, and twin sons begotten by & eottage of the shepherd, Coridon; they also him in her arms, prostrates herself before him, and meet with another rustic, Montanus, who amuses supplicates to be acknowledged as his wife. The them with bis idle courtship of a country coquette count kisses her, and vows benceforth to love and named Phæbe. Meanwhile, Saladyne's batred of honoar ber. Sbakspeare has copied the tale with
Rosader breaks out anew. The persecuted youth almost verbal fidelity, in many of its particulars ; Jage lies to the forest of Arden, accompanied by Adam: but for the comic scenes, wbich are very prominent, the ang they lose their way, and are in danger of perishing and serve to introduce the vain-glorious poltroon
from banger. Rosader scoars the forest in quest Parolles, he had no authority in the novel.
TAMING OF THE SHREW.
The Induction has for its original a tale in bat in reality to obtain bis properiy." Saladyne the Arabian Nights, called the Sleeper Awakened ; the 24 Kanders in the forest, and is just falling a prey but Sly, the tinker's transformation has been often
to a bangry lioness, when bis injured brother saves repeated. A similar trick is related thus, by Grimhis life, which effects a reconcilement. Saladyne stone, in bis Histories, 1607: Walking at night shortly after rescues Alinda from the violence of through the streets of Brussels, duke Philip found raffans, and conceives a passiou for her, which is a drunken mechanic asleep on the pavement: he returned. Rosader bad not forgotten the fair one,
caused him to be taken to his palace, re-clothed, Those smile stimulated, and whose gift rewarded and laid on bis richest bed. When the man awoke, a his bravers. In the wilds of Arden, he sighs forth train of servants appeared, and reverendly asked if her naine, and inscribes verses in her praise on the he would rise, and
what robea he would wear: astotrees. The cousins meet him, and favoured by nished at this, he doubted the evidence of his senses. their disguise, talk with him on the subject of his All day he was treated with great ceremony, and passion. In due
time, Ganimede the page is found solaced with every delight. In the evening a play to be Rosalyod; she is restored to her father, and was performed, a banquet followed, and he fell into united to Rosader. The dethroned king overcomes
drunken insensibility. Hereupon he was re-dressed the usarper, and recovers his crown.
in bis rags, and left in the place where the duke This tale is told by Lodge with insafferable found him. In the morning he began to remember pedantry, conceit, and prolixity; yet our great what had occured, but concluded the whole to have dramatist bas made a just and interesting use of the
been a dream, and related his vision to his wife. stery, with the exception of the character of Adam,
Io 1594, a play called The Taming of a Shrew, whose fidelity is strangely neglected, whereas in
was entered on the books of the Stationers' Comthe novel be is justly
rewarded. Jaques is origi- pany, from which there can be no doubt Shaknal; Toachstone and Audrey are suggested by speare took his comedy. The Induction in both ties of the comedy are exclusively Shakspeare's vial discordances the story of Taming a Shrew
and of Taming the Shrew, is the same. "Were we
to notice verbal coincidences, we must quote at ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL. least half of each comedy. In the old play, the The plot of this play, originally called Love's father of three daughters wishes the eldest to be Shakspeare, from Painter's Palace of Pleasure: the ters suitors, and the lovers of the younger sisters Dorel is called Giletta of Narbona.
resort to the expedient of procuring a husband for Isnardo, count of Rossiglione, retains a famous Kate. By a singular mode of courtship, the shrew physician, Gerardo of Narbona, whose daughter is won, and, by the bridegroom's persevering austeGiletta is in love with the count's son, Bertram. rity, at length tamed. On the wedding-day the Isbardo dies, his son becomes
the king's ward, and lover appears fantastically habited. is sent to Paris. The physician dying, Giletta “ Fie, Ferando, not thus attired: for shame; makes a journey in pursuit of Bertram. The king Come to my chamber, and there suite thyself, languishes under a malady thought incurable ; Gi Of twenty suits that I did never weare.". Jetta, farnished with a specific of her father's, pro
OLD PLAY. mises to effect a core in eight days: the penalty of sailare is death, bat if successful, she stipulates
" See not your bride in these unreverent robes ; for permission to choose a husband, with reserva
Go to my chamber, pat on clothes of mine."
SHAKSPEARE. tion only of the royal blood. The king is cured, Giletta dixes on Bertram, and anable to disobey All that follows at Ferando's house is closely the king, he consents to the marriage ; but disgusted imitated. The quarrel in the choice of dresses is with the meanness of ber family, he joins the Flo- precisely the same; many of the ideas are preserved
rentine ariny, and in reply to her submissive mes without alteration; the faults found with the cap, the doseges, he coldly says " let her do what she list, the gown, the compassed cape, the trunk sleeves, and
for I do purpose to dwell with her when she shall the balderdash about taking up the gown, have been hare this ring upon ber finger, and a son in her copied, as well as the scene in which Petruchio armis begotten by me.” Giletta provides herself makes Katharine call the sun the moon. The with money, and travels to Florence : here she joke of addressing an elderly gentleman as a fads that Bertram is in love with the daughter of young budding virgin, fair and fresh and sweet,” apoor, but reputable lady, to whose house she belongs also to the old drama; but in this instance repairs
, and explaining her sitoation, proposes that it is remarkable, that while the leading idea is the young woman should agree to the couut's adopted, the mode of expressing it is quite difwishes, on his giving her the ring he wore. Prepa- ferent. rations are made for Bertram's introduction at the Shakspeare is also under some obligations to an lead of night, and Giletta, instead of the young old comedy called The Supposes, translated from lady, receives Bertram to her arms: the ring is ob” | Ariosto, by George Gascoigne, and published in
it of that Race
with Leer le resah sell. For
studies o ped sede
ll the best
combatan ggle su ded for a ver beck tarts to
mediatie ond, as
1566; and, on the whole, The Taming of the Shrew genias, is absolately his own. In the character has very slight claims to praise on the score of ori- Leontes, a fine picture of jealousy is given; ! ginality,
same passion in Egisthus is comparitively feel WINTER'S TALE.
Hermione is in every respect far superior to This wild bat singularly fascinatiog play is found prototype, Bellaria. 'Fawnia bardly gave a l ed on a novel entitled Dorastus and Fawnia, writ- for that delightful personification of all that is a ten by Robert Greene, a contemporary of Shak-able in woman, Perdita. Autolycos has no dou speare's, whose works, though neglected, evince in the romance; and thoagh both a liar and a th very considerable genius. We shall give a few his humour is inexhaustible, and serves most h passages from the romance, contrasting them with pily to brighten the more sombre colouring of quotations from the drama, which fully evince our racter, which predominates in this play. author's obligations to that work.
COMEDY OF ERRORS. “If the divine powers be privie to homan actions, as no doubt they are, I hope my patience
The Menæchmi of Plautus gave rise to this pl shall make fortune blush, and my unspotted life but as a translation of Plauius's drama was shall stayne spiteful discredit. *'. How I have published till 1596, and it is supposed the Com led my life before Egesthus' coming, I appeal, Pan
of Errors was written some years before, it is dosto, to the gods, and to thy conscience.'
vious that Shakspeare could have derived no
Greene. sistance from it. The chronology of the play, h -“ If powers divine
ever, is disputed, and it may be necessary to Behold our human actions, as they do,
that between the work of our dramatist, and I doubt not then, but innocence shall make
“ Pleasant and fine conceited Comedy, ca False accusation blush, and tyranny
Menechmus," there are none of those u Tremble at patience."
points of resemblance, which have enabled I appeal
to trace the source of 'bis plots in his o To your own conscience, sir, before Polixenes dramas. Came to your court, how I was in your grace, before queen Elizabeth, at Hampton Co
A piece was enacted on New Year's night, 1 How merited to be so."-SHAKSPEARE. “ It is her part to deny sach a monstrous crime; longer in existence, and we
are therefore anab
called The Historie of Error; but the play i and to be impudent in fores wearing the fact, since I decide whether he was indebted to that or to she bad passed all shame in committing the fault.”
drama of Plautus; if our poet had no other so ** I ne'er heard yet,
of information, than the translation in question That any of these bolder vices wanted
surely deserves high praise for the judicious i
ner in which he has einployed it. Less impudence to gainsay what they did, Than to perform it."-SHAKSPEARE.
MACBETH. “ What bath passed between him and me, the
This sublime tragedy is evidently derived gods only know, and I hope will presently reveal. Holinshed's Chronicle. We shall select a That I loved Egisthus, I cannot denie; that I bo- passages from the historian, to prove how o noured him, I shame not to confess. But as touch- his narrative was to the poet, and then endea ing lascivious lust, I say, Egisthus is honest,
and hope myself to be found without spot. For Fra- of the drama is peculiarly Shakspeare's.
to point out briefly in what particular the i nion, I can neither accuse bim, nor excase him: I
After a few facts relative to the previous ei was not privie to his departare ; and that this is in the lives of Duncan and Macbeth, which co truth which I have here rebearsed, I refer myself pond with the account in the tragedy, H to the divine oracle."-GREENE.
shed goes on thus : “ It fortaned as Macbet? “For Polixenes, With whom I am accus'a, I do confess,
Banquo journied towards Fores, where the
then lay, they went sporting by the way tog I lov'd him, as in honour he requird ;
without other company, save only themselves, With such a kind of love as might become
ing through the woods and fields, when A lady like me, with a love ev'n such ;
denly, in the midst of a laund, there met them So, and no other, as yourself comnianded :
women in strange and wild apparel, resem Which not to have done, I think, had been in me
creatures of elder world, whom, when tbey a Both disobedience and iugratitude, To you, and toward your friend; whose love had tively, beheld, wondering much at the sighi
first of them spake, and said, “ All hail, Mac spoke, Even since it could speak, from an infant, freely
thane of Glamis, (for he bad lately entered That it was yours. Now, for conspiracy,
that diguity and office by the death of bis i I know not how it tastes, though it be dish'd
Sinel.) The second of them said, * Hail, Mac
thane of Cawdor. But the third said, 'Al For me to try how: all I know of it, Is, that Camillo was an honest man;
Macbeth, that bereaster shall be king of Scotl
Then Banquo,' What manner of women,' sait And why be left your court, the gods themselves,
'are you, that seem so little favourable unti Wotting no more tban I, are ignorant. Your honours all,
whereas to my fellow here, besides bigh of I do refer me to the oracle :
ye assign also the kingdom, appointing fort!
thing for me at all ? · Yes,saith the first of t Apollo be my judge."-SHAKSPEARE.
we promise greater benefits unto thee, than “Once in every day he went to Bellaria's tomb, him, for he shall reign in deed, bat with an an! and with tears of penitence and sorrow,
Jamented end: neither shall he leave any issue behind her unhappy fate, and his own misfortunes.” to succeed in his place; where, contrarily, th
GREENE. deed shalt not reign at all, but of thee those “ Once a day I'll visit
be born, which shall govern the Scotish kin; The chapel where they lie; and tears, shed there, by long order of continual descent.' Herewit Shall be my recreation."-SHAKSPEARE.
aforesaid women vanished immediately out of Shakspeare has even preserved the blunders of sight.” The historian proceeds to detail cir the novelist for the shipwreck on the coast of stances” exactly parallel to those in the Bohemia is in the original. His chief deviation from Malcolm is made to alarm Macduff with an act Greene, is in the catastrophe : the whole of the of his own crimes, and that Thane, though dispeve statue scene, that wonderful effort of successful I to forgive much in his prince, convinced at la
that he was abandoned to wickedness, indignantly 1 in vain follow me, that am not appointed to be slain eiciains, "Here then I leave thee, and therefore by any creature that is born of a woman ? Come on, 527, ob, se vabappy and miserable Scotchmen, therefore, and receive thy reward which thou hast which are thus scourged with so many and sundry deserved for thy pains; and therewithal, he lifted calamities, each one above other! Ye have one ap his sword, thinking to have slain him. But MacGarsed and wicked tyrant that now reigneth over duff quickly avoiding from his horse, ere he came at you, without any right or title, oppressing you him, answered (with bis naked sword in his hand) with bis most bloody cruelty. This other, that saying: It is true, Macbeth, and now shall thy hath the right to the crown, is so replete with the insatiable cruelty have an end, for I am even he inconstant behaviour and manifest vices of English- that thy wizards have told thee of, who was never men, that he is nothing worthy to enjoy it: for by born of my mother, but ripped out of her womb;' bis own confession, he is not only avaricious, and therewithal he stept unto him, and slew him in the given to unsatiable lust, but so false a traitor with place. Then cutting his head froin his shoulders, all, that no trast is to be had anto any word he he set it upon a pole, and brought it outo Malcolm. speaketb. Adieu, Scotland, for now I account This was the end of Macbeth, after he had reigned myself a banished man for ever, without comfort seventeen years over the Scotishmen.” Such is Hoer consolation :' and, with these words the brackisk linshed's History: Shakspeare's deviations from it tears trickled down his cheeks very abundantly. are not numerous. At the last, when he was ready to depart, Mal The old Chronicle gives no particulars of Daneslm took him by the sleeve, and said, Be of can's murder, but simply relates, that Macbeth good comfort, Macduff, for I have none of these “slew the king at Inverness," a brevity which our vices before remembered, but bave jested with dramatist supplied by reference to a former portion thee in this manner, only to prove thy mind: for of the history, where a narrative occurs of the divers times heretofore bath' Macbeth sought by murder of King Daffe, in the year 971 or 972, by this manner of means to bring me into his hands, Donwald, captain of the Castle of Fores. In this bat the more slow I have shewed myself to con account, the most minute particulars given by the desceed to thy motion and request, the more dili- poet are to be found. The king's chamberlains gence shall I use in accomplishing the same.' In are made drank, and are conveyed to bed in a state coatinently bereupon they embraced each other, of stupor. Donwald abhors the act he is about and promising to be faithful the one to the other, to perpetrate, bat perseveres at his wife's instigathey fell in consultation how they might best pro- tion. In the morning, when the murder is discovide for all their business, to bring the same to vered, Donwald assuming a frenzy of loyalty, slays good effect.
In the meantime, Malcolm the chamberlains, on whom the guilt is laid. A caparchased sach favoar at king Edward's hands, talogue of fearful omens, portentous of the king's that old Siward, earl of Northumberland, was ap- death, is given; to which Shakspeare is indebted pointed with ten thousand men to go with him into for a similar enumeration. Holinshed does not Scotland, to support him in this enterprise, for the say, that Macbeth's fall was distinguished by exrecovery of his right. **** When Macbeth traordinary courage; but with his usual attention to perceived his enemies' power to increase by such nature. Shakspeare closed the life of a soldier, aid as came to them forth of England with his ad- whose bravery was ouoe conspicuous, with a desversary Malcolm, he recoiled back into Fife, there perate exertion of valour; indeed, the whole chapurposing to abide in camp fortified, at the castle racter of the guilty Thané bas so many redeeming of Dansinane, and to fight with bis enemies, if they points, that we regard him to the last with pity and meant to pursue him; howbeit, some of his friends respect. The matcbless powers of our author are advised bim that it should be best for bim, either no where displayed with more grandeur than in bis to make some agreement with Malcolm, or else to Lady Macbeth, An outline of this character may lee with all speed into the Isles, and to take his be found in the Chronicle: not
only is she there treasare with him, to the end he mightwage sundry described as the stimulatress of her husband to his great princes of the realm to take his pari, and re- deed of blood, but boldly called a woman “ very taia strangers, in whom he might better trust than ambitions, burning in anquenchable desire to bear in his own subjects, which stole daily from him : the name of queen." In consulting the History of bat be had such confidence in bis prophecies, that King
Daffe, the bard found
additional motives to he believed he should never be vanquished, till assign bis heroine an active participation in the Biram wood were brought to Dansinane ; nor yet murder. Donwald's wife suggested the king's asto be slain with any man, that should be, or was born sassination, devised the means to accomplish it,
**** Malcolm following hastily and brought it to a consummation, when her husafter Maobeth, came the night before the battle band greatly abhorred the act in his heart," and anto Birnam wood; and when the
army had rested with these rude materials was produced a characawbile there to refresh them, be commanded every ter so terribly sablime, that the efforts of other had to get a bough of some tree or other, of that dramatists sink into insignificance. Yet even this wood in his hand, as big as he might
bear, and to bold bad woman has a touch of humanity in her march forth therewith in such wise, that' on the composition, for she cannot kill Duncan herself, bext morrow they might come closely and without because he resembled her father as he slept. sight in this manner, within view of his enemies. For the introduction of witches
and spirits in his On the morrow, when Macbeth bebeld them como tragedy, Shakspeare had abundant authority: Hoing in this sort, he first marvelled what the matter linshed expressly says, that the women who admeant, but
in the end remembered himself, that dressed Macbeth, were fairies or weird (that is the prophecy which he had heard long before that prophetic) sisters; and at the period in which the time, of the coming of Birnam-wood unto Dunsi- play was written,' the popolar mind was imbued kane castle was likely to be now fulfilled. Never- with implicit belief of magicians, astrologers, and theless, he broaght his men in order of battle, and witches,
who disclosed the events of faturity, and exhorted them to do valiantly; how beit his enemies controlled the actions of mankind. Besides, the lead scarcely cast from them their boughs, when Boating saperstitions of the age were embodied Macbeth perceiving their numbers, betook him and justified by an act of the first parliament of straight to fight, whom Macduff pursued with James, against witchcraft ; and by the reprint in where Macbell perceiving that Macduff was hard shortly after his accession to the throne. Witches, traitor, what meaneth it, that thou shouldest thus pests, create hail, thunder and lightning, sink ships,
of any woman.