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On my return to this place in 1844, he was among the first to rejoin the school; and, as he had made considerable progress in English, and my former best scholars were all scattered, I soon entrusted to him the over-sight of a small class. I had generally reason to be satisfied with his diligence in preparing his own lessons, as well as with his attention to the youths who were placed under him. Nevertheless, he was a decided Hindoo; and, when his increasing knowledge rendered it impossible for him to believe in all the abominations of the popular super stition, he sought refuge in a form of Vedantism. That, too, I was at length delighted to observe, began to give way; and I believe I witnessed its dying struggles, one day, several weeks ago, when he came to me, and asked me whether I could procure him a copy of the Bhagavadgita*.
A very little conversation revealed the state of his mind; and, after I read and ex. plained to him a few sentences of that celebrated jargon, he seemed satisfied, and wisely concluded that the book did not contain what he wanted. I, therefore, gave him instead of it a little book containing the three tracts" Believe and Live;" “ Sin put away by Christ;" and "Poor Joseph." He studied his Bible, and was a constant at. tendant in the Bible-class on Sabbath-morning. But I could never induce him, on any consideration, to write a line upon any subject which involved a comparison of the claims of Hindooism and Christianity.
This seemed so unlike the conduct of many others in similar circumstances, that I almost felt discouraged by it. But the fact was, he would not denounce the religion of his fathers, nor commend that of Jesus, until he was prepared to abandon the former, and embrace the latter. The conduct of many who have acted differently seemed to asto nish him very much.
Some months ago, one of his brothers died, and his mind was filled with poignant grief. One day, soon after that event, I could see that his soul was deeply agitated, when we read a fine chapter in Abercrom. bie's Moral Feelings," which concludes with these words—"No wanderer lost-a family in heaven." From that time, accord. ing to his own account, his misery rapidly increased. At home. he strictly observed all the rites and ceremonies incumbent on him as a Brahmin, and then prayed to God, sometimes with and sometimes without a reference to Jesus Christ. But, in the latter method, he avers he could never find any peace at all. His employment in the school now became an intolerable burden to him; for, to use his own words, “ he felt as if he were playing with God." At one time, he had almost formed a resolution to run away,
and never more appear in this district. His mental distress was still farther increased, when his family made him 'drink with them the Panchagavyat, assuring him that it freed them from all sin. His own experience but too distinctly told him that such was not its efficacy.
His relations at length began to suspect that all was not right; and it was arranged that he should forthwith be married. As a preliminary step, therefore, they asked him to swear that he would never embrace Christianity : that, however, he would not do ; and some of his school-friends, knowing the state of his mind, admonished him that now or never was his time to follow Christ. He was still greatly perplexed ; and, only a few days before he finally took up his abode with us, he returned some books which I had lent him, intending, as he now informs us, to leave the school for ever. However, he finally concluded to open his mind to me, but with so little determination, that, even when on the way to my house on Sundaymorning, he felt strongly tempted to run away. “But where," was his reflection, “ where shall I go? my trouble is in my own soul.” In that state of mind, he and another Brahmin youth were observed on Sabbath the 25th of April, at an earlier hour than usual, seated in the Bible-class Room; the former reading his Bible with tears, and the latter looking very grave and solemn. When the class was dismissed, Ja. ganuatham followed me to my room, and said he did not wish to go home again.
“Why?" I asked, “ Have you had any quarrel with your family ?"
“ No, Sir, I never quarrelled with any of my family, I love them all much ; but I am a sinner, and I believe that Christ alone can save me."
“ Are you, then, determined to follow Him?"
“But are you aware of the opposition that you will have to encounter ??"
" I hope God will strengthen me to do so ; but I am most sorry because of the trouble you will suffer on my account.”.
Such was the substance, and, as nearly as I can recollect, the form of our first conversation. Mr. Johnston also conversed with him; and we spent the remainder of the forenoon' in prayer, reading the Scriptures, and conversing thereon,-anxiously awaiting the arrival of his relatives. At length his elder brother, having been in. formed of what had taken place, arrived, and, for an hour and a half, used every effort to win or drive the lad from his purpose. At length, finding all his efforts to be
# This is a text-book of Vedantism. + A disgusting compound of the five products of a cow.
in vain, he requested leave to carry him away “ Yes !” he replied, laying his hand upon a by force; and, being refused, very reluct- little bundle under his arm; “I have my Bible antly left the house.
with me." This he had retained through all the His mother and sister now arrived, and rough treatment he had met with ; and, in set up such a noise, that we deemed it pru. the middle of the night, when some of his dent to close the door for a while. As we fellow-prisoners asked him, Why he, a Brahhad anticipated, an immense crowd began to min, who ought to be a guide to others, assemble; and we did not think it safe to should forsake his religion, and bring so open the door again. Two Police-peons, much trouble upon himself?-he told them however, arrived, for the purpose of appre- that the Bible contained the only true revehending our protégé on a charge of theft. lation of the will of God to man; and, at This turned out to be entirely a false charge, their request, having procured a small light, brought forward for the purpose of getting read and explained to them some portions of the lad into their possession. When the the blessed volume. Amid all the distrac. mob-headed, as they were, by some of the tions of his position, the Lord enabled him most influential Government Servants — to give some very convincing replies to his broke into the house, they screamed and adversaries. yelled most hideously. His aged mother On the Monday morning, we all appearmoaned sadly, striking her head against the ed before the Magistrate; and, after an stones; but because she did not perform this inquiry attended with great clamour and latter service with sufficient energy, a Brahmin excitement, we were escorted home by a was observed to do it for her several times. party of military, without further molesta
Jaganuatham was subjected to much ill- tion; though it was thought prudent to leave treatment in the Police-office. Of course, all a small guard with us for a few days. his relatives were allowed free access to him; Jaganuatham was baptized on the following but, in addition to that, all the haughty Wednesday, and next Sabbath sat down Brahmins in the place were allowed to tor. with us to commemorate our Redeemer's ment him as they liked with their silly bab. death. He said he was happy, and felt that blings. They gave him water to drink, in the Lord was with him. His family have which they had dissolved some drug; but he performed his funeral rites, and he has now refused it. They afterwards gave him sour returned to his duties in the School. May butter-milk å favourite beverage with the gracious Lord preserve him, and make Brahmins-in which they had previously him to be a great blessing to his countrymen ! immersed some copper-coins. This proved The whole community is at present shaken emetic, and proclaimed the fact that his caste to its centre on the subject of Christianity. had been broken ; though the Brahmins af. The exhibition made of its power and its terwards, in open court, declared that they worth has told very favourably on the minds had reason to believe he had eaten nothing of the natives generally. Our refusal to pro. with us.
secute the Ringleaders of the riot, even About ten o'clock, Mr. Johnston and my though the Magistrate openly said they self went to the Police-office, accompanied would be severely punished if we did so, by several European brethren, and found the has led to surmisings by no means agreeable place still crowded with Brahmins. After to the supporters of Hindooism. This, of some conversation with him and the by- course, increases the exasperation of our adstanders, I asked him, Whether he thought versaries, and calls forth malicious fury, he should be comfortable there all night? where gratitude ought to have had place.
THE LATE REV. SAMUEL W. FLAVEL. INTELLIGENCE of the death of this devoted servant of God was communicated to our readers in July, and we have since received from our esteemed brother, Mr. Thompson, of Bellary, the following brief but deeply interesting sketch of his personal history and christian labours :
SHUNKURU-LINGUM, the former name of ral changes in his temporal circumstances the subjectof this biographical notice, was born from the lower to the higher grades of perat Quilon about the year 1787, of respectable, sonal service in the camp and elsewhere, enbut heathen parents, of the Vellaulu or Cul. tered the employ of a gentleman holding a tivator-caste. In early life he differed little, civil appointment under the Ceylon Governif at all, from bis countrymen in blind de. ment. An apparently trivial circumstance votedness to idolatry, and in the practice of was the turning point of his life. Under a the degrading observances it enjoins. Divine tree of the forest, he found a copy of the GosProvidence led him by a way he knew not: he pels in Tamil, probably left there by a folleft the bome of his boyhood; and, after seve- lower of the British Camp; it being the time
of the Kandyan war, and strangers from Tranquebar having come over to Ceylon with the Army. He read the book with eager delight-it opened up to him a new region of thought and inquiry, and eventually was blessed to his conversion.
Deeply affected by a sense of the spiritual degradation of his countrymen, and impelled by love to the Saviour, he sought to make known to others those glorious truths he himself had embraced. He was soon after called to devote himself to the stated Ministry of the Gospel, when his ardent, wellsustained zeal led him to conduct his labours wherever he could obtain an audience, and not unfrequently in the midst of the most bitter opposition. The success which at. tended his preaching, in different parts of the Mysore, but especially at Bangalore, was too great to pass unobserved by the bigotted and the ignorant of the prevailing Creeds. Hindoos, Mahommedans, and Roman Ca. tholics combined against the man who, full of earnest, godly zeal, made known Salvation by grace through faith in a Crucified, but Divine Saviour, and who would admit of no mediators from the catalogues of the saints, and of no observances but such as are sanctioned by the Gospel. His discussions with the Romanists were replete with interest and instruction, and well had it been for his opponents had they confined themselves to this legitimate mode of defending their peculiar tenets; but, on the failure of argument, they united with the enemies of the Gospel, and sought the aid of the Civil Power to silence their common antagonist. Mr. Flavel was excluded from Mysore, Seringapatam, and the Pettah of Bangalore, not as an evil-doer, but as a “setter-forth of strange gods; because he preached unto the people Jesus and the resurrection."
At Bangalore, where he had connected himself with the London Missionary Society, he was ordained to the pastoral charge of the Native Church formed at that station of persons brought to a knowledge of the truth, chiefly through his instrumentality. In 1827 he removed from Bangalore to Bellary, and entered on that important sphere of labour,
which he occupied until his death, with many evident tokens of the divine approbation, in the growing esteem of his colleagues in the Mission, and the gradual increase of the church under his pastoral care.
Few men in this country have been more honoured of God in the conversion of sinners than Mr. Flavel ; and, among our Native Brethren, in the extent and accuracy of his knowledge, the thoroughly scriptural character of his teaching, and its practical bearing upon the circumstances and wants of his flock, he stood almost alone. His addresses to the heathen were ever distinguished by great adaptation to their modes of thought and feeling. The graceful dignity of his manner, added to the benevolent expression of his countenance, gave him a great advantage in recommending the Gospel. Men who rejected the message generally treated with respect him who brought it to them. He disarmed hostility by his gentleness, and won conviction to the truth, as far as human instrumentality can do so, by his clear and for. cible statement of its claims.
His last hours, past in much suffering, add another illustration, to the many already on record, of the power of the Gospel, alike over men of every country and clime, to dispossess the mind of fear and fill it with sacred joy in the prospect of dissolution.*
Divine Providence has left the family of Mr. Flavel entirely dependent on the sym. pathy and aid of the christian community. It is confidently believed that the circum. stances of the Widow and fatherless' need only to be known, to meet with a generous response from the disciples of Him, who acknowledges the cup of cold water' given to a disciple in his name. Something, too, may not improperly be considered as called for from the friends of Missions, as an humble thank-offering to God for raising up, among the natives of this country, one so eminently pious and devoted, and enabling him by his grace to continue faithful unto death
A brief Memoir of this eminent Native Minister is contemplated, in which a sketch of his character, labours, trials, and successes, will be presented to the Christian Public,
PROGRESS OF THE BECHUANA MISSION.
CHONUANE. WITHIN a recent period our brother, Mr. Livingston, anxious to extend the Gospel among the tribes of the interior, removed from Mabotsa, where Mr. Edwards still labours, and settled in a locality about 50 miles to the North-east of that station. The tribe to which he directed his efforts were in a state of extreme barbarity when he first went amongst them, and only an occasional ray of divine truth had fallen on their benighted minds. Though, as yet, there has been no ascertained instance of conversion to encourage our brother in his work, his zeal and perse
* Missionary Magazine for July, 1847.
verance, under divine favour, have already wrought a considerable improvement among them. This is chiefly apparent in their better observance of the Sabbath, the decline of their deeply-rooted and profane superstitions, their desire for the advantages of civilization, and their advancement in general intelligence. The statements of Mr. Livingston on these points, received under date of March last, will be read with lively and grateful interest.
We have now been a little more than a sion should be used to make them part with year with the Bakwains. No conversion has their superfluous wives, and other practices, occurred, yet real progress has been made : and become makoes, or white people, in custhe indications of advancement may be more toms. But after some time they began to interesting to myself than to any one else, inquire, Why only some white men observed yet I believe it would be apparent to all who the customs of their ancestors, and others might witness it. The Sabbath is observed so observed neither the Sabbath nor any custom far, that no work is done in the gardens on whatever ? “To be plain with you," said that day, and hunting is suspended. There one, we should like you much better if you is a general impression among the people, traded with us, and then went away without that we are their real friends. This is mani. for ever boring us by preaching that Word fested in a variety of ways.
of God." When we came, the belief in Rain-making They were exceedingly anxious to obtain was universal—they believed that, as God had medicine, which would enable them to shoot given the white man guns and other things, well. A Griqua came and sold a little bit of whereby he excelled the black, He had sulphur at a high price, and some of it was conferred the knowledge of rain-making on inserted under the skin of the hand of the them, as one thing in which they might excel Chief: this was shewn to me as a great acqui. the white. It availed nothing, when told that sition. I told them they had been deceived, their rain-medicines produced no sensible re- and handed the chief a cupful of sulphur, as sult. “Your medicines,” said they, “ pro- a proof that it was not mere niggardliness duce no visible effect either, when you ad- that prevented me from distributing “gun minister them, but they enter into the inward medicine." He looked at it for some time, parts-do their work-and then the cure fol- and then said, “ I wish you would deceive lows many days afterwards. In like man- me too, it would be pleasanter, though you ner, our rain-medicines enter into the clouds, cheated me out of my goods.” He returned heal them, and we have rain some time after- the sulphur, apparently feeling that falsehood wards."
was sweeter than truth. Sechele was chief Rain-maker himself, and The people, in general, shew more curiohad unbounded confidence in his own powers. sity than any others with whom I have come Last year, however, proved one of unusual in contact. Most of the principal men atdrought-the clouds went round and round tempt to acquire a knowledge of reading: the us, until the people began to say, “ These famine caused by the loss of the crops has, clouds make sport of us." Our house was however, prevented many from making much supposed the cause why no rain came down, progress. After attending a few days, they and we were requested to allow them to are obliged to go to the fields in search of sprinkle it with medicine. To this we had roots for their subsistence: the Chief, having 10 objection—yet no rain came—the crops always had food, has never been absent-he were lost. When I asked Sechele whether and his wives have, therefore, been our best he intended to make rain this year, he re- scholars. He can read the Testament pretty plied, “You will never see me at that work well, and always seems to relish our explanaagain." A Rain-maker came from a great tions of passages which he feels difficult. He distance-he asked a sheep, and promised has adopted European clothing, and is most rain at a certain period; but the time having desirous of acquiring the advantages of civi. arrived and no rain, when he asked another lization. We are encouraged to hope, that sheep, the people only answered him with his example will have a good effect on the laughter. Many still fear the Rain-maker, people. We trust our friends at home do but at one time no one dared to laugh at him. not cease to pray, that the influence of the
Formerly, all believed that preaching, Holy Spirit may change their hearts, for, unpraying, observance of the Sabbath, were just less they are converted, any advance they the customs we had derived from our an- may make in civilization will be but a poor cestors; and many felt jealous, lest compul. reward for our toils.
LEKATLONG. The succeeding communication from Mr. Helmore, dated in February last, while exhibiting the general progress of spiritual religion and social improvement among
the people of his charge, brings under view a special work of grace which has recently been commenced by the divine blessing on his labours. The case he relates bears signal testimony to the truth that God is no respecter of persons. In this remote part of the Missionary field, we are invited to behold the arm of his mercy stretched forth for the deliverance of the most abject and despised of our race ; raising them from the dust, and honouring them with a name and a place amongst the members of his redeemed family. The particulars furnished by our esteemed brother, in reference to this signal manifestation of heavenly grace, are deeply interesting, and cannot fail to awaken feelings of devout thankfulness and admiration in the minds of our readers.
The work of the Lord has advanced in a pleasing manner during the past year. We have received into the church 47 members, 13 of whom are from other churches and three are Griquas, who joined us under the follow. ing circumstances :-A few families having removed into this neighbourhood, I com. menced a distinct service for their benefit. Soon a little congregation was collected, consisting of Griquas, Korannas, and Bushmen, to the number of about 30. It was of the Lord! His Spirit had striven with the hearts of many, and no sooner were they brought together than the tears of repentance began to flow, confession of sin was made, and the question anxiously put, What shall I do to be saved? One young woman, wishing to unburden her mind, stated that she had been received into christian communion, in connexion with the Wesleyans, while yet a girl ; but, though always moral and sedate, had not till lately felt a real change of heart. Deep affliction had now, however, brought her to feel and confess her sinful state before God; and, having given herself up anew to Him, she is labouring, with all the warmth of a first love, to induce those around her to embrace the Gospel.
Ten out of the little motley group soon came forward, and three have been received into the church, having given satisfactory proofs of conversion. One of these stated that some time ago he wished to pray, but thought, “How can I, a sinner, pray? I am in hell. I am dead. I wished to say, Father, but I thought, how can I, a sinner, say Fa. ther? So I cried and said, Help me, O God! to call thee Father-wilt thou not be my Father? After this I dreamed that I saw a man of a lovely countenance tied by his legs and arms and stretched upon a cross, and a voice said, The blood of this man shall enter your heart, and then there will be peace. I awoke and exclaimed, Is not this an answer to my prayer?” He added, “I have now found peace and love. My only delight is to talk of the things of God, and I wish all my friends to know what the Lord has done for my soul."
A Bushman who is living in the neighbourhood is also a striking instance of the power of the Holy Spirit. He came one day in
deep distress, and said he could neither eat nor sleep: thoughts of God troubled his soul, and His holy name rung in his ears. Being asked, Whether he prayed to God? he replied that he feared to do so, for once he heard the word preached, but rejected it, and now would God receive him? Being encouraged to pray, with the assurance that yet there was mercy, he returned the next day rejoicing. He has proved a slow, but diligent scholar. After tending his master's cattle through the day, he frequently comes a considerable distance at night to receive instruction. He once said, “I am thirsty-I am thirsty-I wish to drink in the whole truth. I have found a fountain, and I must come and drink.” His master once threatened to beat the word of God out of him. He replied, “You may beat me, but you cannot drive out the Word, for it is God Himself who has entered." He frequently remarks, “This is the work of God- I never sought God, but He has sought me." He has, however, been very slow in understanding his need of a Mediator. I trust, however, he will be guided into all truth.
Our new church is large and substantial, and will, I hope, long stand as a monument of the industry of the people and their love to the Gospel. Last Sabbath it was filled with an attentive and well-dressed congregation, and upwards of 250 communicants surrounded the table of their Redeemer, to commemorate His love and to record their own.
The manner in which the public services are attended, both on Sabbath and during the week, shews that religion has taken a strong hold of the affections of the Bechuanas. There is a steady advance in intelligence and civilization, and many families, from different parts of the country, hare joined the station. Much life and brotherly love have been called forth by frequent visits of friends from the whole country round. Thus heathens have been constrained to at. tend our meetings from respect to their hosts, and believers have united with their brethren in testifying their faith and love at the ordi. nance of the Supper. This has had an ani. mating effect, and tends to prevent that selfishness and pride which are apt to creep into isolated Churches.