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farm horses consumed the produce of one raising up, triturating the soil, piercfourth of the arable land of the country.” ing it with their roads of passage in
We suppose such a machine is wanted every direction, and conveying their as the author of Talpa would approve, materials for structure, that seem out whose force should be downwards. of all proportion with themselves.
M. de Lavergne details the method Those interested in agriculture will, used by Mr Huxtable, of Dorsetshire, in this volume, make a tour with M. for distributing his liquid manure. de Lavergne through the several We find, however, that at the meet- divisions of the United Kingdom ing on the 6th December, “ the chief the southern, eastern, western, midpoints of debate were on the relative land, and northern counties. They merits of solid and liquid manure, will find valuable facts given, and and on the application of steam to just inferences. Our object is rather agriculture. In regard to the former, confined to a general view, than to it was considered by some, that, any arranged detail of the work. For though liquid manure was very bene- the great results of farming on a magficial for grass crops, yet for grain and nificent scale, we recommend the root crops it was injurious." It is to reader's attention to p. 204, showing be hoped that " in the multitude of the management of 740 acres by Mr counsellors there is wisdom;" cer Rigden, of Sussex. Wales and the tainly there are material differences islands, Scotland, and Ireland, come of opinion. Mr Huxtable conveys separately under review. M. de Lathe liquid manure through pipes under vergne thinks Wales should cultivate ground, branching off in every direc buckwheat, and expects to hear of tion, and brought to the surface by brilliant success when experiments vertical pipes, with caps, to be taken are made upon a large scale. The off when distribution is required. goat obtains his especial regard, as
But all these improvements, and remarkable for fecundity, throwing suggested improvements, can only be usually two kids, while the sheep proundertaken at great expense. M. de duces generally one. Lavergne calculates the cost at no
"The goat, when well fed, gives an abunless than four or five hundred mil- dan
dance of extremely rich milk, which may lions sterling. But when he takes
be made into excellent cheese. In France, into account that in a quarter of a where all agricultural industries are century this nation has expended two known, although too often very imperhundred and forty millions sterling fectly practised, whole districts owe their upon railways alone, he is disposed to prosperity chiefly to the goat. Such is think it only an impossibility in other the Mount d'Or, near Lyons, where a countries, and alone possible in the goat yields as much as a cow elsewhere. United Kingdom. He indulges in
As population increases, I have no doubt dreams of wonderful progress. In
the goat will be more appreciated, only these our days of united invention,
we must learn to treat it properly, and
reclaim it from that half-wild state which perseverance, and industry, who can
rendered it dearer to the shepherds of assert that he may not awake and
Theocritus and Virgil, than to agricul. find it true? “All this, no doubt, con turists and cultivators. All the gifts of stitutes an immense revolution. Agri Providence are good when kept in their culture changes from a natural, and places and treated with skill. The goat's becomes more and more a manufac- place is on the barren mountains, where turing process; each field will hence- shrubby plants can be cultivated for its forth be a kind of machine. worked in food, unless, as at the Mount d'Or, it is every sense by the hand of man, subjected to the strictest stabulation.” pierced below by all kinds of canals, We must beg our author's pardon some for carrying off water, others for a little amusement at the idea of a for bringing manure, and—who can goat in his proper place, a wild mountell ?-perhaps, also, to convey hot tain, suddenly dropping into the"strictor cold air as required, for effecting est stabulation." Is the goat naturthe most rapid changes on its sur- ally more wild than the sheep? The . face." While all this is doing, we Welsh sheep are well known as breakcan only compare the whole earth to ing all bounds, if transferred to ena great ant-hill, with its busy myriads, closed countries.
Praise is lavishly bestowed upon merce are most active, have increased Scotland. Its agriculture is pro- in population, in the space of a hunnounced to be at this day superior dred years, from one hundred thoueven to the English, at least in some sand to six hundred thousand. Clydesdistricts. It is the school for farming dale, once deserted, now rivals Lanto which people send their sons. cashire for its collieries, manufactories, “ The best books upon farming which and immense shipping trade." Why have appeared of late years, have is it that, having taken Ireland also been published in Scotland, and when into partnership, no similar progress an English proprietor requires a good has been made ? Capital will not flow bailiff, he generally sends to Scotland through the obstructions of turbulence. for one." Although our author leans Ireland has disadvantages, in habits to the liking of small, or at least of long growth, which time alone, moderate properties, and seeing two through the many sweeping revoluthirds of the land, and about one- tions that time brings, can change. It third of the whole rental, in the hands is a curious expression which M. de of large proprietors, he pronounces Lavergne uses," that Scotland, in a Scotland & favourable specimen of political point of view, is an improved large property. He considers also edition of England." We leave it the law of primogeniture favourable where we find it. We do not quite to Scotland; for whereas in England understand the conclusion which our and Ireland the law makes a lease author would draw from a passage, personal property, and therefore divi- wherein he ascribes the superiority of sible among children, in Scotland it the Scotch rural economy to the smallis not so. “The younger sons of a ness of the number of its labourers. farmer, knowing that they have no “In France, as we have already obtitle to share in their father's lease, served, the rural population amounts seek a livelihood in other ways, while to about sixteen per 100 acres, and the oldest prepares himself at an early in England to twelve ; but in the period for the heritage which awaits Lowlands it is only five, for an averhim. This is a new and successful age production at least equal to that application of the right of primogeni- of France, and to one-half that of ture in matters relating to the soil, England." The fact seems to disand it is favourable to that natural arrange altogether the principles of movement which, in society in a state the Malthusian theory. We cannot of progress, diverts the surplus popu- think it morally or politically desirlation from rural occupations into able that rural populations should other channels.” There seems to be diminish and town populations in00 reason why these same arguments crease. Certain economists, and even are not of universal application. He “high-farming" agriculturists, encouthinks much of the prosperity of rage this idea, and look with complaScotland owing to the establishment cency upon a future very great dimiof banks, of the management and nution of rural population. Yet we stability of which he speaks in high cannot but think that actual man's terms. Runs on banks, he says, labour upon our lands would ultiare unknown in Scotland. The pro- mately increase the productiveness, gress of Scotland in agricultural and keep up a race hardy and indusand commercial wealth is more sur trious, with means of moral advanprising even than that of England. tages greater than can be well applied A century ago, the characteristic of in manufacturing towns. They are Scotland was, with regard to its pre- the healthy, sturdy, manly stock; and sent sources of wealth, barrenness and surely the love of the soil, which is in poverty. Whence the change? Evi- the habit of their growth, is the true dently from her union with England. germ of English patriotism. Too It is the rich firm taking a poor but much street-dirt has been cast at this industrious partner. English capital honest race, ridiculed as “dolts." A soon became the stock upon which the due and well-considered partiality for energies of the new partners worked. this our ancient stock,"average men," “The counties of Lanark and Ren- who have been insolently told to get frew, where manufactures and com- into the rear, that keener wits “may oome to the front,”-a regard for those not to familiarise him with the genewhom Providence has endowed with ral slaughter going on around him, a true mother-wit, if not so keen, is lest he become more cruel than he is. another inducement to us to recom- Now, nature wishes to be painted mend the agricultural system of the with this expression of her forbear. author of the Word in Season, which ance. Painters who disobey this in. includes in its promised benefits the junction deserve not to be called nahappy labourer in full employment. ture's painters. She will have all
We look with little interest, if we cruelty kept out of sight. Sir Edwin are discussing only agricultural pro. Landseer makes the cruelty his subgress, upon the temporary profits ject. We scarcely know a picture arising out of a fashion-the rents for from his pencil that is not utterly sporting manors. We should be sa- cruel. His works are in defiance of tisfied to have these sports kept up, kindliness and humanity. We canand generally followed, not so exclu- not understand how people can take sively as they are appropriated to any pleasure in them, unless it be in the wealthy and fashionable. M. de the artistic skill, the lowest source of Lavergne writes with a certain zest, the pleasure derivable from art. There as if he had been on the moors." is the “Otter Hunt," wherein the ** Nothing is more fashionable than poor creature is represented held up Highland sports. The pencil of by the huntsman writhing in agony Landseer, the favourite delineator around the spear that pierces him. of British sport, has described under There is the poor heron victimised in every form some of its most inte. the air—the sporting party, which, resting incidents ; and that bustle, according to all humane taste, ought which for two or three months in the to be in the foreground, faintly seen year awakens in the slumbering in the distance. How unlike the cheerechoes of the rocks something like the ful hunting scenes of Wouverman, in gathering of the clans, results in fine which all cruelty of the sport is kept incomes to the proprietors." These out of sight, and the gaiety of the party last few words greatly deteriorate the going out made alone conspicuous. sport. Shall we 'startle the admirers There is the horrid deer-stalking picof royal academicians—the lovers of ture-cruelty to animal, and a degradthe arts, and more especially the flat- ing of man—for the poor creature is tering admirers of Sir Edwin Land- seen shot down in his wildness, and goer-if we say, and somewhat boldly the sportsman skulking like a secreted too, that in the best sense and feeling felon. There was the dead deer lockof nature his pictures are not natu- ed together after fight, of last year, ral? Nature seems ever to us to take and the fox and bird of prey coming ospecial care to keep out of sight the to devour them, the glazed eyes and necessary cruelty (we say cruelty as death agonies still perceptible in the not sooing, yet not doubting, the bene prostrate carcasses. And is this year's volence of the law) by which animal picture better? It is worse, for it must prays upon animal. Rarely, as we misrepresent royal personages. Our walk the fields or the woods, does amiable Queen never could have been the perpetration of this destruc- seen by human eye, smiling as she is tlon booomo visible ; rarely does the about to tread upon the bleeding donth or agony of the creatures pre- faces and glazed eyes of the slaughHent itself. Most animals prey in the tered creatures heaped upon each night, whon man's eyes are closed; other. We ever shall, with the inAnd those that perish by day, and are dignation of offended humanity, prodevoured, are covered in the secrecy test against such employment of art. of lone places, Nature loves to ex- Pictures of this atrocious kind are mulhibla tho cheerful side of life ; the tiplied; for where there is much snculuglug-birds como nearest to human cess there will be imitators. We habitations, oroatures are mostly seen would not have one of them; the very in enjoyment of their life. Nature, sight would harden our own hearts, if kind mature, la foarful to admit man we could like them, and teach our too much into the visiblo operation of children and grandchildren to be cruel. the awful secret of death is cautious We protest in the name of art and
humanity; and sincerely hope that rage for renting and underletting foreigners do not consider them in subdivisions became necessities. as specimens of our taste and ex- There being no regular wages-system, cellence in the one, or of our cha- and no manufactures from which to racter in the other. Foreigners obtain a living, the land was the only pronounce as “ rough of manners ;” resource. Children, when they grew can it be wondered at, if they take our to manhood, each looked for his bit of characters from pictures which they land, and built his hovel, and became see so favourably received ? It is the head of another family, because polite in them that they use no worse he could do nothing else. Hence epithets. But to return from this di- early marriages, less improvident than gression-if it be one.
necessary imprudences, stocked the Scotland and Ireland are in perfect land with a still increasing population. contrast: Scotland a comparatively It appears, then, that population does barren soil, Ireland a rich one-riches not depend upon one law-prosperity. and beggary.
We are apt in this country to point “ Even the English admit that Ire- to the increase, as shown in the land, in point of soil, is superior to census, as a proof of prosperity. England. The conformation of the Utter poverty and despair, which alcountry is peculiar; mountains range ways endanger life, seem also to have along nearly the whole extent of its the same tendency, producing unusual coasts, the interior being a vast plain, fecundity, by a law of reconstruction, and for the most part highly fertile. or of compensation for the possible Ireland contains eight millions of loss incidental to the dangerous conhectares ; rocks, lakes, and bogs, occu- dition of a society. This is noticed py about two millions of these, and by M. de Lavergne. “There were two millions more are indifferent land. also two mysterious causes of this The remainder-that is to say, about unlimited propagation, both proceedhalf the country-is rich land, with ing from the miserable condition of calcareous subsoil. What better could the people. The first is the inexplibe conceived?" " It is the richest cable physiological law which ordains, soil I ever saw," says Arthur Young for all living species, that the means (speaking of counties Limerick and of reproduction increase in proportion Tipperary), “and such as is applicable to the chances of destruction. The to every wish." The misery of the action of this law may be observed people has been frequently ascribed among the lower animals, and also in to low wages; M. de Lavergne shows the human race inhabiting unhealthy otherwise. "The wretched condition climates. As the chances of death inof the cultivators cannot be attribut- crease, births also increase; and, ed to the small amount of wages as whether among animals or men, the distributed over the whole, for not strongest and best-fed races are not only did this item amount in principle those which multiply most. Indifferto half the gross produce, while in ent as to individual life, nature's first England and Scotland it is only a care is to preserve the species." It fourth, but it was frequently higher is as true that when a species beowing to the non-payment of rent. No- comes at once too numerous and too where, perhaps, was the share of weak, and likely, from any peculiar wages greater ; whereas, compared to condition into which it has fallen, to the rent, it should have been less propagate disorganisation, moral and rather than more."
physical, nature brings a pestilence or Though the population of Ireland famine, which sweeps off the least was at no time too large for its acre- healthy, that a better life may reage, if the land had been under good plenish the land. The agriculture of cultivation, and trade towns had Ireland is rather in promise than exafforded means for receiving any istence. We would fain hope that superabundance, in its neglected con- there is a promise. As to measures dition the population was too large, proposed, or to be proposed, for the being almost exclusively rural. The raising the condition of Ireland, and cottier tenancy and the con-acre bringing it into a state of sufficient tended greatly to increase it. The security to tempt capital to flow in to work substantial remedy, they are Although we do not coincide in all so many and so contradictory that the views taken by M. de Lavergne, volumes, not such a review as this, we admire the fairness, the perfect would be required to state them, candour with which he treats the and fresh volumes again to discuss whole subject of Ireland. He takes them.
questions, and weighs arguments We must leave the case of Ireland against as well as for. We give him full to time and wise legislation, believing credit for a determination throughout that there is now, at least, a sincere his work to search into facts, with the desire in this country, and which will be earnest desire to reach truth, and to hereafter taken up by every govern- promote the welfare of every people, ment, to do everything that can be by showing them their advantages done to promote the best interests of and disadvantages, their successes that portion of the Queen's dominions and shortcomings ; and he lays before The Irish do not want now a Swift to them, by specimens and details, what advocate their cause. Our govern- agriculture is in the several countries, ments are as anxious now to promote and what it may become. trade and manufactures in that country, The work is extremely interesting, as they were discouraging in the days and is very well translated. It canof the powerful Dean of St Patrick's. not fail to make its way.
MR THACKERAY AND HIS NOVELS.
It is now several years since that unscientific individual who wrote the witty Cockney tourist and caustic ob- Tempest and Macbeth ; but we ques. server of common follies, Mr Michael tion much if the whole array of poets Angelo Titmarsh, emerged from the and story-tellers flourishing in these incognito which veiled him from the days could make Shakespeare much popular eye, and in the person of Mr the wiser, despite of well-nigh three W. M. Thackeray claimed the suf- centuries of experience in which we frage of the world, no longer as the have the advantage of him. It may author of picture-books and journeys be possible, perhaps, to make a very unsentimental, but as one of that glowing and poetic description of that brotherhood of novelists who are the world, older than all antiquity, where Shakespeares of our day and genera- the Megatherium was monarch of all tion. Let us disguise it as we will, he surveyed, and where the Saurian among all our voices of melodious was a caste in high life, disdainfully verse, we have no poet to endow the exclusive of meaner reptiles ; but we Dames and manners of the age of fear it must be quite impracticable to Victoria with that immortality which reproduce the manners of that interhas seized upon the age of Elizabeth. esting age, the loves and griefs and Perbaps electric telegraphs and steam- gossips of its unwieldy society. The engines are not exactly accordant world of poetry and romance is purely with blank verse; and certainly it does a human world; the creatures beneath not seem quite desirable to premise a us, and the angels above us, are lofty legend with that “waiting for equally beyond our limits; and howthe train at Coventry," which almost ever widely we may search for the entitles our distinguished laureate accessories of our scene, the true matehimself to be sent upon a visit to that rial with which we have to deal is world-renowned and ancient town. that marvellous complexity — that Of all the sciences, that one which wonderful microcosm of detached and has made least progress in these few separate existence, which will be itself, hundred years, is the science which and not another, through eternal ages makes investigation into the secret the heart and mind of man. Upon heart of our bumanity. Professor its hidden and mysterious workOwen and Mr Faraday could conferings, the discoveries of modern times a vast deal of new and wondrous in- throw but little light. It is true formation upon that unlettered and that they give us a very respectful