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diately after harvest, when wheat was at subject of a Lecture' before a patronis336, and on making out my balance sheet ing council, but as a solid working-day, --the details of which are given at p. 34 everyday practical fact-then the me

- found that the met profits from the chanics of agriculture will not be far be. tour acres were, to the proprietor, £37, hind! Then the touching truisms of

Tull-the Galileo of agricultural science, "My profession, my pursuits, and my the Luther of modern husbandry-struginclination are all opposed to any en- gling single-handed against a whole dark largement of my operations in farming. age of ignorance and banded prejudiceHad is been otherwise-had I chosen to will reach the promised land he saw tako iu buad a hundred acres instead of and pointed out with the finger of the four, for the growth of wheat, the profits seer, but was nerer allowed to enter. would have been upwards of £900. With Blending into the truest of union with the who at 35s the quarter, the net profit after-discoveries of Davy, De Candolle, tuk those hundred acres would, I repeat, Liebig, Boussingault, and our own not have been to the proprietor more than nine less deserving Way and Johnston, and bundred pounds. And, moreover, a re- others of distinguished note--his theory sule somewhat similar to this I should look of cultivation will propound matter of fox, year after year, from the same one deep'thought and combined action, equally bunded acres of land, as I certainly look to the chemist and mechanician.” to it year after year, from the four. .

With the most entire sin The author of A Word in Season is cerity, aud with the greatest earnestness, equally earnest in praise of Tull : I give uiterance to my conviction, that, QJA tolerably level wheat-land-that is,

“There are,” says he, « few persons with very few exoeptions, on all clay

well informed upon the subject who will m an that very quality of land which

deny that agriculture in England owes is spurued and calumniated as unremu. more to the genius of one man, wanting more than the same system, followed by though he was in the accuracy of mothu * success, could be carried out to dern science, than to all the scientific AUV Autone which requirements of a farm

schemes which his principles of farming for other produce might permit. The

have since evoked. It may give some wake wawacle I foresee to its extension, is

weight to my present observations, if I Whawa 48 of a clear understanding of the

state that that man has been my guide in Wwwse and the means of carrying out a

husbandry; and that, though I differ W 4ve *** new."

altogether from him in the method of ap.

plying his principles to the growth of T w ader oannot fail to remark wheat, yet the principles themselves are th the estimate of profit is here those of Jethro Tull." hak * Mas the quarter, and will Difficulties, real or assumed-for How has inference, comparing the re- fears are of the nature of difficulties**with the present value perquarter. are the forerunners of great events, of ( W W Wwwwwsled clay land!" There beneficial results. Agriculturists,

*** Amusing as well as instruc- landlords, and tenants, and even those Ninhole hook upon this subject, with not, strictly speaking, agriculturists,

Uwaim title, Yabat, or the Mole: but the economists and scientific, who pl a v # ( Yay Farm, show. look to the serious disadvantage of IM W * cotlous, lively manner, the trusting too much to foreign produce w

woment of a clay farm, for the maintenance of the populaW h il pwrlously been disastrous tion-all are making, in their seve

# mwane (lay is a mecha- ral speculative ways, agriculture the Wiw i t , but is of chemical main interest of their country. The

* H e r The prolution wanted sciences, mechanical and chemical, l the movie of culturo-to over- are constantly at work for the benefit

are constantly at work for the p o mi mow mechanical means me of the soil. We are put upon our whanau drettenther, and to turn to mettle, and shall doubtless reach The Ma rine the chemical supe- great results in the culture of our Howder. I'm thus the author of lands, as we have in everything else. thi writes of Jethro Tull:

It is in scientific discoveries, and their * When that day comes--when the liv. application to all our wants, that this In chemistry of the soil is accepted and age is so remarkable. And the steady, understood, not as an amusing and pro- sturdy perseverance of our race, under bable speculation, the vaguely suggestive all difficulties, bids us yet hope, that

even out of the evil we have felt or to the grand effects of steam, cloud, fancied, permanent good will come and sky and water, in a more living

M. de Lavergne, like every man of union and motion. taste, is an advocate for sparing the

“ With the exception of Normandy, picturesque, and deprecates utility in ogliness. We hope, and are inclined

and some other provinces where the same

practice prevails, our territory seldom to believe, that in agriculture, as in presents that smiling aspect which Engmost things, beauty is always com land does, with its greensward depastured bined with utility; and that if with with animals at large. The attractive a present view it may in any respect beauty of the landscape is enhanced by appear otherwise, some new discovery the picturesque effect of the quickset will show us the error, and direct us hedges, often interspersed with trees, how to retrace our steps. We take which divide the fields. The existence the spirit, if not the accuracy of the

of these hedges is strongly assailed in wording—“God made the country,

the present day, although hitherto they and man made the town"-only as

have been considered as indispensable to far as the free beauty of nature pre

the general system of agriculture. Each

field being pastured in its turn, it is condominates. In fact, town and coun

venient to be able in a manner to pen the try are both the Great Creator's and

cattle, so as to leave them without any man's. Man was gifted with inven further care. It appears strange to us, tive faculties by which he builds and whose habits are so different, thus to see works out all mechanical arts and cattle, and especially sheep, left entirely things beautiful. His labour, too, is to themselves, on pastures sometimes far in the country-he changes the face

from human habitations. To account for of it; but somehow or other, with de

such a state of security, it must be recolsign or without design on his part, the

lected that the English have destroyed

the wolves in their island : and that they result has hitherto been, that natural

have by severe laws, under a system of beauties, on the whole, have not been

rural police, protected property against destroyed. The cultivated country

human depredations; and, finally, they will be found, upon a just comparison,

ist comparison, have taken care to make their fields semore beautiful than the uucultivated. cure by means of fences. These beautiful Even that wonderful invention of me- hedges, then, are thus a useful defence, chanism and science, the steam-engine as well as an ornament; and it is only upon our railroads, which landed pro- surprising how there should be any wish prietors, rural poets, and artists so to do away with them.” lamented as an unsightly intrusion, we A country without trees or enclolook upon in quite another light. The sure has its own wild and pecurapid progress, the changing vapour,

liar beauty : it communes with the creating variety and colour as it goes,

clouds—poetically with the morning and the returning calm and gradual

dawn, the twilight, and the gloom re-coming out of the scene in its many

of night ; but a cultivated country changes, are all elements of the pic

without trees and hedgerows, is like toresque. We have no lamentations

a town without inhabitants, and withfor the legitimate applications of

out the order of its streets. Trees science to agriculture, believing that

are the very life of the land-they none will be permitted to be really

are not even mute—their voices in the permanently profitable that are to

breeze are pleasant. They seem ever tally, and without compensations of to be telling some story to the earth, new beauty, destructive of the charms which they have gathered from their of landscape. We are incredulous look-out in the sky above. that cattle will be for ever turned M. de Lavergne thinks we are wrong away from pastures; that our hills in neglecting buckwheat :will not be " white over with sheep; " that our Academy will not have its mo

As to maize and buckwheat, in place dern and future Paul Potters," with

of being causes of inferiority, they ought

to be sources of wealth, for these two their recognised sketches from nature.

grains are endowed with much greater Lovers of the marine picturesque were

power of production than the other two ; at first alarmed at the unsightliness

and what they yield with us (France) in of steam navigation, but are now con- certain parts, shows what they may be vinced to the contrary, and sensitive made to produce elsewhere.

“ In this consists the whole system of politicians at least doubted the proEnglish farming : nothing is more simple. priety of advocating a crop which A large extent of grass, whether natural itself encouraged, in a large population, or artificial, occupied for the most part as reckless idleness. Cobbett, it is well pasture ; two roots the potato and tur

known, wrote fiercely against it, and nip; two spring cereals-barley and oats;

took some pains, against fact, to prove and a winter one, wheat, - all these

it a poison. With regard to hemp plants linked together by an alternating course of cereals, or white crops, with and nax, Ireland seems likely to proforage, or green crops, commencing with fit by their cultivation; and that the roots or plants which require to be hoed, cultivation is important, and should and ending with wheat ;-this is the be encouraged, has been foreseen; whole secret. The English have dis- and the foresight is remarkably applicarded all other crops, such as sugar- cable in the present day. Mr Spence, beet, tobacco, oleaginous plants, and writing at the commencement of this fruits : some because the climate is un century, in his treatise, of wbich we favourable, others on account of their bave already spoken. England indeexhausting nature, or because they do not

pendent of Commerce, says, “If we like unnecessarily to complicate their

cannot get hemp and flax from Russia means of production. Two only have

as usual—and most assuredly we canescaped this proscription : these are, the hop in England, and flax in Ireland; not, if Russia will not accept our both these are successfully produced in manufactures in return (it might have their several localities. The value of the been added, if at war with us)—we flax orop in Ireland is £15 per acre, but shall bave occasion immediately to its extent is only 100,000 acres. The bring into cultivation upwards of hop yields a still higher return, but it 200,000 acres of waste land, for the covers only about 50,000 acres."

purpose of growing these products

ourselves. Here is at once employIn a note, there is a return from the ment provided for 200,000 indiviRoyal Flax Society in Ireland, show- duals." ing, in 1853, 175,000 acres. Instead It appears, by recent discoveries, of "discarded," M. de Lavergne might that the real properties and uses of have said prohibited, at least with re- the three plants-beet, flax, and gard to tobacco. He seems not to be chicory-have been misunderstood. aware of the fact, that once-we be. The promise from them is great inlove in the time of Charles II.-a deed, for it is to the supply of many troop of dragoons was sent into Glou- wants. It is well that the owners cestershire to destroy tobacco crops. and occupiers of the soil should look We might then grow the plant, but to all possible ways, and all possible the Free-traders cared not for the articles of commerce, to which they freedom of the trade of agriculture. may apply the land-their raw mateLooking over a pamphlet addressed rial. We have read with much into Mr Mitt in 1799, on the encourage- terest a pamphlet by Mr Digby Seymont of agriculture, we find, curiously mour, whose first object is to promote enough, the potato recommended as a the views of the “Land Investment mover Mailing crop. We have seen Society in the west of Ireland." He how dangerous it is to rely upon it, shows the value of the plants-beet, or perhaps upon any one article of fax, and chicory. They have ultetood, * Were," says the writer, “the rior benefits beyond their immediate quantity of potatoos to be planted and ostensible uses; and the objecyourly which every farm may easily tions which at first sight force themhave famine would never be heard selves upon our suspicion, upon invesof From measons being particularly tigation vanish. The crops are not bad, we might occasionally have a exhaustive, as they were supposed to Hournity of oorn of every kind; but be: after the first uses, the secondary In every season we might depend on a are very profitable for the feeding of hull aunty of this wholesome article of cattle ; and these uses are to be drawn Rod, which money or never fails." The from all three—and they are rotation writer tale know the fatal policy of crops-and it further appears that trusting to this drop - he did not fore- there is scarcely any soil which will soe the famino in Ireland. Wiser not receive them.

Our means of happiness arise out of chicory profitable as forage for cattle. some evil. Thus "Necessity becomes Mr William Stickney, a practical the mother of invention," and venter authority, speaks of its enormous prothe real magister artium. Every famine duce per acre; and adds, “It is my is a warning: every removal of a good opinion that there is no green crop in makes the supply of a new one. In this country that can pay so well. I our wars with France she lost her believe that it will eventually be the colonies: the consequence was, that common beverage of the poor, and in the people of that country lost the a great measure supersede tea and great article of consumption_sugar. coffee. It makes a rotation crop with Then arose the discovery that beet beet and flax : like them it gives its might be so cultivated as to fill the return to the land, and therefore, like vacuum. It is now made out that we them, is rot exhaustive." can produce sugar as well from the Time's changes are wondrous-old beet as the cane. And how well. things come round again, and look timed is the discovery, when slaves into the world with a better face than are emancipated. Nor is sugar from ever-banished dynasties walk quietthis plant the all- the residue is ly into their thrones again. Cotton eagerly devoured by cattle and sheep. came in proudly and overthrew the "The materials left after the sugar cottiers' dames' spinning-wheels: then contain the nitrogen and salts which pleasant music went out of villages. render the beet useful as food, or as Cotton drove out flax. Now, what if manure if returned to the soil." flax returns and discomfits cotton ?Molasses, too, is sold to distillers for it has learnt something from its rival. the manufacture of spirits. Again, “The observations I have made," the same necessity—the apprehension says Mr Digby Seymour, “ assume that a cotton sapply would fail us, the adoption of Schenck's patent; and has set the "machinery" of mind to for the production of strong fibres for work; and from that wonderful mill, the linen - manufacturer, it will proman's brain, we are enabled to turn bably be still the most approved sysout cotton from flax-nay, more, to tem. But it is high time that we manufacture a material to intermix should pass to the discovery of infinwith our three great staple trades of itely greater importance in the hiscotton, wool, and silk. Such is the tory of tbe flax-manufacture-I mean invention of M. Claussen. Take these the invention for which Chevalier products instead of sugar, and all said Claussen has obtained a patent, by of the beet may be said also of Aax, which the old rival of the flax plant in its ulterior uses. Now, what of is likely to be discomfited in its own chicory? Must we connect it with field; and flas, instead of making fraud, and see nothing but the adul- way for cotton, is transformed into a teration of coffee? It is a very honest similar article." Tbis will be a metaplant, yielding ready and even singu- morphosis quite Ovidian. lar obedience to the hand of the cultivator. Its propensity is to throw off “In nova fert animus mutatas discere formas every bad particle of its nature, and Corpora." to assume virtues with a changed and graceful appearance. “No plant ex- Some future Darwin, as poetical hibits in such marked degree the and less political, may hereafter, with effect of cultivation as contrasted with success unsatirised, sing both the its condition in a wild state. In. “Loves and the Rivalries ” of the stead of thick and fleshy roots, the plants. Nature is ever humane. cultivated varieties exhibit them long Finding that man destroyed the poor and bulky; instead of stems two feet bees for their honey, she gave him high, the cultivated varieties reach the the sugar-cane ; seeing that he made height of from six to ten feet; and in his fellow-man a slave to cultivate it, stead of oblong, lanceolate, and runci- she showed him the uses of the beet. nate leaves of a uniform hue, present When we misuse her gifts, she takes them with lobes hooked back, diversi- them away, and benevolently provides fied in shape and in shades of colour.” substitutes." Vivite sylvæ"-let all For its uses, as beet and flax, so is the plants given us flourish, and our

I

improved agriculture both feed and and English lines, and also with the clothe a happy population.

fleets, that we can hardly imagine it M. de Lavergne's chapter on the to have been overlooked. " gross produce” may be read for This machinery, it need scarcely its statistics : the result is the great be added, which Arthur Young saw superiority of England. The agricul- so many years ago, is exactly our ture of France is, beyond a doubt, "electric telegraph." . much improved since Arthur Young Of the chapter on “rents, profits, said of it, when travelling through and wages," we have little to remark. the poorer districts, “It does, indeed, Much has been written, and with try one's patience to behold a country widely different views of late years, so lovely, and so favoured by Provi. upon the theory of rent. Some philodence, treated so shamefully by man." sophers of the economic school have While quoting Arthur Young, we gone so far as to deny the right of cannot resist the temptation of laying rent altogether. We are satisfied that before the reader a very curious if an estate is sold in the market, rent passage from his journal. He actually is implied in the purchase. Governsaw in Paris the electric telegraph ments admit it in taxing both landon a small scale : how strange that lord and tenant. It is not worth its uses should have been in abeyance while to discuss the subject; nor do until now!

we care to investigate comparisons of “In the evening to Mons. Lomond, a rents, profits, and wages. There are very ingenious and inventive mechanic, theorists who lament the substitution who has made an improvement of the of the farmer for the old English jenny for spinning cotton. Common

yeoman, who cultivated his own few machines are said to make too hard a

acres. Among these we may reckon thread for certain fabrics, but this forms it loose and spongy. In electricity he has

the author of Talpa. M. de Lamade a remarkable discovery. You write

vergne is of a contrary opinion. We two or three words on a paper : he takes

are inclined to side with him. If, it with him into a room, and turns a indeed, a class of stout-hearted submachine enclosed in a cylindrical case, stantial men had been removed from at the top of which is an electrometer, a the land, instead of having exchanged small five pith-ball; a wire connects their character in a degree, there with a similar cylinder and electrometer might be cause for regret; but it is in a distant apartment; and his wife, by not so. The farmer, who, had he not marking the corresponding motions of the

altered bis condition, would have been

the yeoman, has simply bettered his from which it appears that he has formed

former condition, and this naturally an alphabet of motions. As the length of the wire makes no difference in the

arose with us from his own election. effect, a correspondence might be carried

For as agriculture improved, more on at any distance-within and without capital was required for carrying it a besieged town, for instance; or for a on; and the cultivator deemed it purpose much more worthy, and a thou more to his advantage to turn his sand times more harmless, between two capital, generally a small one, in the lovers prohibited or prevented from any cultivation, than in purchasing the better connection."

ownership of land. We consider the With all deference to the gallantry class as raised, not lowered. Agriof the preference, we should think the culture is a manufacture requiring last communication of the least im- skill and capital; and these, the more portance: if it be true that “ Love they are enlarged, create the manly will find out a way," love may be left dignity of responsibility. to itself. But the besieged town suggests something of very present

“Farmers 'in the best parts of Eng. importance; and we think it "a thou. land make fifty, sixty, up to one hunsand times more harmless," if it may

dred francs per hectare (15s. to 30s.

per acre), and there are some whose tend to provide against the irruption

total incomes amount to from £500 of an enemy. We know not if this

to £1000. Hence the importance, in has been thought of in our need at a social point of view, of that class Sebastopol. The use is so palpable, which is as firmly established upon the for communication with the French soil as property itself. These are the

ball, writes down the words they indicate

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