The oft-repeated question, When Sebastopol tbe nproar that awoke shall we reopen the fire ? was at them must have been appalling. length answered. On Easter Sunday, Three hundred and sixty French guns the 8th of April, orders were given for and mortars bore on the town de. commencing the cannonade at day. fences and parts of the ontworks; light next morning. The batteries one hundred and forty English pieces were supplied with five hundred on the Mammelon, Malakoff, Redan, rounds for each gun, and three hun. and Barrack and Garden Batteries. dred for each mortar, and were fully The arrangements for maintaining our armed, with the exception of the bat. fire were much better now than forteries in the advanced parallels of the merly. Caves in the ravine close to English attacks, which were not ready Chapman's Battery formed capacious for the reception of the gons and mor- and secure magazines, from wbence tars, and which were not to be un ammunition was drawn as required masked till the fire of the rest should for the smaller ones in the batteries, have enabled them to open with more the explosion of which would consesecurity from the enemy's riflemen in quently be of comparatively little imthe pits and quarries.

portance. The parapets had been The morning of the 9th broke heightened and strengthened, and darkly in wind and rain. At the bomb-proof chambers had been con: hour of sunrise a heavy mist covered structed in rear of them, to which the plains, and objects were so indis. wounded men were conveyed and tinct tbat in traversing ground I was their hurts attended to in security. familiar with I lost my way for a The guards of the trenches were 10 short time, but the sound of the guns longer stationed in the batteries, guided me towards them. The order which were exclusively occupied to the artillery was to begin as soon artillerymen, but lined the parallels, as the objects to be aimed at were and thus did not on the first day lose discernible; and at twenty minutes a man, the enemy's fire being solely past six the English guns, as they directed on the batteries. caught sight of the opposing batteries, The Russians did not commence opened their fire, and the French sustain the fire with the vigour tt 800n followed. The Rassians were was expected. The dreaded Mamm so completely unprepared that it was lon fired but few shots, and seen twenty minutes before they began to to be insufficiently manned ; only reply.

or six guns from the Malakoff opened A strong south wind drove a flood -one face of the Redan grew all of rain and a cloud of mist across the silent in a few hours—while scene of contest. At times the heavy French breached the central salient vapour bid the view from the specta. their front, and greatly injured to tors who had issued from their camps; Bastion du Måt. then the fog would lift in parts and The storm of wind and rain co reveal the rounded hills crowned with tinued all day, and through it rus batteries and wrapt in the smoke of as steadily the storm of shot. cannon, through which the red flashes uplifting of the curtain of fog show incessantly darted; agaio, as a squall the same unvarying circle of eddies passed, the view would dissolve, and smoke drifting from the allied batte the combat seemed transferred to a towards the Russian works. world of shadows. To us, who re- guns fired each about eight times membered the din of the former can- an hour, at which rate no second nonade re-echoing through the camps, time would elapse without a sho the noise of the present seemed Drenched to the skin, and standing trilling, blown from us as it was by thick mnd, the artillerymen and sa the wind; but to the inhabitants of ors worked their guns with admiral


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vigour. Bad as the circumstances was left in the second parallel till were for them, the Russian gunners, night, when, the soil being somewhat fighting with the wind and rain in drained, the battery was armed. Four their faces, must have found the trial of its guns opened on the following doubly severe. The losses in our day, but the Russians replied with so batteries were not heavy, though the heavy a fire as to silence them for the Russian fire was very well directed, time. On the 13th the six guns and dismounted several guns. At opened again, and disabled some of mid-day the desultory fire of the the Russian pieces in the Garden Mammelon altogether ceased, and the Battery opposed to them. On the work seemed to offer a tempting prize 14th also they continued to be worked to a bold assailant. The fire of the throughout the day, though so heavy allied guns ceased at nightfall, but a fire was concentrated on them that that of the mortars, depending less on the battery was greatly damaged, and a sight of the object for its efficiency, the gun detachments suffered much was continued with great regularity loss. The advanced battery of the throughout the night, wbich was filled right attack had also been armed with with the roar of those great engines. 8-inch guns, which made excellent The French bad nearly one hundred practice against the Mammelon and mortars, we twenty-eight, mostly of Round Tower. The two Russian larger calibre than theirs. Three batteries on the small hills opposed to large sea-service mortars, which threw the French works at Inkermann retheir shells into the dockyard and mained silent. arsenal buildings 4500 yards off, were During the week the Russian fire unserviceable throughout the day, in continued to decrease. Their extenconsequence of the rain rendering the sive batteries, far more powerful than platforms so slippery that the hand ours, never put forth their strength, spikes could not be brought to bcar owing, as was surmised, to the palon the vast beds.

city either of artillerymen or of proNext day the Russian fire was jectiles. Most of their guns were much brisker, though by no means so fired in turn, but at slow intervals, as formidable as in the former bombard- if a few gun-detachments served them ment. Lieut, Twyford of the Naval all; their practice was very good, Brigade was killed on this day. and had it been as warm and sus

On the 11th the Russian fire some- tained as it was accurate, would have what slackened, and our own was occasioned us heavy injury and loss. rather diminished, owing to several As the capnonade went on day guns having become upserviceable. after day, great impatience was maniThe Mammelon scarcely fired at all, fested in the English camp. The the Round Tower only an occasional French had been very urgent with us gun--one, perhaps, every ten minutes. to begin; and it was asked, with reaThe trenches were still deep in mire. son, wby the fire had been comThe great ravine by wbich the left menced unless to be followed by an attack was approached was so muddy assault; and if the assault was inthat it was a labour to traverse it, tended, why it was delayed when our and it was filled with the reverbera- ammunition was rapidly decreasing, tious of the cannonade and the sharp and our gunners worked beyond their jar of splinters. The approaches to strength,-for they passed eight hours the advanced batteries were deep in in the batteries, then had eight hours sticky mud, and filled with pools. The relief, and then returned to their night before an attempt had been guns, and out of the eight hours' remade to take six 32-pounders from the mission nearly two were spent in first parallel to the advanced batteries; going to and returning from their but they had stuck so fast that three camp; so that they spent ten hours hundred men were unable to move on their legs, which caused many to one to its destination, the drag-ropes suffer so much from sore feet that they giving way under the strain. The performed their duties with difficulty. Russians, hearing the poise, opened It was evident therefore that, even if fire on them, and kpocked off the our supply of ammunition had been muzzle of one, which, with the others, unlimited, our fire must soon slacken.

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It had already produced as much retreating without a contest, and effect as could be expected-indeed, leaving some dead Russians in it, killthe practice was altogether excellent; ed on the preceding night: this latter and as it was impossible to destroy, pit was destroyed. or even effectually breach, the ene- As our trench-works were continued, my's earthworks at the distance we it seemed that the design now was to were from them, by any amount of advance on the place as in the siege fire, it seemed that a few hours' more of a regular fortress, where the operaor less cannonade could not materially tions are certain in their progress and affect the difficulty of an assault. result, which are merely questions of

However, while we had still ammu- time. But here the case was widely nition to sustain the fire for some different. In advancing on a regudays longer, orders were given gra- lar fortress, the works of the besieger dually to diminish it; and it was soon are not exposed to the fire of those reduced to its former amount, withont bastions or salients not attacked, and the attainment of any appreciable his attention is directed solely on the result from this expenditure of men two salients before him, and the raveand material.

lin or other outwork covering the Our approaches towards the Redan, curtain which connects them, the continuing to be pusbed, drew near number of guns in which being detersome Russian rifle-pits, one of which minate, they are always overpower. stood on ground that would be in- ed by the superior number brought cluded in the next night's trench- against them. The sap proceeds work, and which it was therefore ne- slowly and surely till sufficiently cessary to take. A detachment of near, wben the breaching batteries the 77th, under Lieut.-Colonel Eger- or the mine open the road through ton, sallied from the advanced trench the defences for the stormers. on the night of the 19th, before mid- But the fortifications of Sevastopol, night, and, without firing a shot, far from being regular, extend along drove out or killed with the bayonet the whole length of the town and all the occupants of two pits, and re- harbour. The town itself is to a cer. pulsed the troops supporting them. tain extent isolated by the inner bar. Captain Lempriere was killed by bour, and the French had made there the enemy's fire, and, towards one an attack as regular as the ground o'clock, Colonel Egerton had re- admitted of: but the Barrack Battery turned into the trench bearing the from the opposite side of the creek dead subaltern in his arms, and

on in his arms, and bore on their works, as did the Gate was showing to some other officers den Batteries in rear of the Bastion a bullet which had been flattened du Mât. Great difficulty, therefore, against his own pocket-flask, when attended the attempt to advance bers the Russians in front reopened their by sap without attacking or silence fire. As he hastened along the ap- the Barrack Battery, wbich, in, proach to the open ground, a ball turn, was flanked by the Redan entered his mouth, and, severing the which was supported by the Malakos; vertebræ of the neck, killed him in- and so on, in a sequence of as 14 stantaneously. A man of ordinary links as that of the House which was stature would have escaped under built. Thus, in a regular attack, . shelter of the parapet of the trench, advance on all these points was nesto over which Egerton's head rose, for he sary, and thus was constituted, was very tall, and one of the finest than one siege, a multitude of sleg men in the army. The Russians, who The capture of the Mammelon av had returned in force, opened a heavy two flanking hills beyond Caree fire on our men in the pits, by whom Bay, would have been a work it was returned, as also from the ad- finite labour and difficulty, carrit vanced trench ; and the enemy, after under heavy artillery fire, and being in vain exhorted by their offi- have been but a step towar cers to close, retreated, leaving a good attack of the Redan and many dead. We continued to hold Tower, each formidable achiev one pit. Next night the neighbour and still the town would reman ing one was entered, its occupants separate siege : and this proces

& step towards the

rmidable achievements,

" this process de

manded, if successful in all its separate ultimately the loss of the whole of the particulars, many months to accom- defences south of the great harbour. plish.

With our very superior numbers so In fact, the appellation of siege ap- many points might have been threatplied to our operations may almost ened that the garrison must have be considered a misnomer; it may been subdivided into many small garrather be said we were attacking an risons, and the real attacks might intrenched position. Under this view have been made with a disparity in we had erred in distributing the fire our favour which would have proof our artillery so widely, and should mised well for success. rather have concentrated it on those But if the assault were judged points intended to be forced ; and, impracticable, there would seem to when the enemy's guns bearing on remain for the capture of the city but the ground to be advanced over were one alternative; viz. to invest the sufficiently silenced, the attempt place, either directly, by marching should have been made to carry these down upon the north side, or by points by assault. As the inner har- throwing a sufficient force across the bour divided the defences of the place, roads from Perekop and the Sea of if an assault were made on both sides Azoff to answer the purpose of an inof it the garrison must have divided vestment. This again involved (betheir force, when the two bodies could sides the necessity of large reinforcenot have mutually assisted each other, ments) complex and doubtful operathe fire of the French having de- tions—marches into the interior from stroyed the bridge of boats, and a divided or inadequate base, and commanding the whole extent of the battles in the field: all which concreek: or they must bave left one siderations were doubtless taken into point inadequately guarded, the forc- account in discussing the question of ing of which would have entailed the assault.


On Thursday the 19th April, at up the hills, and were crossing towards daybreak, I rode down to Kadukoi to Kamara. A few shots told us when accompany a reconnoissance which the Russian outposts were driven in, Omer Pacha, who had arrived from but the ground was more difficult than Eupatoria with twenty thousand was expected ; and so much time was Turks and Egyptians in the preceding taken up on the march that I had week, was about to make towards the leisure to ride into Kadukoi and Tchernaya. At the barrier - gate of breakfast and feed my horse before the intrenchment across the Kadukoi the cavalry moved across the plain. road eight hundred chasseurs d'Afrique At half-past eight, the Turks having were assembled. In the camp of reached Kamara, we moved towards our heavy brigade a squadron of each Canrobert's Hill - French chasseurs, regiment was drawn up in front of its Turkish horse, and English hussars own tents, and a half troop of Thomas's forming a line of skirmishers, suphorse - artillery was issuing from the ported by detachments at a short disvillage on to the plain where the 10th tance, while the main bodies of cay. Hussars, who had arrived from India alry came on in compact columns a few days before, were drawn up, with the artillery on the flanks. making with the heavy brigade, who Passing beyond Canrobert's Hill, we presently joined it, about one thousand found on its rearmost slope a number sabres. The French cavalry and of burrows, like those bivouacked in guns, together with a few Turkish by the Turks, roofed with branches horse, descended into the plain, and and earth - and other similar abodes the whole waited the proper moment appeared on the adjoining slopes, all, to advance. This depended altogether of course, deserted. Crowning the on the progress of the Turkish in- next ridge, we saw a few Russian fantry, which, led by Omer Pacba, horsemen before us in the defile where had issued from the right of our lines far the charge of the Light Brigade had taken place; on a steep brown hill in field-a chestnut and a bay. The front was a body of Cossacks behind Cossacks still held the hill in front, an intrenchment drawn across the and two bodies of Turkish infantry slope near the summit. Kamara was were marched towards them, accom. occupied by the Turkish infantry, panied by doleful music. Long before whose skirmishers extended down to they got within musket range, howwards those of our cavalry, and the ever, some rockets were fired by the main body of the reconpoitring force French at the Cossacks, which pitched appeared on the verge of a high woody and exploded near them, when they rock at the back of Kamara, and at once quitted the intrenchment and thither I (being present merely as an hastened off behind the bill, up the amateur, and not tied to any particular steep stony barren side of which we station) accordingly rode.

all now moved, the Turkish infantry, The only building remaining in the already on their way, being first. village of Kamara, which stands balf- Presently a volley was beard in front, way between the plain and the top of which was fired by the Russians posted the heights on the Woronzoff road, in the valley of the Tchernaya at those is the church, and that is in a very who were first over the hill, and which dilapidated condition. It stands in a damaged nobody. Steep down bestone enclosure, which was lined with neath us was a bend of the river, which Turkish soldiers, a battalion of whom divided into streams, and, upiting again was drawn up on the slope beneath. below, meanders here among willows Passing this, I ascended by a path and poplars. On the left stood a stone like the bed of a torrent through thick bridge, higher up the stream than that coppice (which showed that the Rus- we had crossed when on tbe march sians here must have been better off from Mackenzie's Farm, in September; than we for firewood during the win- covering the latter, on the opposite ter) carpeted with primroses and side of the river, was an earth wors buttercups, and enlivened by some for six guns, which was not armed. wild fruit-trees in full blossom, to the Other intrenchments were visible at top of the abrupt mountains, where different points, particularly up the the main body of the Turks bad piled main road into the hills in front, where arms, and were cooking their victuals, a few Russians were drawn up, and their officers and such of ours as had near them was a foot-bridge over the accompanied them forming breakfast stream. Nothing appeared to preven circles, while the Engineers took such our passage, if we had been disposed notes and sketches of the country be- to cross the river; but when the Turk fore them as were required. The view ish chief had satisfied his curiosity; from this lofty point was extensive the troops swept round the hill, an. and grand-on the left the Tcherpaya commenced the march bome. , might be traced passing our position 10th Hussars marched past for LO on the plateau to the distant ruins of Raglan's inspection on the plain ; al Inkermann-in the plain below was our he afterwards rode tbrough the ! cavalry, picturesquely grouped-and of the Heavy Brigade, which, dra all around were high mountains, grey up in squadrons, looked very solar or brown of tint, with glimpses of like and splendid, though its numbe green in low-lying spots between. were but scanty. The men and hors

After a time the infantry descended survivors of that terrible winter towards Kamara, where Lord Raglan vouac, had quite recovered from and his staff were watching the opera- effects of their privations, and, the tions, which were directed altogether not so sleek and shining as of you by Omer Pasha. The venerable ap- looked as fit for work as ever. pearance which the Turkish com- A few days after, Omer re-em!

mbarkmander's white beard and mustache ed for Eupatoria, which was sa give him at a little distance completely be threatened with an attack, ta vanishes on a closer view, when the a great part of his troops with brightness and energy of his face cor- On the 25th of April, the ambassa respond well with his slender straight Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, arti figure. He looks about forty-eight. with his family from Constantinop He bad two splendid chargers in the and remained more than a week.


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