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the Malakoff, with its guns, a mile off, the splinters; after a moment it bursts is disclosed.
in a cloud of earth and smoke, and All the trenches are nearly of the the splinters whirr and jar around. same description--two or three yards Plenty of pieces of shells- some new, wide and two or three feet deep, with some rusted-are lying about, and the the earth thrown up to form a parapet ground is channelled with the graze of towards the enemy. Sometimes the shot. Here and there you see one of soil is clayey, but oftener bedded with our own guns balf buried in the soilstone, through which the workmen it has either burst, or been struck by have painfully scooped a cover. After the enemy's shot, and rendered anwalking some hundred yards, you find serviceable. two guns stationed on their platforms A trench, branching from the first in the trench which, widened here, and parallel, leads towards the second. its parapet heightened and strength. This approach, or rather series of ened with gabions and sandbags, be approaches, is of zigzag form, the comes a battery. Piles of shot are branches in one direction having the close to the guns, and a thick mass of parapet on the right, the others on the earth crossing the trench contains the left. Traverses are frequent here, and magazine. Through the embrasures the necessity for them is shown by the or openings in the parapet, which the occasional singing of a bullet, and the guns fire from, the Mammelon is visi. marks where round shot have grazed ble, and these are the guns which you parallel to the trench, and close to it. just now saw firing on it. Next, you There are no batteries in these trenches, come to a mortar-battery, where the as they look obliquely on the enemy's parapet is very solid, and so bigh that works; but in a trench thrown out the enemy's work is not visible to from one of them a mortar-battery is those working the pieces, which are placed. Further on are the two fielddirected by two iron rods, called guns looking on the rifle-pits in front pickets, stuck upright in the parapet, of the Mammelon. in front of the mortar. These being Turning to the left, up a steep placed one before the other so that they trench where the parapet is higher, form but one object when the eye is you have to walk circumspectly to directed from behind them on the avoid treading on the sleeping solwork, they are so left; a white line is diers who guard the work, their arms, made down the exact middle of the loaded and with bayonets fixed, leanmortar, by a chalked cord stretched ing against the parapet. This is the and rapped along it; and an artillery- point where the Russians penetrated man standing behind the mortar, hold on the night of the 22d March ; and ing before his eye a string with a on the left of it is the magazine into plummet attached, causes the mortar which the Albanian leader of the sortie to be shifted till the string coincides discharged his pistol in a desperate with both pickets, and with the white attempt to blow it up the moment beline on the mortar, which is then cor- fore he was killed. Close to this is rectly aimed without the necessity of the battery, and the parallel beyond seeing the object.
it is lined with soldiers, some of whom Then come more guns, separated by are pointing their rifles through sandtraverses or masses of earth faced with bag loopholes at the enemy's riflemen, gabions or sandbags : the presence of whom, through these loopholes, you these generally shows that the battery may discern behind their screens of or trench containing them is in the stone; beyond them, five hundred path of the enemy's shot, to the course yards off, rises the Redan, a dark line of which they form obstacles. The of earth broken by embrasures, where embrasures here look on the Malakoff. the guns are visible. The complainAs you regard it, a cloud of smoke is ing sound of the bullets is frequent puffed from one of its embrasures here, and follows you at intervals. the report is followed by a rushing along the zigzags by which you renoise, and a shell, dashing over the turn to the first parallel of the right parapet near you, buries itself in the attack, which terminates in the ravine ground a few yards behind the battery. where the Woronzoff road lies. All in its neighbourhood stoop to avoid Crossing this ravine, you gain the
parallel of the left attack, which leads which resembles the dry bed of a river, into Chapman's Battery. This is is threaded by a broken pathway, similar to the other, but more sub. where shot and shell, fired from the stantial, owing to the soil being easier Russian batteries on each side, lie in to work in. From its embrasares you extraordinary quantities, causing the see the Redan, and a range of batte- smaller ravine, which forms the ordiries extending from it, near which are nary approach to our works, to be numbers of small white hovels. Lower called the Valley of the Shadow of down the slope is the Russian Barrack Death. Battery, some of whose guns bear on At the point of junction in the full us, some on the French across the width of the valley stand the ruins of ravine. The buildings of the city are a white house on a knoll. This was seen to great advantage from here. once a pleasant spot surrounded with On the opposite side of the ravine vineyards and gardens : a remarkably stands the Flagstaff Battery, or Bas- fine willow, shading a well close by, tion du Mât, protecting the town, was uprooted in the storm of the 14th and, close in front of it, the advanced November. Crossing by this house, French parallel. At intervals, lower you see at the top of the further predown towards the water, are posted cipice an English battery of three other batteries, the chief being that guns, climbing to wbich you find yourknown as the Garden Battery-part self looking down on the head of the of which, as well as some guns of the inner harbour, where the Russian Flagstaff, looks on our left attack. batteries are posted to defend the ap
The first parallel of the left attack proach. Going along the ledge of terminates in the great ravine, and rock, you enter the French parallel advancing along the rocky ledge of it which conducts to trenches and batfor two hundred yards, you reach teries, at first much like ours, but, as another parallel, from which branch they approach the place, of more solid off approaches leading to the advanced and elaborate construction. The works. Passing along these, you fre- rearmost trenches, like our own, are quently see yourself under the guns of upguarded and solitary ; but the more the Flagstaff Battery, but it is not advanced are full of soldiers, smoking, worth its while to fire at individuals. sleeping, or playing at cards, and At length our most advanced work is pitch-and-toss. In an advanced batreacbed-a battery solid and compact, tery are several French officers on duty whose embrasures are as yet unopen- with their men, and one or two of cd. In the trenches to the right and them offer to accompany you. Going left the parapets are lined with our to the end of the parallel, you find sharpshooters watcbing their oppor- yourself on the verge of the ravine tunity from the loopholes. Looking looking down on the inner harbour ; through one of these, you find yourself the bridge of boats is at no great disjust above the end of the inner har- tance, with planks laid from one to bour. Across the ravine below the the other by which the Russians are Flagstaff Battery are rificmen, who crossing ; in the yard of the arsenal fire, some on these trenches, and some close to the water are piles of cannonon the advanced lines of the French. shot. Just underneath, in the bed of
Returning to the end of the second the ravine, is a Russian cemetery full parallel, you descend the high rocky of white and black crosses, and rifleprecipice to the great ravine, which is men are posted in it behind stones. here divided into two ; the left, and One of the French officers, in his shortest, would conduct you to our anxiety to point out all that may be engineer's camp near the third divi. seen, gets out of the trench and stands sion; the windings of the other and behind it, looking over the parapet, more considerable, lead to a distant till a friendly corporal tells him that a point on the plateau. Both lie deep bullet from the cemetery has shortly and gloomy between their rocky sides, before struck just where he stands, where layers of grey stone, hollowed when he gets down again into the by fissures and caves, support a grassy trench, very deliberately, however, plain, whose green border peers over lest the credit of the grande nation the verge. The bottom of the ravine, should be impaired in the eyes of their
allies. The bullets which pass over yard square, along which you crawl here come from the sharpshooters al- for a considerable distance. A few ready seen from the advance of our men are squatting in the gallery, which left attack. In the third, or most is lit at intervals by candles. The advanced French parallel, the parapet heat grows stifling as you advance, is very high and solid, being over and the roof seems ready to close on looked by the Bastion du Mât, which you. The rifle-shots, French and stands on a high bill opposite, distant Russian, are now crossing each other less than 150 yards, as you may see unheard above you; and, a few yards by looking through one of the loop- farther on, you are actually beneath holes ; taking care, however, not to the enemy's ramparts. The sappers look too long, as one of the riflemen working here can never be sure that in opposite would think it no great feat the next minute the Russians, delving to send, from his ambuscade eighty "a yard below their mine," will not yards off, a bullet into the three inches “blow them to the moon," as Hamlet square of space between the sand-bags. says-or pour upon them, through a The riflemen here were a short time sudden aperture, sulphurous vapours ago in the babit of diverting them- - or drown them with torrents of selves by sticking up bottles on the water. You breathe more freely after parapet for their opponents to fire at. emerging from the narrow gallery of Our commanding engineer, looking the French mine. through a loophole here one day, to The batteries in this parallel are survey the place, found a great num- beautifully finished, high, solid, and ber of bullets striking near him, and, carefully revetted. The guns have hearing a suppressed chuckle from our been removed from the opposing Rusworthy allies behind, he looked up, sian battery, having been rendered and found they had silently placed a unavailable by the proximity of the bottle on the parapet over his head. French marksmen. . This they considered a very capital A long walk through the trenches joke indeed, and wanting nothing ex- conducts you back to the first parallel, cept a bullet through the general's which you can quit near an enclosed head to render it quite successful. field, in which stands a small house
In the parapet of a trench near is a with a bell on the top, known as the portal six feet square, opening on a Maison de Clocheton, where a French steep path descending into the earth. guard is posted. A road from hence An officer outside tells you it is for- traverses the French camps. bidden to enter here, but the sergeant Perusing the foregoing chapter with who accompanies you obtains the per- the aid of a plan, the reader may mission of the engineer officer, and, perhaps form some idea of the aspect descending, beckons you on. The of the ground before and around Sebaspassage narrows to little more than a topol.
Printed by William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh.
MR KINGSLEY is one of the most goes Mr Kingsley, who this time carremarkable and voluminous writers ries us to Alexandria, in the fifth of the present day. In the course of century, and introduces us to forty the last six years be has produced no Goths, worshippers of Odin, who less than twelve volumes of prose and along with forty young women of verse, besides sundry pamphlets; and worse than doubtful character, reside it must be confessed that there is no in a splendid mansion of that rewant of variety in the choice of his nowned city, occasionally attend lecsubjects. Sermons, novels, dramatic tures on philosophy delivered by a romances, political and polemical dis- female professor, and beguile their quisitions, and treatises upon ancient tedium by harpooning bippopotami philosophy, flow from his pen with on the Nile! Scarcely have we reextreme vigour and rapidity. One covered from the amazement engenwhile you find him in the pulpit, dered by the contemplation of such a denouncing in no measured terms the singular state of society, before we social institutions of the age, and are desired by the Rector of Eversley attributing all the vices of the poor to get on board ship, and to sail away to the culpable indifference of the to the Spanish main for the purpose rich. Then, in company with Alton of testifying the sincerity of our ProLocke, “ tailor and poet," he takes a testant principles by an indiscriminate comprehensive survey of working pillage and massacre of the Dons ! garrets and chartist meetings, allow. Of a verity there is no small infusion ing his companion, by way of recrea- of quicksilver in the veins of Mr tion, an occasional love-passage with Kingsley. a countess. Next we are introduced That these books of his are extrato an irresistible gamekeeper, for ordinary cannot be denied. We have whose sweet sake a young lady of nothing like them in our literature, rank and fortune pines away, while and it is a decided proof of Mr Kingshe of the steel-traps departs on a ley's high talent that they have exvoyage of discovery to the realms of cited so much attention, and been so Prester John! Off again at a tangent generally perused; for his faults are
Yeast: a Problem. By CHARLES KINGSLEY, jun., Rector of Eversley. Third edition. London: 1853.
Hypatia; or, New Foes with an Old Face. By the same. 2 vols. London: 1853.
Westroard Hol or, The Voyages and Adventures of Sir Amyas Leigh, Knight, of Burrough, in the County of Devon, in the reign of her most glorious Majesty Queen Elizabeth. Rendered into modern English by CHARLES KINGSLEY. Cambridge: 1855. VOL. LXXVII.-NO. CCCCLXXVI.
not only numerous, but glaring. As foremost, he has a great command of a fictionist, he does not even try to language ; and his style, when he accommodate bimself to probability, pleases to free himself from affectabut indulges in the wildest exaggera- tion, which is not always the case, is tions, and in disordered flights of singularly pure, nervons, and mascafancy. In depicting character he dis- line. It will be his own fault, if hereplays great lack of originality; most after he sball compel us to retract this of the personages to whom he intro- praise, by adopting, in imitation of duces us bearing a suspicious resem- another writer who has set a bad copy blance to the ideal children of other to the age, a dislocated and jerking novelists. When purely original, he style. As we have already hinted, makes his characters so bizarre as to Mr Kingsley has strong imitative try our patience. Some scenes are posi- tendencies ; but we do hope that, in tively tiresome, on account of their this matter, he will not suffer himself over - minuteness and elaboration to be misled, or join the ranks of those others are conceived in the most out- who appear to be bent upon botching rageous and fustian spirit of the their native English. Then he is not melodrama. Pathos he undoubtedly only a graphic, but a most beautiful possesses; but it is mixed up with so depicter of scenery. In that respect much false sentiment that we rarely he has hardly an equal; and the talent can accept it as genuine. And yet is by no means common. Whether with all these faults, and many more, he asks us to gaze with him on an inMr Kingsley is a fascinating writer. land English landscape like that near Take up any one of his books, and we the Priory in Yeast, or takes us to the defy you-in spite of the irritation mud-banks of the Nile, as in Hypatia, which you feel at the constant recur- or describes the breezy downs and rence of absurdities-in spite of the sea-cliffs of Devon, or transports us many violations of pature and pro- to the solitudes of a South American priety-in spite of your conviction forest, as in his latest novel, we feel that the author is promulgating views that we are in the company of an which are neither sound in theory nor accomplished master. Some landfortified by experience-in spite of scape-painters, who use colour as their the prejudices and paradoxes which vehicle, cannot pass beyond one class both annoy and perplex you—and in of subjects--Kingsley, who paints in spite of an impression, which becomes words, excels in all. His pictures of a certainty as you read on, that the scenery are quite as good as those of author himself does not always com- Mr Longfellow in Evangeline, or of the prehend the drift of his own argu- late Michael Scott in Tom Cringle ; ment or reasoning,—we defy you, we and having said this, we do not say, in spite of all these things, not to think that we can pass a higher en. finish the work. If you are an ener- comium upon the graphic power of getic and demonstrative reader, you Mr Kingsley. We may hereafter may indeed, as was the case with our- bave occasion to quote a specimen,selves more than once during the per- at present let us proceed with our usal of Hypatia, hurl the volume from estimate of his merits, and his eccenyou with a shout of annoyance when tricities. you arrive at some passage wbich is so We are convinced that no one peculiarly outrageous as to try your reader of Mr Kingsley, however much temper or your patience; but not- he may admire his genius, has deliberwithstanding these little ebullitions, ately adopted his sentiments in the it is pretty certain that in five minutes gross. In ethics, in religion, or at afterwards you will be at it again. least in religious tendencies, in social The author who, in spite of the many economy, in his pictures of society at and serious faults which we have different periods of history, in his noticed, can thus maintain a hold estimate of real men, and of their over the attention of the reader, must motives, character, and conduct, he necessarily possess some high coun- perpetually challenges antagonism terbalancing qualities.
and dissent. And yet his books are And such qualities undoubtedly Mr read, and will continue to be read, Kingsley does possess. First and because, in spite of his many aberra