plaything of wars, and consider mili- which at least should be more humane. tary commissions as toys, and the What would your high farmers say to Horse-Guards as a toy-shop, we must leaving a few grapes for the thirsty not blame the aristocracy for dealing wayfarer, a few stray wheat-ears for there when they have the means; the hungry gleaner ; to leaving the but we must blame the spirit of the working os unmuzzled ? “Slovenly nation which treats with such levity farming," they would say; but such some of its most solemn duties. precepts were given by the Highest

HYPERBOLUS. I said a little while Wisdom, though easily set aside, no ago, that when you had explained what doubt, by men who would style themyou meant by possession of the land, selves manufacturers of food, as being I had an objection or two to bring farmers. against your theory of an aristocracy. HYPERBOLUS. And what else are It seems to me that it makes no differ- farmers ? ence whether a man farms or mines, TLEPOLEMUS. Nothing else, if they whether he makes wheat or buttons, manufacture seed, seed-leaves, flowers as far as his political dignity is con- and fruit. I have learned out of some cerned. What is the farmer but a very old book, when a child, that manufacturer of food? What is a col- these things were not made by men lier but an underground farmer? It at all. It is an atheistic term. Man is only the difference between hori- may make with his hands razors, zontal and perpendicular, between reaping-hooks, calicoes, even steamtilling the surface of the earth and engines; but more delicate manipulatilling its interior.

tion than his is wanted for the manuTLEPOLEMUS. Which sort of culti- facture of food. The farmer is not a vation does your fair person like best manufacturer, and never will be if he -that of the artist who cuts your is true to himself. He has too much hair, of the other artist who cuts your respect for nature. He helps nature, coat, of the still rarer artist who and nature helps him; the other man imagines you a French dinner, or such is, as far as he can, destroying her sort of cultivation as a surgeon might inside and disfiguring her outside. make with a dissecting-knife among One spends the interest which nature your viscera ? The farmer tills the yields; the other eats into her capi. land, and the land pays him ; but he tal, killing the goose that lays the gives more than he receives, and the golden eggs. I esteem the farmer the land is all the better for his tilling. nobler, and for many reasons I think The manufacturer, who may be in that the country belongs to him more cluded with the miner, bores and than to the other. spoils the earth like a mole, and HYPERBOLUS. You would not, then, ought, if he gets his deserts, to be have a bureaucracy, but a boorocracy; treated as moles are treated. He you would make Roger Chawbacon a takes all out of the earth, and puts king. Roger Chawbacon, wben a boy, nothing in. He is all for himself, for was once asked what he would do if he what is to become of his posterity were a king. “Swing on a gate and when the coal-fields are exhausted, eat fat bacon all day," was his intelas they of course must be in time? ligent reply, in the provincial dialect.

HYPERBOLUS. Why, then, the agri TLEPOLEMUS. If the landed are cultural classes will have it all their mere boors in these times, they must own way.

take the consequences, and let political TLEPOLEMUS. And the land will power go into shrewder hands. There revert to its proper owners, or some are two antidotes to that rusticity of their class, as the Jewish lands re- which is apt to grow on all classes, wheverted at the year of jubilee. By the ther high or low, that are purely agriway, you take very little account of cultural; and these are, the drillingthe provisions made in the Mosaic ground and the school — military dispensation for preventing the aliena- organisation and intellectual culture. tion of land.

If the country would hold up its head HYPERBOLUS. We are not living and broad shoulders above the town, it under the Mosaic law.

must attend to this. Above all must TLEPOLEMUS. But under a law the nobility be the precursors of civi.

lisation, as many of them are. They ness which our men of business have must store their minds with know- always entertained. It is the Peace ledge in boyhood and youth, or they party, as has been truly observed will be left in the wake of an advanc- many times of late, who have done it ing age. As for those manly amuse- all, directly or indirectly; their prinments so decried by the utilitarian ciples have more or less contaminated party - hunting, shooting, and the society, even that part of it which like they must keep them up, not professed no sympathy with them. only for their health and pleasure, but It was the party who repealed the as a duty; because of all preparations Corn Laws to make bread cheap, who for soldiering they are perhaps the sept out soldiers and then starved best, for they demand the exercise, in them, for the sake of clinging to a a greater or less degree, of all military ready-money principle in war; remindqualities. And with due respect for ing one of the economical gentleman the preservation of game, they must who tried to make his horse live withnot be too hard even on the poor out bay and oats, and then was expoachers; and they might fitly punish ceedingly provoked at his dying when these uncovenanted sportsmen for he was just beginning to learn the way. their irregularities by forming them IRENÆUS. I have finished my cigar into Bashi - Bazouks, or irregular some time ago; you have thrown cavalry, whose work should be some yours away in the heat of discussion. what harder than that of the rest. Hyperbolus still keeps his pipe alight, Many a spirited youth has turned and is fallen into a brown study, as if poacher from the mere ennui of rustic to make it appear that his interior is society as at present constituted. I as profound, while his exterior is as have answered you. But why are showy, as that deep Dresden bowl. you waiting, not preparing, for a com- Excuse my summing up, for I suppose mission ?

you have constituted me judge. Our HYPERBOLUS. I know I am very aristocracy have been to blame lately, idle, but I hope to work up some though not so much as the Times interest, and then I shall set to work would have it. But they have been in earnest when I see the commission to blame, through the desertion of is to be had.

their ancestral principles; at least, TLEPOLEMUS. As if a soldier could this seems to be the drift of Tlepolebe made in a day. If it takes two years mus's argument: and we poor men of to make a good soldier, it takes four to peace-for I am still not anti-pacific, make a good officer, fighting being the though I have left the Society-must smallest part of his duties. But the bear the blame on our broad backs. levity with which the aristocracy, and TLEPOLEMUS. In fact, it is not the those classes who take their cue from cold shade of our genealogical tree them, regard the preparation for the that has stunted and blighted our army; army, is not to be charged on them so it is the cold shade of the upas of much as on a nation which considers commerce-yet best symbolised not war only fit for the ornamental part of by a tree, but by a ghastly Manchesthe population, and by no means an ter chimney, vomiting nitric acid, earnest business like that of the clergy- muriatic acid, and a thousand putrid man or the magistrate. Here is the abominations, shutting out the sunroot of the whole evil. I do not ex- beams from the face of once fair culpate the aristocracy in this sad Britain with its o'ershadowing smoke, Crimean business, but they did their and making the earth, where grass part of the work well,-they did at and wild-flowers grew in the memory least the fighting well; where they of our fathers, into a blackened and failed was, seemingly, in entertaining blasted wilderness, like the sites of the same contempt for war as a busi- the cities of the plain.



It was rumoured and expected for could fire towards Inkermann, and some days afterwards, that the French had frequently annoyed our working would make another effort to take the parties there. On the night of the hill. The Russians placed riflemen 6th, the embrasures of three guns in behind the work they had thrown up, our battery facing Inkermann Lights, and in a small enclosure of loose 1800 yards from the ship, were unstones near it, who exchanged a brisk masked, and shot heated. At day. fire with the French tirailleurs in the break the guns opened; the first advanced trench, but without much shot passed over the vessel, and did damage to either side. The attack not attract the notice of the sentry was not renewed by the French, and who was pacing the deck- the second the enemy proceeded to complete the struck the water near, when he work unmolested. The French, how- jumped on the paddle-box and alarmever, sallied from their lines on two ed the crew. Seven or eight shot or three successive nights upon the struck her, and damaged her machinrifle - pits occupied by the Russians ery so much that, though the steam towards Inkermann, and on one occa- was got up, the paddles did not resion drove out the occupants of the volve, and she was warped round into pits and repulsed the troops support the shelter of a neighbouring point. ing them; but neglecting to destroy or Her crew immediately left her, and occupy the pits themselves, the Rus. she was careened over for repair. A sians returned to them when the deserter told us that three men were French withdrew.

killed and three wounded on board. At the beginning of March the On the 9th a telegraphic despatch winter seemed to have departed, leav- was received at the British heading only a few cold days lingering, in quarters, stating that the Emperor of scattered order, in its rear. The Russia had died on the 2d, with health of the troops was steadily im- the words appended, “This may be proving; they were in comparative relied on as authentic." The news comfort, and their labours were light spread rapidly through the camp, ened. New batteries, admirably con- and, notwithstanding its surprising structed, were in course of comple- nature, it was at once believed. Next tion, far in advance of those used in day the French General received & the first attack, and connected with despatch to the same effect from a them by long lines of trenches. Guns different source. for arming them were in our siege By the construction of the lines depots, those damaged by the long- and batteries at Inkermann the Allies continued fire were replaced by others, had to a great extent effected the oband we had lent a number to the ject of enclosing the defensive works French. Inkermann was not only south of the Great Harbour. In defended against a second assault front of the Round Tower (called by like that of the 5th of November, but the Russians Malakoff), and to the was now the most strongly intrenched right of our right attack, was a hill point of our position. Finally, the of the form of a truncated cone, supply of ammunition necessary for nearly as elevated as that on which reopening a general and sustained the Round Tower stauds, known by cannonade was being fast accumulat. us as Gordon's Hill, and by the ed, while the fire of the enemy, who French as the Mammelon. It had but lately had returned ten shots for been intended that the French should one, was materially slackened.

obtain possession of this hill A Russian steamer, armed with under cover of a cross - fire, from two heavy guns, bad for a long time our right attack and the left Inkerbeen anchored near the head of the mann batteries, upon the ground beharbour, at a point from whence she hind it; and that works should be constructed on it, which, at about five Next day I was in a new mortar-bathundred yards, would bear on the tery we had erected in front of the works of Malakoff and the Redan. light division, watching the practice This design was anticipated by the from our right attack against the enemy, who, on the morning of the Mammelon, when the colonel of the 11th, were found to have seized on the 5th regiment of French infantry, hill during the night, and commenced leaving his horse in the battery, walked a battery there. A fire of shells from down to the trenches, not by the our right attack drove their working ordinary path of the ravine, which parties out, and prevented them from affords shelter all the way, but over making much progress by day; but the hill; as he approached the lines though the fire was continued at night, he was shot dead by a rifleman from its effect was too uncertain to prevent the pits. On the night of the 17th, the enemy from working there during about nine o'clock, it being very dark, the darkness.

a furious fire of musketry was opened At seven o'clock on the evening of from the French lines, and for upthe 14th, Captain Craigie, R.E., was wards of an hour incessant volleys returning up a ravine from the trenches showed several thousand men to be with a party of Sappers, and was engaged. The whole camp was on already at a great distance, when a the alert, and the staff - officers destray missile came through the air spatched from the French and Englislı towards them. He remarked, “here headquarters to ascertain the cause, comes a shell," and at the moment it brought word that it was a renewed burst above them. All put up their attack by the French on the Russian arms to shield their heads from falling rifle-pits; and in the morning we splinters; when they looked round, heard that the French had taken themCraigie was lying dead,-a piece of nevertheless, at daylight the Russian the shell had gone through his side sharpshooters were at their old post. into his heart. The sappers bore him The French were said to have lost to his tent, many of them strongly upwards of a hundred men, and next affected, for he was a great favourite night they bombarded the town from with his nien.

eight o'clock till midnight, inflicting In the middle of March the French great loss on the garrison, according connected their lines at Inkermann to the report of a deserter. with those of our right attack by On the 19th, a deserter brought parallels, the advanced one passing in intelligence that Menschikoff was front of the Mammelon'at less than dead. Next day another corrobofive hundred yards from it; thus ren- rated the intelligence, and added that dering the line of intrenchment con- Admiral Istamin had been killed in tinuous (except where the great ravine the Mammelon by a shell. He also interrupted it) from the battery oppo- told us that the Russian batteries had site Inkermann Lights, on our extreme been forbidden to fire, and, in fact, right, to the French works on the left, they did not fire for two days. which enclose the salients defending On the 20th, Sir John Burgoyne, the town. Facing the advanced par- who had hitherto been charged with allel between it and the Mammelon the chief conduct of the siege-works, was a row of Russian rifle-pits, dis- left the army, for the purpose of retant from the French less than a hun. suming his duties in England as Indred yards, which caused great annoy- spector-general of Fortifications. His ance to the guards of the trench. At successor, General Jones, had arrived the request of our allies, a 24-pounder some time before. On this day we in our right attack was directed on the received the English papers up to the pits, and the second shot piercing a 5th, containing the original despatches small work erected to shelter several announcing the Czar's death, the reriflemen, called by the French a marks thereon in Parliament, and the gabionade, its occupants, to the num- leading articles speculating on the ber of eight, ran away, escaping unin- new aspect which the war and the jured through the fire of musketry pending negotiations might assume poured on them from the French par- when so important an actor had been allel; but they came back in the night. suddenly removed.


The advanced trenches of our right received, while standing on the outside attack met the advanced parallel of of the trench, two ballets, one in his the French in front of the Mamme- band, the other in his arm. lon in the ravine, which at this Meantime the attack on the French point is broken by numerous small had been, after an obstinate resistance quarries, or rather commencements of from a party of Zouaves, partially quarries. The ravine, passing on successful, and the guards of the through the intrenchment, sweeps trenches were driven out of the ad. round to the left between our attacks vanced parallels into one of the boyand Malakoff

, and runs into the great aux communicating with it, while the ravine of Sebastopol.

enemy occupied, and began to destroy, A night-attack in great force was an advanced boyau which the French made by the Russians on the 22d, were pushing towards the most troucaused, as was afterwards reported, blesoine rifle-pits, as well as part of by the return of the Grand-duke the parapet of the parallel. The Michael to the fortress. The princi- struggle, in which several thousand pal body of the assailants advanced men were engaged on each side, was up the ravine aforesaid, and along the very close and desperate. Eventually ground in front of the Mammelon, the Russians retired, leaving a great occupied during the day by their number of dead, and having inflicted ritlemen, while others, crossing the severe loss on their opponents, whose ravine, entered the advanced trenches killed and wounded were reported to of our right and left attacks. An amount to four hundred and fifty. Albanian, who had frequently headed A truce was agreed on for the pursorties from the garrison, led the ene pose of burying the dead, to commy assailing our right. The night mence at half an hour after noon on was extremely dark, with a strong the 24th. At that time a number of southerly wind blowing towards the officers had collected at different points enemy, and assisting to conceal their commanding a view of the Russian approach. Leaping into the trench, works, awaiting the concerted signal they were at first taken for French of the pause in hostilities. At noon men, and greeted as such ; but the the firing had almost ceased, and, at nearest man of ours being bayoneted, the appointed hour, a white flag was the working party occupying the elevated over the Mammelon, while trench perceived their error, and, one appeared simultaneously in each seizing their arms, at once met the of the French and English works, assailants. The Greek leader of the when those who had been watching Russians shot Captain Browne, of the for it at once streamed down the hill 7th Fusiliers, with his pistol, and was to the scene of contest. The spectacle immediately killed himself. Captain that followed was one of the strangest Vicars, 97th, forming his men, called that had occurred during the camon them to charge, and they leaped paign. over the parapet, drove back the While we went down the slope to enemy, and pursued them down the the ravine, the French burial-parties slope, where Vicars fell mortally advanced from their trenches, and wounded. The Russians took with hundreds of Russians came out from them our men's intrenching tools and behind the Mammelon and approachfifteen prisoners, among whom were ed our works, some of them bearing Lieutenant-Colonel Kelly, 34th, and stretchers. Passing through the inCaptain Montague, R.E. The latter terval in our rearmost intrenchment was captured on our left attack, where it crosses the ravine, we first where also the enemy was repelled at saw a small heap of bodies, six Rusonce. Major Gordon, R.E., who had sians and two Frenchmen, lying on the been charged throughout the siege side of the hill, having probably fallen with the conduct of the right attack, within the French lines, and been

who was always conspicuously collected there during the preceding

i in exposing bimself to fire, night. At the point where the ado

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