purchased; and we must say, more a brief, how can he possibly progress ? especially for the private buyers, that So say we of the artists. The men they have shown much taste in their who have won their fame can look selection. The number of these after themselves; but we want you to amounts to thirty-add to them the look after the men who have yet their number of purchases before exhibition, fame to win, and to encourage them and the result is seventy-six private in the career which they have been purchases of pictures which are not prompted from instinctive impulse to portraits. In addition to this, the Edin- enter. This much must be recollectburgh Association has bought twenty ed, that there is a wide difference, in three works of high merit, and the point of emolument, between several Glasgow Art-Union fourteen; in all, branches, or rather departments of about one hundred and thirteen. This is art. Very few years have elapsed no despicable market, considering that since Robert Thorburn, a pupil in the some of these works of art have been Scottish Academy, who was educated bought at high prices, and we hail it under the eye of Sir William Allan, as a good augury for the future. left this for London, and he has now What we wish especially to impress taken his place as the first miniatureupon the public, is the duty, if we are painter of the day. But those who really to maintain a great school of cultivate art in other styles, cannot art in this country, of strengthening expect the like success. We do not the hands of the existing Art Associa- wish by any means to see bad painttions, and, if possible, of creating new ing encouraged-indeed, we should ones. We are not yet wealthy set our face resolutely against any enough to depend upon private pa- scheme which could lead to such detronage. Pictures which are well gradation,—but we desire to see rising worth £150, £200, or £300, would talent encouraged, and the upward not find purchasers if the associations path made easier for those who give were given up; but of that there is decided indications of the talent which very little fear, since each guinea sub- requires nothing more than practice scriber, though he may fail to draw a and application to produce notable reprize, has fall value supplied to him sults. This, we think, might be accomin the shape of engravings. We wish, plished by the means of extended art however, that the system could be associations; and, at all events, the extended, so as to reach a class who hint is worthy of consideration. cannot afford their annual guinea. And now we make our bow to the Why should there not be five-shilling artists of our country, with a deep feelassociations ? Many of the works ing of pride and gratitude for what they unpurchased are of a superior order of have done, and with a confident exmerit, and we cannot help thinking pectation that they will yet accomplish that their dissemination would be of more. Nationally speaking, they essential use-irrespective of the in- form the youngest academy in Europe, terests of the artists-in creating a and yet they have sent forth men pure and wholesome taste in many who, in other academies, have taken a humble household. We hold in the most conspicuous place. We can utter scorn the idea that associa- hardly expect it to be otherwise. In tions tend to the production of an in- foreign fields Scotland has won much ferior class of artists. Artists are not of her renown; but we ought at least made in a day. They have to advance to take care that full scope and due from the rudiments to perfection; encouragement is given to the deveand it would indeed be a death-war- lopment, in every department, of the rant to art to announce that, until a talent which we possess; and if that painter had reached perfection, none is afforded, we have little fear of the of his works ought to be purchased result. The land in which the national No one expects that the young advo- poetic influence and national associacate,'employed for the first time, will tions survive, cannot possibly fail in do the same justice to his brief as an corresponding art, if due attention is old and experienced counsellor; and paid to its exigencies and requireyet, if the young advocate never gets ments.



EVERYBODY knows that our friend as easily get him to disturb the bones Irenæus always was, or has become of his grandfather who sleeps below. lately, a man of taste. Since he has Nay, more, Irenæus has put up to been church warden, he has spent his his non-conforming ancestors memomoney in a most public-spirited man- rial windows, with coats of arms on ner in adorning his parish church. them enough to raise their ghosts. His term of office has been a boon to The stained glass was got from Belthe parish. He has revived all the gium, and the figures on it were drawn antiquities, and given an antiquarian out by the stainless fingers of the respectability to the novelties. He young ladies above mentioned ; and has done away with the barrel-organ, a dim religious light comes slanting and put up a real organ. In addition through one of these windows when to this organic change, by the help of the evening sun is on the church, the curate, the Rev. Celsus Cope, and tattooing with the said figures the the two Misses I., whose assistance interesting face of the curate in the is not the less readily given that the desk, throwing a blush on his pallid curate is five-and-twenty, interest- cheek which becomes it more than the ingly pale, and good-looking, and has tattoo, and painting his surplice with taken a vow of celibacy, he has rainbow colours, bright as those which also organised a choir of singing-boys fall from the electric light on the great or charity cherubims, with brown fountain at the Panopticon in Leicesholland pinafores turned into surplices, ter Square. The rainbow hues of The ladies say they will wash white. hope suggest to the fair crafts women These have superseded the beery bass- that a dispensation might possibly be viol, flageolet, and violoncello, and obtained from the vow of celibacy. chaunt the Gregorians on Sundays Nay, more, he has pulled down all and holidays,-on the latter with a the ugly stucco from the screen and certain degree of levity, having been roof, and revealed the ancient glories used to connect them with playing of the stifled oak; he has opened a rather than with singing. He has great hole at the side of the screen, knocked down the old rickety pews, which the ladies call a Hagioscope,* which, with their stolid agricultural which they say used to be there in occupants, used to suggest the pens the fifth century, but through which, in a cattle-market-not sparing his in the nineteenth, it is quite cerown squirearchical one-and substi- tain that the curate can be seen in tuted pretty open sittings, airy in the chancel. He has illustrated the summer but chilly in winter; and his walls with inscriptions of quaint forms example has had its effect all over the and divers colours; an excellent plan church, except with one recalcitrant for keeping his little spoilt boy good swain, who has never read The Seven in church, until such time as he shall Lamps of Architecture, and is in con- have become of age to follow the sersequence an unenlightened character, vice. Nor has he forgotten the and whose family pew stands alone, poor-he never does—but has put an enfilading the reading-desk, taking alms-box at the door, with a slit at the pulpit at point blank, and domi- the top, broad enough both for pence nating the aisle with an effrontery and sixpences, avoiding Sir Isaac Newworthy of a better cause; but then ton's mistake, who had a large hole in honest Giles Steers doubtless looks the door made for the cat and a small upon it as a sort of palladium of civil one for the kitten. and religious liberty, and you might It is bound and decorated with iron

* A word which Irenæus tells them comes from two Greek words, meaning "a saint," and " to observe."

clasps, and fastened with a curious posite part of the garden, where he medieval lock, tangled and twisted has put a table to entertain his friends. and gnarled, and it looks strong It is roofed by two shadowy yews. enough to contain the diamonds of the Here he loves to sit with a friend or crown, though, when it is opened, it two, in that weather so rare in our somehow or other generally contains country, but much more frequent than ninepence.

is generally supposed, when it is pleaBesides what he has done for the santer to sit out of doors than in the church, Irenæus has decorated his house, which will be found true whendwelling-house and garden, which is ever the wind is from the west in the not a great way off, in an ecclesiasti. summer months, bringing with its cal manner. Everywhere are Roman breathings a fragrance and a freshness crosses and Greek crosses to be seen, so which it is a thousand pities to lose. that the most devout Roman or Greek It is near the end of April, and the might be saved the trouble of crossing birds are singing against each other himself, so abundantly would he be in Irenæus' garden. I walk in by the crossed at every turn; and we garden gate, and make for the yew should recommend lovers to avoid bower. But as I come near it a frathose tempting meandering walks, or grance salutes my nose, which seems before they had gone ten steps their to come not from blossoms, but from affection would certainly be crossed the dead leaves of that plant sacred For as you go in and out, and all to the excise, which none but doctors about this garden to look at the pano- are allowed to grow. There must be ramic view, or sit down to gaze on the some one besides Irenæus. I go in. silver reaches of the little river which There is Irenæus, and a fair youth winds below, you pass under arches with an aspiring mustache and disof rustic work, you sit down on seats tinctive cap, smoking one of those of rustic work, each arch and each deep china pipes which are so attracseat surmounted by a cross, and tive in the shop-windows of Germany, climbed over with rose, honeysuckle, making each place where they are clematis, and all other pretty plants sold a miniature picture-exhibition. of a loving, clinging, womanly nature. TLEPOLEMUS. Hail, Irenæus; how The seats are at intervals wherever a long have you taken to smoking? new point of view presents itself, and IRENÆUS. I have just taken a cigar over each is a moral inscription, either in self-defence,-do the same. My borrowed from the page of a sage, or nephew Hyperbolus, the son of my composed by friend Irenæus himself. brother Trygæus, of the university of Nor do we blame the ci-devant mem- Dummerjungenberg. He has a long ber of the Peace Society, if he has pipe in his mouth, as you perceive, built his soul a temple of peace. In and a scratch on his nose from a the least suspected nook of the garden, duelling-sword, to which I call your and stolen from the utilitarian area attention. He is a gentleman who of the kitchen-garden, though well will not be taken alive. My old friend screened from a view of the cabbages, Tlepolemus. is a long grotto or arcade of rough TLEPOLEMUS. Happy to make his stones, covered with climbing roses acquaintance. Having a respect for and other pretty parasites, ending in my proboscis, I shall take care to keep a fantastic bower through which the on good terms with him. Is it not sunset lights or the rays of the moon rather early in the season to be sitting produce effects which bring to mind out of doors? It is warm enough in some of Woolmer's pictures in illus- the sun, but the shado is cold, espetration of Spenser and the Arabian cially the shade of those great black Nights. Irenæus loves this bower horse-poisoning yew-trees. after dinner, especially in warm wea- HYPERBOLUS (striking his fist on ther, for it is airy, and the breeze helps a number of the Times). You have

hit it, sir, exactly. " év Oépe d'UTIVÓV

TLEPOLEMUS. You have, sir, at all di' auditontos atriov TÉUTEL avon." events. Don't your knuckles tingle?

HYPERBOLUS. I allude, sir, to your But he has another bower in the op- mention of the cold shade. Have

his nap.

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are mightily afraid of each other. as the clerks in a bank check each The refined are obliged to put on a other; and that is as it should be, conkind of Aïdos Kuvén, or_skull-cap of sidering that mankind, as some wise Hades, as the Homeric Pallas did, to man has said, is unquestionably a make themselves invisible to the un scoundrel. But I fear that, when we refined. They live in a constant fear ought to bave good elements, we have of vulgarity intruding itself, in order bad ones. True, we have monarchy still, to assert its equality. This comes of not tyranny. Democracy is not strong the tyranny of democracy. Quality enough yet, thank God, to change lives in a constant fear of equality, as our monarchy for a tyranny. Tyranny a Russian lives in constant fear of is nothing but the democratical impostthe Czar; but the Russian knows hume come to a head. Excuse the pretty well where the Czar is, where homeliness of the simile; it is as pleaas your aristocratic trembler does not sant as its subject. If I read rightly, know under what disguise his tyrant the Stagyrite defines oligarchy to be may lurk. The very valet who the monopoly of power by a few rich brushes his coat may be the man for families who keep horses : is it not all he knows; for once on a time he 80 ? found a Radical paper in his dress Irenæus. I am very fond of horses, coat pocket, proving that said valet and should not so much object to this had worn it to a ball or dinner-party kind of oligarchy. Those who ride when he himself was on the moors, are naturally elevated above those who and that he was beginning to act on do not. Here we have the passage. the dictum of "propriété c'est le vol,Translate it, Hyperbolus. making an application of his com HYPERBOLUS. "In the ancient times munism. For my part, I prefer mix- there were oligarchies in all those cities ing with my fellow-men on easy whose power lay in their horses." terms to mixing with them on equal IRENEUS. Horses were the standard terms. Ease and equality, or rather of wealth among the Greeks, as gold the unrealisable attempt at it, cannot is with us, and silver elsewhere. The coexist.

very ancients considered oxen current HYPERBOLUS. But is it not true coin, and, when a man had been bribed that aristocracy is at the bottom of to silence, talked of an ox walking over all our national troubles ?

his tongue. So the Caffres of the preTLEPOLEMUS. Not aristocracy, but sent day will give fifty oxen for a democracy, and a degradation of aristo- wife that they like a great deal, and cracy at its side, which is more rightly ten for one they like moderately. named oligarchy. We are not so much But horses with the Athenians stood aristocratical and republican (I use the for wealth, and denoted respectability, word in a good sense) as oligarchical as gigs have denoted it with us. They and democratical. Aristocracy makes are called by Eschylus άγαλμα της rank its standard, -rank of a certain υπερπλούτου χλιδής, or “ the delight of kind, which we will discuss hereafter, over-rich luxury." Now, only fancy a if you like ; oligarchy makes wealth its low-crowned, broad - brimmed, tightstandard. True republicanism cares breeched oligarchy of horse-dealers; a much more for liberty than for equa top-booted, pink-coated, oligarchy of lity; false republicanism or democracy horse-owners. The horse-dealers would cares much more for equality than for bave the best of it, if they took their liberty. I took the third Grace, Fra positions, like cathedral dignitaries, ternity, from the other two; I must by their stalls. As in Athens you now dissolve the embrace of the re had the men of five hundred brebels, maining sisters. Liberty and Equality and the men of fifty; as in Guernsey cannot exist together. We are a most you have much the same, tbe kits and conceited people about our mixed gov the forties; so you would bere #th 12% ernment. It may work pretty well, the great men of fifty XLS ad the but I question if the elements mix little of five. Nezi s 3 azuchy of much more closely than the oil and horsemen wote wa Áburn. vinegar in a salad. Not that I care so Gulliver's dr 2. L. Be true wa much for that, if the salad is good. you bas ar 22 . The elements rather check each other, Ilma: Lon is pick

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