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enter, and I went in a boat. The towards Tchergoum, where, according place was greatly improved since to the original plan, they were to Í had last seen it. The streets have engaged the attention of the were cleaner, the frost had dried Russian force, while the French, the roads, and there were more con- crossing the bridge, turned their veniences for landing. The rail. flank. There seems good reason to way ran from the heart of the town, believe that, had the design been through the meadows which last au- carried out, it would have been attumn teemed with vegetables, fruit, tended with success; the Russians and vines, to the side of the hill be- bad neglected their outposts, and noyond Kadukoi at the head of the thing occurred to interrupt the marcb. valley; and huge fat dray - horses, Daylight showed ihe Russian force suggestive of ale and stout, stalk across the Tchernaya, two miles off, ed ponderously by. Ascending the ill prepared for an attack, and it was heights to the platean, too, circum- nearly half an hour before they got stances were changed greatly for the under arms. When it was seen from better. Many huts bad been brought the plateau that the English bad adup, forming in some spots small vil- vanced, a body of French was de. lages. The dead horses had been spatched to support them—and nearly buried, and the live ones sheltered, at the same time came the order either in stables of plank, or in countermanding the enterprise. In trenches covered in with boards or marching back, the ammunition-mules tarpaulin; while tbe troops had been were separated from the troops, and, for some weeks enjoying the comfort a body of Cossacks appearing behind of plenty of warm clothing, and wore a neighbouring hill, two of them, the appearance of health.
with levelled lances, galloped down So many stories of desperate to intercept the rearmost animal ; sorties, threatened attacks by tbe but a sergeant and private of the Russians on Balaklava, and combats infantry escort, running out, fired at more or less disastrous to the Allies, them, and they turned and retreated, were always floating about the table while a detachment of our cavalry d'hôte at Pera, generally supported came back to protect the ammunition. by plausible authority, that I hast. Some of our men were frostbittenened to inquire into the truth of and another misfortune arising from some wbich had appeared better the abortive attempt was, that the authenticated than the rest. With enemy were thus placed on their the exception of one or two sorties, guard against a repetition of the enhowever, nothing bad occurred to terprise. break the monotopy of the siege. Before this, intelligence had arrived But the night of the 19th February of an attack made on Eupatoria by (the day I landed) had been fixed on the Russians, who had been observed for an expedition into the valley of on the 15th to receive large convoys the Tchernaya, to surprise the Russian and reinforcements from the eastforce there, and to effect a reconnois. ward. sance of the surrounding country. At daylight on the 17th they came General Bosquet was to command a on in numbers estimated at 40,000 considerable French force; and the of all arms, with from sixty to one Highland brigade, with two batteries hundred guns, and opened with their of artillery, and about three hundred artillery on the intrenchments surcavalry, was to co-operate with him. rounding the town. Skirmishers co
Though the day had been fine, a vered the guns, the battalions were bitter north wind, with snow, blew in rear, and the cavalry on the flanks; all night, and the cold was so intense subsequently the guns advanced, and that the order for Bosquet's division under cover of their fire the infantry, to march was countermanded. The forming behind a wall six hundred staff-officer, who was sent to apprise yards distant from the right of the Sir C. Campbell of the postponement town, made their attack, and were of the enterprise, lost his way in the repulsed-at other points also they snow-storm, and at two in the morn- were driven back-and at ten in the ing the English force marched out of morning they retired, covered by the Kadukoi, proceeding across the plain artillery and cavalry. Liprandi's division (the 12tb), formerly posted around the face of the slopes looking in front of Balaklava, was present in towards the Round Tower, in which this action.
direction approaches had been pushed A battery of Turkish artillery was to the advanced trench in question, disabled in the attack, every gun wbich was at a considerable distance being struck, and a third of the horses from the redoubts. killed, with nineteen gunners. There Being in the trenches of our right were ninety-seven Turks killed, and attack on the 23d, I had a good view 277 wounded in all; a French de- of this new Russian work. A row of tachment acting with them lost four gabions had been filled, and a second killed and pine wounded ; and of the placed on the top of a small hill beTartar population thirteen were killed tween the Round Tower and the and eleven wounded. Selim Pasha, French trenches before Inkermann ; an Egyptian, commanding a brigade, and a few men were employed in workwas among the slain. The Russians ing behind the bill, which hid them left 460 dead -- and, if the snow from the French. It was evident storm on the night of the 19th found that the latter could not permit the them on the march, or unsheltered, work to proceed unmolested, and an they must bave suffered severe loss. attack was ordered for the same
For some time a cordon of Russian night. cavalry had surrounded Eupatoria. At an hour after midnight, 2500 A depot of provisions and military French infantry, consisting of a batstores had been collected there, and a talion of Zouaves, and one each of the garrison from the Turkish army on line and of marines, sallied from the the Danube under Omer Pasha ; but trenches; and the two latter remaining their great deficiency was in cavalry, in support, the Zouaves advanced the scanty number of which barely without firing, to the foot of the emienabled them to furnish the necessary nence on which the battery was posted. videttes. While in Constantinople, The Russians were prepared, and reI was glad to hear that 4000 cavalry ceived them with à volley from the were soon to be despatched to Eupa. work in front, and from a line of intoria ; in an action taking place on fantry extended on each side to flank the plains between that town and Se- the approach. The Zouaves returned bastopol, victory would almost cer- the fire, and pressed on, and a combat tainly remain with the side which was of musketry and bayonets ensued, strongest in that arm.
which lasted for an hour. During this During the early part of the siege the time the Russian batteries opened garrison of Sebastopol had never dis- against the hill, firing shot, shell, and played any great degree of enterprise, rockets, without intermission. The ihough they had stood well to their French succeeded at one time in enguns, and worked diligently at their tering the work, and driving out its defences. But on the night of the defenders, but were checked by the 22d of February they seized on a hill Russian supports, which were posted about four hundred yards from the behind the hill in great strength, eviadvanced trench held by the French dently in expectation of an attack ; in front of Inkermann, and began to and the Zouaves, after suffering seconstruct a battery there. All the verely, retreated, bringing with them redonbts now erected on the battle- General Monet desperately wounded. field of the 5th of November were They had fifteen officers killed and garrisoned by the French, who had wounded, out of the nineteen lost in also constructed some very well. fin- all by the French, whose loss in men ished lines extending from the bat. was variously stated at from three to teries opposite the Inkermann Lights, five hundred.
Printed by William Blackwood of Sons, Edinburgh.
THERE are two things we chiefly or by the fire and sword of many wish for while we remain in this battles ?" world-health, to make life enjoyable; A sober life implies moderation in and length of days, to make it lasting all things. “It consists," says CorTo obtain both depends mainly upon naro, “in moderate eating, in modeourselves.
rate drinking, apd in a moderate enWe do not simply die, we usually joyment of all the pleasures of life. kill ourselves. Our habits, our pas. In keeping the mind moderately but sions, our anxieties of body and mind constantly employed, in cultivating
these shorten our lives, and prevent the affections moderately, in avoiding us from reaching the natural limit of extremes of heat and cold, and in human existence.
shunning excessive excitement either The key to health and to long life of body or of mind." is sobriety of living. It is the fashion And so Lessius, a follower and amof the present day to restrict the term plifier of the views of Cornaro, writes sobriety to moderation in the use of in- also in his Art of Enjoying Perfect toxicating liquors. Misery and crime Health.* “ By a sober life," he and death we trace readily to the ne- says, “I understand a moderate use glect of this species of sobriety. We do of meat and drink, such as accords not hesitate to say of a drunkard that he with the temperament and actual dishas killed himself, but we rarely speak positions of the body, and with the of over-eating as a serious or frequent functions of the mind. A sober life shortener of life. Yet the food they is a life of order, of rule, and of temeat causes to mankind at large more perance." Then as the moderate use sleepless nights, more unhappy days, he speaks of implies the consumption and more shortening of life, than all the of meat and drink, both in just mealiquors they consume. "Oh! miser- sure and of proper kinds, he adds to able and unbappy Italy," wrote Cor- his definition of a sober life the follownaro, three centuries ago, “dost thou ing seven rules for actually living such not see that gluttony is killing every a life :year more people than would perish 1. Not to eat so much as will unin a season of most severe pestilence, fit the mind for its usual exertions.
1. Discorsi di Luigi Cornaro, intorno della Vita Sobria, 1550 to 1572. 2. L'Arte de Godere Sanilà Perfella, de LEONARDO LESSIO. 1563.
3. De la Longerité Humaine et de la quantité de Vie sur la Globe. Par F. FLOURENS, Membre de l'Academie Française, &c. &c. Paris, 1855. * L'Arte de Godere Sanità Perfetta, 1653. VOL. LXXVII.-N0. CCCCLXXV.
2. Or so much as will make the life to both poor and rich, to male and body heavy and torpid.
female, to young and old; teaching 3. Not to pass hastily from one to the rich, moderation-to the poor, extreme of living to another, but to economy-to man, self-restraint, and change slowly and cautiously.
to woman modesty : providing the 4. To eat plain and wholesome food. old with a defence from death ; and
5. To avoid too great variety, and for the young, placing the hope of a the use of curiously made dishes. long life on a foundation more firm
6. To proportion the quantity of and more secure." food to the temperament, the age, and And still, as if he could not come the strength of the eater, and to the to an end of its praises, the eloquent kind of food he uses.
old man concluding this, his first 7. Not to allow the appetite for Discourse, at the age of eighty-three food and drink to regulate the quan --- begins anew in warmer words. tity we take, as this sensual desire is “Sobriety purifies the senses, lightens really the cause of the whole dif- the body, gives vivacity to the intelficulty.
lect, cheerfulness to the mind, strength By these rules a sober life is to be to the memory, quickness to the moveled, and a perfect condition of health ments, readiness and decision to the maintained. And the life thus led, actions. By it the soul, relieved, as though nominally a life of restraint it were, from its terrestrial load, enand privation, yet carries with it joys a large part of its natural liberty; many pleasurable comforts. “A the spirits (in the language of the sober life," says Lessius, "gives vigour times) move pleasantly through the to the senses, mitigates the passions, arteries, the blood runs through the preserves the memory, strengthens veins, a temperate and agreeable the mind, protects from the evils of warmth produces agreeable and temintemperance, makes both body and perate effects; and, finally, all our mind more free in their operations, powers, with a most beautiful order, and prolongs the period of our exist- preserve a joyous and grateful harence."
mony. O most holy and most innoBut Cornaro has more fully sound. cent sobriety," he concludes, “the ed the praises of what he calls— only cooler of nature, gracious mother " That divine sobriety which is grate of human life, true medicine of mind ful to God, friendly to nature, the and body-how ought men to praise daughter of reason, the sister of vir- thee, and to thank thee for thy courtue, the companion of temperate liv- teous gifts !" * ing-modest, gentle, content with For all these eulogies of Cornaro little, guided by rule and line in all its there is an undoubted substratum of operations."
truth and fact; and we are safe in "From this sobriety," he says, “as conceding that, from the sober life of from a root, spring life, health, cheer- Lessius and Cornaro, two main blessfulness, bodily industry, mental la- ings are likely to flow-health, with bour, and all those actions which are its attendant comforts; and long life, worthy of a well-formed and well- with its continued enjoyments. Let us disciplined mind. Laws, divine and leave the former for the present, since human, favour it. From it, like health is a blessing which all have exclouds from the sun, fly repletions, perienced more or less, and all can indigestions, gluttonies, superfluities, judge of and value. But we may use. humours, distempers, fevers, griefs, fully consider the old age to whicha and the perils of death. Its beauty this life is to lead us. allures every noble heart. Its safety Now, in regard to this old age there promises to all an agreeable and last- are three things we naturally ask ing preservation. Its happiness in- First, At what time of life does old vites every one, with little disturb- age naturally begin, and how long ance, to the acquisition of its victories. does it naturally last ? And, finally, it promises to be a Second, Is this old age really worth grateful and benignant guardian of having? Is it worth living for? Wi
* Cornaro, Discorso Primo.
it repay us for the self-restraint and The first manhood is from forty to self-denial which are necessary to at fifty-five; the second from fifty-five tain it? And,
to seventy. This period of manhood Third, Should we really reach and is the age of strength, the manly value it, how is it to be best nursed period of human life. From seventy and upheld ?
to eighty-five is the first period of old
age, and at eighty-five the second old FIRST. The first of these is the most age begins." These periods all shade difficult to answer. Up to the present insensibly into each other, so that, in time we have only been able to hazard an actual life, we can hardly tell guesses, both as to when old age be- where the one ends and the other gins, and when life naturally ends. begins. They vary in length, also, What David puts into the mouth of in different individuals, and most Moses we still generally receive as a men nowadays become old and die fair expression of the truth regarding while they ought still to have been the length of human life: “ The days in the period of early manhood. of our years are threescore years and The limits thus assigned by Flourens ten; and if by reason of strength they to the several periods of life are not be fourscore years, yet is their strength wholly arbitrary, like those we genelabour and sorrow, for it is soon cut rally talk of; on the contrary, a off, and we fly away."* And fixing more or less sound physiological the limit of life at seventy or eighty, reason is assigned for each. Infancy we of course reckon old age to begin proper ceases at ten years, because a great many years earlier.
then the second toothing is comBut physiological anatomy has re- pleted—boyhood at twenty, because cently come to our aid, and professes then the bones cease to increase in now to give us definite and precise length-and youth extends to forty, views, in regard both to when old because about that time the body age begins, and when the complete ceases to increase in size. Enlargelife of man naturally ends.
ment of bulk after that period conThe life of the body naturally di. sists chiefly in the accumulation of vides itself into two parts. During fat. The real development of the the first, the body increases in size parts of the body has already ceased. and development; in the second, it Instead of increasing the strength decreases or becomes less. The first and activity, this later growth weakhalf includes the two stages of infancy ens the body and retards its motions. and youth-the second half, those of Then when growth has ceased, the manhood and decay. These are the body rests, rallies, and becomes infour periods or epochs of human life, vigorated. Like a fortress, with all which are generally received and its works complete, its garrison in spoken of. Aud we divide each again full numbers, and threatened with an into an earlier and later period of un- early siege, it repairs, arranges, discertain duration. We talk of later poses everything within itself. The infancy, of early youth, of full man new stores it daily receives are emhood, of declining old age, without ployed in fully equipping, in strengthattaching any fixed or definite ideas ening, in rebuilding, and in maintainto these expressions.
ing every part in the greatest perfec"I propose, however,” says M. tion and efficiency. This period of Flourens, in a book which has recent internalinvigoration lasts fifteen years, ly awakened the attention of all Paris (that of the first manhood,) and it -“I propose the following natural maintains itself for ten or fifteen years divisions and natural durations for more, when old age begins. the whole life of man :
And what marks the beginning of “ The first ten years of life are in- old age ? In youth and manhood we fancy, properly so called ; the second perform a usual daily amount of ten is the period of boyhood ; from physical or mental labour ; but we twenty to thirty is the first youth; are able to do more. Let an emerfrom thirty to forty the second. gency arise, and we find within us a