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significant of the advancement of the long to render them eminently powerprovince of which it is the capital, ful and wealthy; and they will then The population of Upper Canada has exert an influence which cannot but increased within the last six years contribute to the prosperity of a neighfrom 800,000 to 1,400,000; and it is bouring province. It is scarcely not too much to predict, that within necessary here to contrast the conditen years the whole of that vast tracttion of Upper and Lower Canada, or of country lying west of a line drawn to enter upon the various reasons due north from Toronto to Lake which render the former section of the Huron will be cleared. I travelled, province the most eligible field for during a residence of some months in emigration. The traveller seems in a Canada, over a great part of this dis- few hours to have passed from an old trict, and everywhere found the most country into a new one, from a comstriking evidences of the advance of paratively stagnant into a rapidly civilisation. Whether we turn to progressive state of things; and there those statistical tables which show is as great a difference between a town the annual influx of emigrants within in Normandy and one in Yorkshire, the last five years, or to those which as between Quebec and Toronto. I mark the revenue of the province dur did not stay long enough in the latter ing the same period, we shall meet city to be able to judge whether the with results which cannot fail to esta- social habits of the two places preblish the fact of its extraordinary pro- sented as striking a dissimilarity, but gress in wealth and material pro- the life of its bustling active populasperity.
tion seemed rather that of business It would indeed be difficult to point than of pleasure. Determined, thereto any country which offers greater fore, to preserve intact my agrecable attractions to the intending emigrant recollections of Quebec, and anxious at than does Canada at the present mo- the same time to enter upon new and ment. With a vast extent of territory, altogether untried scenes of exciteclothed with magnificent forest, and ment, I was chiefly occupied during watered by noble rivers, possessing a my short stay here in making those fertile soil, contiguous to one of the preparations which they seemed to largest markets in the world, which is require, and in laying in a stock of ever increasing, and to which it has a comforts, which certainly were not to free and unrestricted access, the capi. be obtained on the head waters of the talist here finds a profitable field for Mississippi. investment; while the prospects of There are few sensations in the exthe labouring classes are still brighter, perience of a traveller more enjoyable if we may believe the report of Mr than that of preparing for his journey. Hawke, the chief emigration agent at There is so much of anticipation in it, Toronto, from which the following so many speculations as to what is paragraph is an extract :-"Blessed likely to be wanted, such a delightful with so good a soil and climate as uncertainty attending every purchase, Upper Canada possesses, and favour- such delicate discrimination required ed by Providence with a long and un- in choosing the most available artiinterrupted succession of good bar- cles, and packing them in the smallest vests, there is no country where the possible compass, that one feels comlabouring man can find more constant mitted, by the very importance and employment and remunerative wages, deliberation of one's proceedings, to in proportion to the expense of living." carry out, in defiance of every obThe two principal sources of employ- stacle, a tour which has involved a ment for unskilled labourers are upon certain amount of trouble and expense, railways, or in the lumber trade. so that the ignominy may not be in
But in addition to the inherent re- curred of possessing an unused outfit, sources of the country, it must derive which should ever after remain the great benefit, and be materially assisted record of a failure. in its progress, by the proximity of It is the feeling that every addithe North-western States of America, tional article procured is, as it were, whose vast mineral, as well as agri- an earnest of adventure in the wild cultural productions, are likely before life to which it is adapted, which pro
duces pleasure, and it almost seems ern Railroad has been recently finished as if the first step on the journey bad as far as Collingwood, a harbour upon already been made when the prepara- the south shore of Georgian Bay, tions for it are completed. Under these sixty-six miles from Toronto, and circumstances, one of the most im- which it is expected will become a portant items of comfort is an agree considerable port. The prospects of able and congenial travelling -com- the railway depend to a great extent panion. Perhaps he ought to have upon the success of a scheme for the been put before the tea, the rifles, the formation of a town at this point, as tobacco, and the tent, as he is pro- the through traffic from the northern bably a joint proprietor in those ar- lakes, now that the canal at the Sault ticles ; while, as he is neither to be St Marie, and which connects Lake procured upon such short notice, nor Superior with Lake Huron, is comto be got rid of so easily, if unsuitable, pleted, is estimated at £80,000. This, as the other luxuries, it is of the in addition to the local traffic, will make highest importance that his qualifica a total of $136,000, and, if we are tions should be undoubted, or he is to believe a late report upon the subbetter left behind. However, this is ject, give a dividend of 14 per cent. merely speculative. I have never, in The present earnings are said to be any country, been unfortunate in my £15 per mile a-week ; and this larger experience in this respect. In my amount, if we remember that it is the American wanderings I was parti- great outlet for the fertile counties of cularly well off; and it was with a York, Simcoe, and Grey, is quite posmost agreeable companion that about sible. While, therefore, it is an importhe middle of July, last year, I left tant line in opening up a very largely Toronto by the northern railroad on producing district, it can scarcely, unmy way to the North-West.
der any circumstances, fail to be a proI have seldom seen a more smiling, fitable one to the shareholders. The prosperous-looking district than that average railroad fare in Canada, for through which we passed on our way first-class passengers, is about two to Lake Simcoe. Substantial farm- cents per mile, where the distance is houses, with neat well-built offices, over one hundred and fifty miles; for were planted in the midst of orchards shorter distances, it is about three and gardens, and afforded presump- cents per mile. tive evidence that their thriving oc In two hours and a half we reached cupants had reaped many rich har. Grasspoint, a village upon the shores vests from the acres of waving corn- of Lake Simcoe, where a small steamer fields through which we sped, and upon was waiting to convey us to Orillia. which not even a stump was left to The lake is studded with islands, and remind the railway traveller how short its shores are prettily wooded and a time had elapsed since the solitary well settled, though the scenery is Indian was the only wayfarer through nowhere striking. A channel so parthe silent and almost impenetrable row that it is spanned by a bridge forests that then clothed the country. connects Lake Simcoe with Lake Now, there is little to distinguish it Couchiching. Passing through it, we from many parts of England. Snake wind among wooded islands until we fences are certainly not so agreeable reach the beautifully situated settlea feature in a landscape as hedgerows, ment of Orillia, containing a church and there is an unfinished look about and a number of neat white houses and the cultivation, and a want of eco- stores, altogether a perfect specimen nomy of land, which would probably of a backwood village in rather an scandalise an English agriculturist. advanced stage. However, although land has become We found the little place in a state very valuable in most of the counties of considerable excitement. The geneof Upper Canada, it is not yet so pre- ral election was going on throughout cious as to call for an increase of the the country, and we happened to same ingenuity for rendering it elastic arrive at Orillia upon polling-day. which is practised in our own country. Anxious to see how the suffrages of Canadian farms seldom exceed three backwoodsmen are taken, I visited the hundred acres in extent. The North- polling-booth-a mere log cabin-and there saw two gentlemen, leaning list- fested by my companions in the prolessly back upon their tilted chairs, gress of the elections ; they seemed behind a rickety table, picking their to be actuated in their votes rather by teeth, and listening to the process of feelings of personal regard than by any cross-examination, to which a voter political principle, because, as they was being subjected. To judge by his averred, there was no such thing in appearance, his qualifications were existence. They did not believe in certainly doubtful. He was utterly “ tickets ; " laid it down as a general unlike the sturdy yeomen who sur- rule that no man went into Parliament rounded him, and some of whom were who had not some private interest making jocose comments upon the to serve; and therefore supported him, somewhat evasive nature of his re- not for the sake of certain views, but plies; while others were applauding because they wished success to a poputhe dexterity with which he met the lar man in the line of life he had questions of his examiner, and the chosen, and were not so unreasonable tone of lofty contempt with which he as to expect consistency when it treated his insinuations. He was stood in his way. It is not difficult to dressed in a remarkably seedy black account for this apathy among Canatail-coat, buttoned tightly over the dian constituents. The material proschest, with trousers of the same colour, perity of the country is too great to be and of even greater antiquity, tucked checked by any policy pursued by into a pair of dilapidated Wellington Government, and thriving settlers in boots. He had a red bandana hand- the backwoods are perfectly indifferent kerchief tied loosely round his neck, as to the proceedings of the legislative and a dirty shirt-collar fell negligently bodies, and excessively bored by over it, exposing a short thick throat. general elections. When, however, His eyes were small, and full of mis- they do occur, in the exercise of their chief; his nose short-the part that was privilege and good-nature they vote turned up was scarlet. He twitched a for their friends, not having more restraw spitefully between his thin lips, spect for their principles than these and gave his hat a more knowing cock gentlemen ordinarily have themselves. when about to make an ironical ob- The day, however, is not far distant, servation at the expense of the candi- when a crowded population will render date, who was sitting opposite to him, greater circumspection necessary. It and disputing bis qualifications. He was only natural that, holding such looked like a cross between a needy liberal political sentiments, all parcurate and an unsuccessful blackleg. ties should fraternise very cordially His sansage-like arms and thighs were in the gin and tobacco atmosphere clerical, but he had sporting extremi- which pervaded the bar-room of the ties; and I was still speculating upon little inn, and we joined the group in his probable calling in life, when he self-defence, for their conviviality toproclaimed himself a veterinary sur- wards evening rendered sleep an imgeon. Those who know the genus possibility. Those influences, howwill admit that a Canadian “ Vet." ever, which are powerful to excite in is scarcely to be outwitted even by a the first instance, not unfrequently member of that peculiar breed, said in the end produce a sedative effect; to be the sharpest in creation, "an and after they had developed themAmerican Jew of Scotch extraction;" selves here by the ordinary amount and, therefore, it was not to be won of maudlin embraces, or quarrelsome dered at that this free and indepen- encounters, people were sinking indent elector triumphantly recorded sensibly to slumber under and upon his vote, having utterly routed his tables, or in convenient corners, when accusers : and being thus satisfied there was an alarm given that our myself as to his respectability, I re- hostess had been seized with cholera, tired with him and his clear-grit that being at this period a prevailing companions, to celebrate his success epidemic throughout the country. It at the bar of the village tavern. On would be uncharitable to say that, our way we discussed the chances of upon hearing this news, a gleam of the rival candidates, and I was sur- satisfaction lighted up those countenprised at the want of interest mani. ances that were not previously rendered entirely unexpressive by whis- lands which they own as reserves. ky ; but certainly I never again wish These they are very reluctant to part to be placed at the tender mercies of with; and although they are valuea more incarnate vixen that this dame less now for the purposes of the chase, had proved herself to be. We had all in they still love to wander through turn suffered from her villanous temper; those forests which, in days of yore, and it was now suggested that it had formed the hunting-grounds of their turned sour on her stomach, and forefathers, and to paddle in their thus produced the disease under bark canoes along the well-settled which she laboured. Such, in fact, margin of lakes formerly visited by proved to be the case. Having tor- them in the exercise of their right mented her customers in various ways of savage proprietorship. Now, howduring the day, she now finished by ever, as this part of the country pretending an attack of cholera in the becomes more thickly populated, the kitchen ; a fact which I no sooner aborigines will be compelled to cede discovered than I slipped into the to the insatiable settler acre after only unoccupied bed in the house, the acre, until, congregated in villages, very one in which she was accustomed and dependent for support upon their to repose her own weary limbs, as a pecuniary means alone, they will grajudgment upon her for refusing me dually lose their savage tastes and accommodation when I first demanded roving propensities, and, in spite of it. My friend shared the landing of their natural indolence, may, it is to be the stairs with a puppy of a sleepless hoped, by being subjected to a proper disposition, and which he was obliged educational system, and a judicious periodically to kick to the bottom for superintendence on the part of the taking unwarrantable liberties with Government, become qualified to ashis feet.
sume the functions and responsibilities On the opposite shore from Orillia, of civilised members of society. In and about five miles distant, is the the mean time, so long as they remain Indian village of Rama, composed of in a semi-civilised condition, a gradual neat wooden houses and a church, decrease must continue; and as their and containing a population of Chip- entire number throughout the propeway Indians. The tribe here owns vince does not exceed 15,000, they a considerable block of land, a com- will form but a fraction of the great paratively small portion of which, Anglo-Saxon community. We enhowever, is cultivated, as the private gaged two bark canoes and some sources of revenue of which the tribe Indians at Rama, for the purpose is possessed enable the members to of going upon a fishing expedition indulge their indolent propensities; down the river Severn, to Sturgeon and, utterly devoid of enterprise, they Bay, a settlement upon the south are content to live upon their annui- shore of Lake Huron, where we hoped ties, or to add to them only in cases to pursue our voyage in a more civiliswhere their more limited amount ren- ed manner, amid the wooded islands ders individual exertion for this pur- of Georgian Bay, to Lake Superior. pose necessary. The Red Indians in Our experiences, however, upon this Canada derive the principal portion journey are reserved for a future of their revenue from the sale of those Number.
There are a great many matters self. This living centre of their greatof public complaint and animadver- ness is certainly the foundation of all, sion in which the word “class" comes and the first object of care and tenin as a very objectionable adjective. derness; but every man among us Class legislation, class favour and pre- feels, notwithstanding, in his secret ferment, and exclusivism,-how uni- heart, that it does require all these wrapversal and loud is the voice of the pings and habiliments to make a Mr unbenefited world against these guilty Jones or a Mr Brown out of the orithings ! But it is not always noble ginal nameless human creature, withdukes and premiers-it is not only out a greatcoat and without an inpeeresses and lady patronesses, who come, who stands upon the primary entertain this natural yet offensive standing-ground where there are no partiality for the members of their classes, and where all man are own circle ; even in St Giles's there alike. is an aristocracy, and the lowest deep It does not need this argument, or of all burns with discontent at the class any other save his own great gifts and legislation of Seven Dials. Though powers, to account for the great popuit is true, and happens not unfre- Tarity of Mr Dickens; nevertheless, quently, that aspirants born in one we cannot but express our conviction region seek their way upward to an- that it is to the fact that he represents other, Mr Brown or Mr Jones, though a class that he owes his speedy elevahe thrust bis person successfully into tion to the top of the wave of popular the hallowed air of nobility, has much favour. He is a man of very liberal harder ado to wrench his thoughts sentiments—an assailer of constituted out of their ancient range, or dis- wrongs and authorities-one of the sociate himself in idea from the class advocates in the plea of Poor versus of which perhaps he is ashamed. The Rich, to the progress of which he has weakness is a universal weakness. lent no small aid in his day. But he Few and rare are the cosmopolitans of is, notwithstanding, perhaps more existence. We men and women of distinctly than any other author of the to-day are very limited people, with time, a class writer, the historian and all our sciences and knowledges; and representative of one circle in the instead of standing on one broad com- many ranks of our social scale. Demon ground as human creatures, bro spite their descents into the lowest thers and sisters to each other, we class, and their occasional flights into are all, more or less, inhabitants of the less familiar ground of fashion, it such and such a street, keeping so is the air and the breath of middlemany servants, and paying such a class respectability which fills the rent for our houses. That one of us books of Mr Dickens. His heroes are who has five thousand a-year has not the young men of clubs and colperhaps a great respect for the other leges—not the audacious youngsters one who has five hundred ; and he, in of Eton, nor the “awful swells" in his tum, recognises, without hesita- whose steps they follow. Home-bred tion, the excellent qualities of his and sensitive, much impressed by fepoor clerk who has but fifty. What minine influencez, swayed by the moiben? “We are in a different class tives, the regards, and the laws which of society," say respectively these were absolute to their childhood, Mr respectable gentlemen. They are Dickens' heroes are all young for a both potentates in their way-envi- necessity. Their courage is of the able, sufficient, well-appointed Eng. order of courage which belongs to lishmen, whose incomes, and honours, women. They are spotless in their and appearances, are part of their thoughts, their intentions, and wishes. identity, and who, neither of them, Into those dens of vice, and unknown could well recognise the naked primi. mysteries, whither the lordly Pelbam tive creature who only wears these may penetrate without harm, and vestments of social position for bim- which Messrs Pendennis and Warring