case of our domestic duckling) we can are called. From this arrangement not understand, as we do not partici. of the great business of reproduction, pate in it? And what is this anger all the rest follows. In such insects but the commotion which opposition as the bee and the ant, those who are excited ? The passion is nothing but not mothers feel all the passions of this nervous turmoil spread through the mother; they build for the proits whole body.

geny as other insects build, and, from But all this time, perbaps the nest the very nature of the case, must of the bird or the hive of the bee has build in common. If one prolific febeen hovering in the imagination of male must have five hundred nurses, the reader. He will now admit that or rather foster-mothers, for her young, the sight of its destined prey may the commonwealth of the hive is at awake all the energies of the animal; once established. that, ifa serpent, it will crawl; if a tiger, But this building of the mother herit will spring upon its food; that the self-the simpler case of the solitary fang, tho jaw, and the cesophagus will bee who, less prolific, builds her own act in perfect unison, and thus a re- nest and rears her own young-the sult will be accomplished which shall everyday instance of the bird who wear all the appearance of a purpose, plasters a mud cabin in the corner of but which yet was never contemplated our windows, or who weaves some as such by the creature itself. But in bower for itself amongst the trees, the case of the nest or the honey. what do we say to this? Can we comb there is so manifest a use of shut our eyes to this wonder? We means towards an end that it is im- ask you not to shut your eyes against possible, be thinks, not to suppose any of the wonders of nature-but to that the purpose existed as an idea in open them wider still, and to embrace the bird or the insect.

them all. Thus will all wonders cease There is, no doubt, this impression by merging in the one great wonder, strongly produced on the imagination. the world itself as the manifestation Yet take the case which is generally of the Divine mind. received as most indicative of a cer- When we look upon a plant, we tain instinctive thought, -will any one see means to end; we see the young suppose that each bee has really em- root, soft and tender as it is, penebraced in its mind all the complex trating the hard soil; we see the leaves relations of a hive, and the interests spreading themselves out to the light, of the whole commonwealth of bees? all harmonising to one result. But It must have done this if it acts from we never dream of transforming this an idea. No other idea would be ade result into a thought or purpose which quate forits guidance. Now,even human we place in the tree itself: it is a Di. societies are formed by individuals vine thought which has animated the who act mainly on their own passions, tree. In like manner, it is a Divine and for their own interests. Is it not thought which has animated the bird. far more probable that each bee is We perpetually forget that what is prompted by its own sensational im- peculiar to man comes last in the order pulses without any thought at all, of creation. Tbe simpler type of anithan that it should be prompted by a mal life embraces this circle only-irmode of thought which the most in- ritability, movement, and sensation: telligent human society has not yet sensation, or so much pleasure, being, attained, which is the despair of the as far as that animal is concerned, the Utopian himself?

end of all its vital mechanism. In a Divested of the air of wonder which higher type memory is introduced, but naturalists delight in throwing round is still quite subordinate to sensation. the subjects of their description, what In man the memory, or that still loftier is the great peculiarity of the bee ? spirit of intelligence which acts on It is, that the female is exceedingly the memory, becomes predominant; prolific,—that one only breeds at a our actions are, for the most part, pretime,-that the care of her numerous ceded by some thought or purpose. eggs—that, in short, the maternal in. Thus it is that we make the natural stinct, is diffused over the virgin bees, error of supposing that other animals, or undeveloped females, as the workers which have so much in common with ourselves, are guided by thought, in rials of its structure? We can only cases where we are so cultivated, or say that there is a manifest connecconstituted, as to act from intelligence. tion between the two; which proves But, if we take a wider view of the ani- at least that architecture was no sepamal creation, we shall discover that rate study or purpose of the creature. harmonious but involuntary actions Why, again, is one bird contented with form the earlier type of animated ex. a few straws or sticks loosely put toistence, and that, instead of wondering gether, while the restless busy beak of that there is so much of design acted, another constructs the most compact but not thought, we should rather re- little domicile imaginable? We can serve our wonder for that higher stage only answer that there is an evident where this harmonious vital action is dependence between the nature of the put under the control of the thought nest and the condition in which the of the created being.

young are brought forth, and their The nest of the bird is no solitary earliest wants. Every one rememinstance. Almost every animal has im- bers the pretty description which Gilposed upon it the necessity of finding, bert White gives of the nest of the or framing, some shelter for itself, and harvest mouse :-“ Most artificially some receptacle for its young. Next platted, and composed of the blades of to food there is no want more urgent. wheat; perfectly round, and about the And as the continuation of the species size of a cricket-ball, with the aperture is quite as much the care of nature as so ingeniously closed, that there was the preservation of the individual, we no discovering to what partit belonged. may expect to find ample provision It was so compact and well filled, that made for the nest, which is intimately it would roll across the table without connected with both of these objects. being discomposed, though it containEvery animal either burrows in the ed eight little mice that were naked carth, or spins a web, orconstructs some and blind." There was no possible shelter for itself or its young. The room for the mother; she built it only nature of the progeny to be produced, for her young, and suspended it a few and the degree of care and warmth inches above the ground on the stalks they will require, determine in most of the wheat, out of reach of all harm. cases the construction of this recep- There the paked and blind brood tacle. By what peculiar sensations is were as sheltered as in her own womb. the animal in every instance prompted It was, in fact, another womb which to the execution of its task? Impossi- nature, having po room to grow it in ble to say, but that there are such pecu- the prolific little creature herself, conliar sensations is a far more probable structs through the organs of the supposition to adopt, than to run to the mother-mouse whom she has already hypothesis of " innate ideas." How groun. beautifully is the spider's web con. No one who has truth at heart structed! That glutinous secretion in would wish to slur over any fact which its own body of which it is composed, nature presents to us. But let us is no doubt accompanied with an ir- have fact and not imagination. Now, ritation which prompts the spinning writers upon this subject of instinct, of it forth, and its long, slight, and and especially on the habits of insects, agile legs are working evidently in have been so incessantly employed in harmony with this self-adjusting spine seeking out for analogies between the ning apparatus. Very curious is the animal and the human being—bestow. result; but surely, no one finds it ne. ing upon insects, wherever the least cessary to believe that the spider's similarity of action permitted, both the web existed in the spider's mind as an faculties and the passions of man-that idea before it began to spin.

they present to us the facts of nature Why does one bird build its nest of through an entirely false medium. clay, and another of leaves or the lichens There is, at least, as much of imaginagrowing on the bark of trees? Why tion as of fact in their descriptions. does one bird choose for its haunt cor- They are far more allied to poetry ners and clefts where clay alone would than to science. Of course there are be serviceable, and another the boughs exceptions, and it is from the descripof the tree which affords it the mate. tions of the scientific naturalist that

we are justified in our confident dis- gale first spins a web which exactly covers trust in the majority of those who the mouth of the hole, but which is attached write on natural history. Some bees to the margin of the aperture by one point are seen at the entrance of the hive; only ofits circumference, this point ofcourse these are immediately transformed forming the hinge.” (Could the spider into guards or sentinels. What a

spin a web over the aperture on these con

ditions ?) “The spider then proceeds to martial spirit this at once infuses into

s into lay upon the web a thin layer of the soil the commonwealth. There are cer collected in the neighbourhood of her tain moths, it seems, which choose the dwelling, which she fastens with another honeycomb as a favourite place for layer of silk ; layer after layer is thus depositing their eggs. The larvæ laid on, till at length the door acquires from their eggs devour the honey, de- sufficient strength and thickness.” stroy the comb, and drive out the bees. The professor is so determined that Quite right, they should keep guard. the spider shall work prospective of These moths, however, in spite of his hinge, that he represents him spinthe guards kept constantly at the en- ning under conditions which appear trance of the hives, gain admittance and to us mechanically impossible. Let it deposit the eggs in the combs." The be borne in mind that we have no consagacious guardsmen, having done ef. troversy against those who maintain ficient duty at their post, never think, that the spider, or any other insect, it seems, of turning out the eggs. That has its measure of memory and intelis left, we presume, to some com- ligence : our debate is with those who missariat or transport department would describe instinct as wholly or which is sadly defective. However, in part a peculiar mode of thoughtthe wisdom of the commonwealth thoughts of things which are not mestops at keeping watch against the mories. It is a subject which would mother-moth,-it has not advanced to require a volume rather than a few turning out its mischievous progeny pages for its development, but we canwhilst still in the egg.

not proceed further with it at present. Even our professor, Mr Rymer Returning now to the human brain, Jones, from whom we have already it of course follows, if we are right in quoted, cannot relate an account of our views, that all these phenomena this insect architecture without throw- of life which exhibit themselves prior to ing over it an air of quite human in the development of memory are strictly genuity. There is a spider that has sensational in their character — that obtained celebrity beyond all other whatever we call appetites, primary spiders for making a trap-door to his desires, or instincts, can demand no hole. He is called on this account specific cerebral organ. To use the the mason spider (the mygale). He language of phrenology, such orgaus as burrows in the earth, lines his hole alimentiveness, or desire for taking food, with web, and, further, spins a web amativeness, destructiveness, construcover the orifice. This, as he must tiveness, and some others of the like go in and out, he breaks every time description, must be discarded. They he has spun it, making bis way through represent what are not originally always on the same side, till, adhering thoughts of any kind, but sensations. firmly at one end, and becoming, by Their organ is the whole of the nervsuccessive webs mingled with dirt, of ous system which they range over tolerable consistency, the result is together with the brain as central produced of a trap-door. Mr Jones ganglion. represents the spider as setting to Very much remains to say upon work with the conception of a trap the subject of the passions, but we door very complete in his mind. must draw to a conclusion. We can

only repeat our general result. The A deep pit is first dug by the spider,

brain is the special organ of memory : which, being carefully lined throughout

it is the central ganglion, or collection with silken tapestry, affords a warm and

of ganglia, where all the nerves of senample lodging : the entrance to this excavation is carefully guarded by a lid or

sation meet. We would do justice to door which moves upon a hinge, and ac

the whole body, to all its organs of curately closes the mouth of the pit. In

sense and motion, and not raise an order to form the door in question, the my. imaginary autocracy in the brain. We would do justice to the special func- which we share with other animals, tion of the brain, without infringing we diffuse them through the whole on the prerogatives of the immaterial system, wherever there is a nerve spirit. It is the instrument of thought that feels. because it is the instrument of memory. How difficult a subject we have enReason, with her great ideas or powers tered on, and how impossible it is enof generalisation, has no local organ in tirely to satisfy the mind upon it, no it: we can conceive of such reason one can be more aware than ourselves. only as an activity exercising itself But it is good from time to time to there. The same may be said of the make at least some attempt to reconhigher order of feeling, which often- cile the truths which flow in upon us times seems to be one with the reason. from the opposite quarters of mental As for those passions and appetites philosophy and physiology.




In the front drawing-room are a folding-doors are open which divide group of ladies, some of them shawled the front from the back drawing-room, and furred to the orthodox necessities and in the doorway stands a settee, of a London winter; some of them in very odd and very easy, with tufts of careful morning-dress, expectant of green trimming on its drab cushions, visitors. The room is moderately behind which you can see the light well-sized, with three tall windows, entering through the back window, draped in drab-coloured damask, with and a distant perspective of curtains shadowy white curtains within. Be- and ottomang-still drab, like the rest fore one window is a broad low"squab;" of the apartment—but nothing more. before another a little table bearing a A comely middle-aged woman, with vase of coloured glass, and a bouquet a wrinkle of care in her brow, is Mrs of Covent Garden flowers. Every- Disbrowe, seated in her arm-chair, thing here savours of “town," and the ample folds of her black satin gown you could no more imagine these ca- sweep the carpet round her, and her mellias 'and geraniums arranged by pretty morning-cap of lace and pink other hands than those of the profes- ribbon brightens up her quarter of the sional bouquet-makers, than you could room like a gay picture. If Mrs Disfancy Mrs Disbrowe's drawing-room browe has a weakness for anything, it table with its many ornaments, or her is this same pink ribbon, which gives chandelier and chimney-glass, to be freshness and colour to her habilihome work. On a small chiffonier at ments : for the rest, Mrs Disbrowe's one side of the room, dimly sparkling brooch is twenty years old ; and we with its plate-glass back, and reflect- dare not say how many winters have ing the moving figures before it, passed over her well-preserved lace, stands another vase of flowers some- and thrifty black satin gown. At this thing worse for the wear; and a very moment these active hands of profusion of bits of "fancy work," hers, which look in very pretty conscattered over the room, declare the dition in spite of their many indaspresence of young maidenhood in this tries, are busy with some delicate very comfortable, but not very bright mending; and there is not a personal apartment, where all the chairs are extravagance about this frugal manadrab, and where everything is made ger, save the bit of pink ribbon which the most of, from the pretty embroid- tbrows a soft colour upon her comely ered cushion which embellishes a dim cheek. sofa, to the little ornamental foot-mat Her daughter Charlotte, a tall, wellwhich hides a hole in the carpet. The grown, well-looking girl, with a great deal of "way" upon her, stands before mother's presence, or the respect due the fireplace, swinging some flowing to it, than if the said mother were but breadths of muslin over her arm and a newly emancipated school-girl like in her hands. To know that Charlotte herself. Disbrowe has a great many little A couch at the farther window is brothers and sisters, and in her day strewn with bridal finery, the pretty has had a good deal to do for them, necessities of the trousseau. Though you only need to look at her. A frank- she is the bride, Charlotte is as easy ness of good-humour and careless ease and unconcerned in her blushing of expression, which some people call honours as that little sister from the boldness, added to a rapid sweeping nursery, who peers about, pulling way she has of doing everything, give these pretty robes by the corner, and her something of a hoydenish appear- examining with a child's curiosity. ance. But Charlotte never was shy, Charlotte stands swinging the muslin and does not know what it is to be for her new dressing-gown over her embarrassed,-a certain steady open arm, and speaking in a tolerably high freedom about her, makes her always pitched voice over the head of little self-possessed and at her ease. She Marian Maurice, to Helen Maurice at has never been afraid of her own voice the other end of the room. The all her life, nor hesitated to laugh or mammas make their conversation to cry when the impulse was upon her; more quietly, seated together, but this and though her careless ease of man is what Miss Disbrowe saysner may now and then jar unplea- “Yes, Edward sadly wants to have santly on sensitive feelings, the good- it over. All this fuss and trouble puts humoured girl never means to wound him out, he says. I don't mind it,any one, and would prefer doing a but then one can't delay for ever, and good turn to a bad one any day. now that mamma is settled with a But this young lady carries her scorn governess, it may as well be now as at of sentimentrather farther than is quite another time." consistent with tenderness of heart. “Oh, are you settled with a goverA breezy lightsome summer morning, ness? Who is it, Charlotte?" cried fresh and gay, is Miss Disbrowe's the intermediate sister of the three youth ; but there is no dew for the sun Misses Maurice. to glimmer in ; the earth is dry about “ Well, it's—I declare I can't tell," her, and wants the genial softness of broke off Charlotte, abruptly and with spring showers.

a laugh. “It's a girl-but it's not exThe visitors are young ladies of actly what you could call “ a young Miss Disbrowe's own standing, and a person" either, and I can't make it mamma not quite so comely as the out at all. Wbat did you say, mistress of this house. These young mamma?” people are all well-looking girls, fash- “You had better send Minnie ont ionable, up to the mark of Bedford of the room before you say any more Place, easy and careless, and a little about the new governess," said Mrs loud, with unexceptionable gloves, Disbrowe. and floating ribbons, and fresh unsul “Why?” said Charlotte, opening lied dress, eager in their talk, rapturous her blue eyes wider; “ I am not afraid in their commendations, extravagant of Minnie telling, and I don't mean to in their dislike, yet good girls in their say any ill of her besides. And I way, if you make due allowance for the don't know any ill either," continued total want of veneration for any thing the young lady more quietly; "she or any person, which is part of their looks very odd, and she's not at all character. You think, perhaps, this handsome-I think that's quite right rattle of talk would be hushed or sub- and proper ; but the strange thing is, dued if a few older people, less indul- that she's only a child." gent than these good mammas, were “Oh, I remember, we had once present to hear : not so-the youngest a very young governess," said Helen among them would flirt with her Maurice, pinching a lace trimming friend's grandfather, could the good after a fashion which the bride by no old gentleman be introduced here, and means approved, " and I never saw makes no more account of her own any one so eager to bave us learn,

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