through-some back to the Crimea, deposit them necessarily trample on where in many cases they had re- the forms below, leaving muddy footlapsed into sickness and died-some prints on the blanket-shrouds. Sixtyto England—and some to their final one (about the daily average number resting-place.

at the time) were buried together on On the edge of the bank of the Sea the day I visited the spot. Noticing of Marmora, a few hundred yards to one corpse in which the lower part of the left of the mouth of the Bosphorus, the outline seemed unusually thin, I is a level space of greensward, used remarked to the corporal in charge by the English, from the time of their that the deceased must have been arrival in Turkey, as a burying. long ill, "o be so wasted; but he ground. The placid sea, the distant pointed out to me that one limb bad isles, the cape of Broussa on the left, been amputated. A clergyman waited and Seraglio Point on the right, make till all were deposited to read the up a lovely view from the melancholy funeral service ; close by, another pit spot. At the southern extremity of was being dug for the requirements of the ground are single graves, neatly next day, and we had seen in the defined and turfed, where those who hospital many of those unmistakably died while the army halted here in destined to fill it. Altogether the the spring are laid. But the press of scene reminded one of Defoe's account mortality no longer admitted of such of the burials about London in the decent burial. To those accustomed time of the Great Plague. to see the departed treated with re- I have mentioned elsewhere the verence, and attended solemnly to trenches dug on a battle-field to contheir last habitation, there was some- tain rows of dead. But there they thing horribly repulsive in a whole- lie like soldiers, with an awe and sale interment, where the dead far glory on their blood-stained uniforms outnumbered those who stood round and upturned faces, which no pall nor the grave. A pit, about ten feet deep coffin could bestow. In the pits of and fourteen square, received every Scutari, Death is deprived of his afternoon those who had died during sanctity, majesty, and mystery, and the last twenty-four hours. A rickety retains only those elements which araba, or country cart, drawn by two constitute the grotesque. oxen, was the hearse which conveyed Officers are buried singly in graves them from the neighbouring hospital close to the edge of the bank, where to the place of sepulture. In the cross-headed slips of wood, like those yard of the hospital is a small dismal which mark the plants in a greenhouse, house, without windows ; for its ten- and not much larger, are labelled, ants no longer need the light. Thither sometimes with the name of the occuthose who have died in this and the pant below, sometimes less specifineighbouring hospitals are brought cally-as“ A Woman," " A Russian on stretchers, and packed like sacks Officer." in a granary till the araba comes for Wishing to see the French hospital them. Sewed, each in a blanket, in Pera, I applied to M. Lévy, the with sufficient tightness to leave a Inspector-General, who very kindly caricature, mummy-like resemblance gave me a note to M. Morgue, the of humanity, a score of bodies are principal medical officer, in which he laid on the vehicle, and travel slowly, prayed him to receive some other dangling and jostling as they go, to Englishmen and myself "avec la courthe mouth of the yawning pit, where toisie que meritent si bien nos dignes the party who dug it await the com- alliés." ing of the cart. There is no time for The building, standing on a high ceremony ; each poor corpse is hastily point of ground above the new palace lifted off, and, doubled-up limply in of the Sultan, and conspicuous from cases of recent death, or stiff and the Bosphorus, was originally intendstake-like where it has been longer ed as a school of medicine. It is cold, is handed down, pameless, un- very large, newer and fresher, and the known, and void of all the dignity of wards and apartments loftier than those death, to its appointed station in the of our hospitals. At the door was a crowd. One row being laid, the next covered cart, with a cross in front, covers it, and the feet of those who filled with coffins, and drawn by oxen. In the first room we entered, besides with cases of frost-bites, another of some French officers, there were a wounds, another of fever--a plan tried Russian captain and two subalterns, at first in our hospitals, but broken in wounded at Inkermann, playing at upon by the throng of sick arriving. some game like draughts. In the next It is probable that the worst cases are room, a very spacious one, with a paint- kept apart in the French hospitals, as ed ceiling, and windows opening to the none of the men we saw seemed in floor, looking on the Bosphorus, were extremity; and it is certain that five or six French officers, apparently nos dignes alliés like to exhibit, on all very comfortable. The corridors, like occasions, the best side of their manthose of our hospitals, were filled with agement. The doctor said the deaths patients; in the wards, the beds on averaged seven or eight a-day out of each side were raised on a platform fourteen hundred-about half the proabove the floor-there was a very portion of those in our hospitals; a thick paillasse under each man; variation somewhat puzzling, since across the rail at the head of the bed there seems nothing in the difference was a shelf with his medicine-bottles; of accommodation, care, nourishment, and on a card at the foot was a de- or treatment sufficient to account scription of his case. The surgeon for it. who accompanied us round pointed Our hospitals, with their staff and out a remarkable case, tbat of a man orderlies, are under the commandant who had received a bullet in the head, of Scutari, Brigadier - General Lord which entering on one side had gone W. Poulet. The duties of the staff out near the opposite ear, passing are extremely, almost hopelessly perclose to the lobe of the brain ; he was plexing, from the confusion of the acsensible, apparently suffering but counts of pay, necessaries, stoppages, little pain, and would, the surgeon &c., of such a number of men of difthought, live. Opposite him was ferent regiments. To the commandanother with his skull fractured by a ant, all officers halting on their way to sabre-cut from a Russian officer ; the and from the Crimea report themselves, surgeon, removing the dressing with and he applies for a passage for them, tweezers, tapped them audibly, with- and also for the patients rejoining the out paining the man, on the bare army, or invalided to England, to the skull-bone, which was cleft for about admiral, who has control over all the an inch, and surrounded by a gaping transports and men-of-war. These wound in the scalp. The poor fellow two form, with the chief commissary, whined dolefully as the instrument- a trio supposed to work in unity-as case was unfolded; but the surgeon Mrs Malaprop says, “ like Cerberus, reassured him, saying he was only three gentlemen in one." It is most going to move the dressing ; he told necessary they should act in concert, us afterwards, he thought it would be for many services to be performed necessary to trepan him. Sisters of here demand a combined exertion of charity, with the freshest of com- the authority of the tbree, as absoplexions and the snowiest of caps, lutely as a bill requires the consent of moved to and fro among the beds; the Three Estates to become law. one of them was an Irishwoman from The dealings of the commissariat Meath, who had left Ireland, as she are very various and extensive, comtold us, five years before to join the prising contracts for all the supplies sisterhood. One corridor was filled of provisions, clothing, and forage for with convalescent Russians in their the army, besides what come from uniforms of grey or blue, surmounted, England. The constantly-varying in many instances, by a French cap; rate of exchange must greatly increase they stood up respectfully and grioned the complication of their duties. approval when the good doctor pa- Several large steamers are appropritropised them by a tap on the back or ated exclusively to the commissariat a pull of the ear. The chief distinc- as cattle-ships, which, at certain tion between this hospital and ours points of the coast, embark bullocks, seemed to be that here the patients already collected by their agents in were classified according to the nature the surrounding district, and convey of their ailments; one ward was filled them straight to Balaklava.


It must be acknowledged that the the Cabinet for every act of the body, political movements of the last month by the tender of his resignation to her have not been of such a nature as to Majesty. The month of Januaryimprove the prestige of Great Britain one which will be long remembered in the eyes of Europe. On the very by the people of this country, from first day when Parliament reassembled the almost daily arrival of new testiafter the Christmas vacation, Mr Roe- mony of the most agonising kind rebuck, the member for Sheffield, & garding the sufferings of our brave strong Liberal, and generally a sup- army in the Crimea-rolled on. In porter of the Coalition Government, spite of earnest entreaty, and of obof which Lord Aberdeen was the vious propriety, the Ministry, in Dehead, gave notice of a motion for a cember, had committed the unseemly Committee of Inquiry into the con- error of proroguing Parliament for a duct of the war. That motion, if period which, even under ordinary carried, would not be construed other circumstances, would have been too wise than as a direct vote of censure long, but which, in a crisis like this, upon the Government, and it was so was regarded almost as an insult to felt and acknowledged. The success the excited feelings of the country. of a motion such as that, implies & As a mere political arrangement, this conviction, on the part of the Legis- lengthened prorogation was decidedly lature, that the executive Govern- injurious to themselves, as it increased ment has failed in the discharge of its instead of allaying the general ferduty-that it can no longer be safely ment, and strengthened the impression, intrusted with absolute control of already very general, that the Ministry public affairs—and that it does not could no longer depend upon the suppossess that amount of confidence port of a majority in the House of without which a Ministry is power- Commons. On the 23d, the day of less. Up to the time when Mr Roe- meeting, Mr Roebuck gave notice of buck gave notice of his motion, there his motion for the 25th. On the had been no distinct intimation of dis- 25th, it was intimated to the House union among the members of the of Commons that Lord John Russell Cabinet. Those, however, who were bad resigned. accustomed to scan political move. Such a step, taken by the recognised ments with a watchful eye, had ob- leader of the Whig party at the served, in the course of the debates moment when the business of the Seswhich occurred during the short sitting sion was about to open, gave rise to in December last, various discrepan- general astonishment throughout the cies, both of statement and opinion, country, and imperatively required in the language held by different an explanation, which accordingly the Ministers. The apologetic tone of noble Lord volunteered on the followthe Duke of Newcastle, who was ing evening. He commenced by statWar Secretary, contrasted strangely ing that he found it impossible to rewith the almost arrogant confidence sist the motion for inquiring into the of Mr Sidney Herbert, the Secretary state of the army before Sebastopol, at War; and it was further remarked and into the conduct of the military that Lord John Russell took occasion, departments at home. He admitted in rather a pointed manner, to express in the fullest and most unreserved a very different opinion as to the manner the deplorable condition to nature and probable results of the which the army bad been reduced, and Austrian alliance from that which stated that he was unable honestly to some of his colleagues professed to defend the conduct of the war departentertain. Still there was no rupture. ment. He stated further, that, in No Minister felt so dissatisfied with November last, he had entered into the conduct of his colleagues, as to a correspondence with the Premier, free himself from that responsibility Lord Aberdeen, suggesting & conwhich attaches to every member of solidation of the war offices, and the transfer of that whole department Aberdeen might have been tolerated from the bands of the Duke of Newas Premier. But how was it possible castle to those of Lord Palmerston. that the war could be conducted satisHis objections, in short, referred both factorily with two such incapables in to the existing form of the offices, and conjunction?" to the continuance of the Duke as War Notwithstanding these very deMinister. This correspondence was cided opinions, which can hardly be brought to a close by the Earl of Aber flattering to the parties to whom they deen, who on 30th November posi- apply, Lord John Russell continued tively refused to recommend the pro- to act as a member of the Cabinet, posed alterations to Her Majesty ; without taking the sense of that body and Lord John Russell ceased to press upon the points to which he now atthe point. For two months longer, taches so much importance. Disapby his own confession, he remained proving of the conduct of the adminisa member of a Cabinet of the arrange- tration under which our gallant army ments of which he disapproved, and was fast melting away convinced sharing the responsibility of colleagues in his own mind that it was being whom he thought unfit for their du. made a sacrifice to Ministerial inties. We say of colleagues, because capacity-he still remained one of the the personal objections of Lord John Ministry: nor, as he takes pains to were not quite confined to the Duke assure the public, would he have conof Newcastle, but extended themselves sidered it his duty to resign merely to a more prominent personage in the because a motion for inquiry, implyGovernment. We greatly admire the ing a vote of censure, had been made adroitness of the following insinuation in the House of Commons. Accordmade in a speech purporting to be in ing to his ethics, such a motion as answer to a very damaging one from that ought to be considered less with the Duke of Newcastle :-"My clear reference to its merits than to the impression was, not that the Duke of quarter from which it comes ! Let Newcastle was unfit for the depart. the following sentences be read by ment that he had assumed, but, as I those who have hitherto believed that have stated, either that the Prime Lord John Russell, however rash and Minister should be constantly exert. deficient in judgment, has been guided ing himself to hurry on and hasten throughout his political career by conthe preparations, or else that the War siderations of patriotism and morality. Minister should be a person endowed Let those who are inclined to think with extraordinary authority, power, that he has acted an ingenuous part and energy. I will state now, that if in life, weigh well the tenor of his the Prime Minister had been a man words : whose pursuits and disposition would lead him with eagerness to hasten pre

“On Tuesday last, when I was present parations and dispositions of war, the

in this House, the hon. and learned gentleDuke of Newcastle would have been man, the member for Sheffield, gave notice perfectly competent for the department of a motion for a select committee 'to inthat he held; and I believe also that if Lord Aberdeen had had as War Minis

Sebastopol, and into the conduct of those

departments of the Government, whose ter a person of extraordinary energy duty it is to minister to the wants of that and authority from the offices which he army. Sir, I of course had thought had before held, the noble earl would that it would be probable some member have been a Prime Minister fit to might move for an inquiry of this kind. conduct our affairs during the war. I had not, however, fully considered the But I did not think, from what hap- course that I ought to take. That, of pened, that the combination of the course, depended much on the nature of two insured the efficiency of the pub

the motion that might be made; and I lic service.” That is just tantamount

should say, likevise, that it depended much to saying :-"If Aberdeen had been

on the quarter from which it might come. a man of energy, and willing to do

The hon. and learned gentleman, the the work, Newcastle might have been

member for Sheffield, it is evident, is in

a position to evince no hostility to the tolerated as War Secretary ; or, if Government which he has supported, Newcastle had been up to his duties, and I could not conceive that he had any

quire into the condition of our armvbefore

other object than that which we have country- viz., the conduct of the war: all at heart-the vigorous prosecution of that he, if not others, had become the war.”

convinced that the system of manageWhat is the inference from this ? ment pursued was hurtful to the inWhat can the noble lord have meant, terests of the country, and destructive except that, if the motion had been to the army ;-and that, according to made by a Conservative instead of a his view and opportunities of observaLiberal, he might have taken another tion, the parties to whose want of course, and been justified in refusing energy, ability, and experience, the inquiry? So serious did he think the recent misfortunes must be attributed, crisis to be so strong was his convic- were the Earl of Aberdeen and the tion that the military department Duke of Newcastle. had been mismanaged, and the lives We do not deem it necessary to of thousands sacrificed-that he was occupy any large space in commentready rather to resign, at the imminent ing on Lord John Russell's behaviour risk of breaking up the Government,

on this occasion, because there can be than oppose an inquiry when moved for but one opinion on the subject. Let by Mr Roebuck; but he might not so it be granted that his objections were have acted had the motion come from well-founded, and that his declared another quarter! And yet mark what conviction of the incapacity of his col. he said a few nights afterwards. leagues arose from observation of their Being driven hopelessly into a corner acts and deeds, of their omissions and by his former colleagues - being malversations ; let us even assume charged by them with duplicity for that he arrived at this conclusion renot having taken the opinion of the luctantly, without being biassed by Cabinet on points which he deemed any party considerations, or influenced of such paramount importance, he by the suggestions of future ambition : said :

still, to every honourable mind, there "I admit that I perceive an error

must be something utterly revolting which I have committed. I have no in the admission that this man, dishesitation in saying that it was an error approving of the arrangements and on my part not to have fully considered conduct of his colleagues, and having, the position in which I should have been, in fact, no confidence in them, should if the motion for inquiry should be made nevertheless have remained a member after the opinion I expressed and the dis- of the Cabinet, and shared in its desatisfaction I had certified. But, be that liberations, without once stating to as it may, having committed that error, that body the grounds of his dissatisI felt I should be guilty of a still greater error-that I should be guilty of an error

faction, or suggesting any remedyin morality (and there can be no sound

should never have attempted to warn politics without sound morality if I them of the precipice under their feet stood up in this House and opposed in

-should have led them to believe quiry, telling this House to be perfectly that he was acting in hearty concert satisfied with the arrangements then and unison up to the day when a mogoing on, while, at the same time, in my tion for censure was tabled--and that own mind I was not satisfied, and did he then should have resigned, leaving not feel that I was likely soon to be.” his late colleagues to answer as they

Brave words these, as ever flowed best could to the charges made against from the lips of a Tartuffe ; but how them in Parliament. It is all very are they reconcilable with his previ- well for the noble lord to appeal to ous statement, that the conduct which nis past public life as a justification he might pursue with regard to a mo- against the odium which has been tion for inquiry “ depended much on heaped upon him in consequence of the quarter from which it might this transaction. He ought to know come ?”

that previous character can only be It thus appears from the statement admitted as an element of evidence of Lord John Russell, that for months in cases where decisive proof is wantprevious to the meeting of Parliament ing against a party accused. But in January, there was dissension in here there is no deficiency of proof; the Cabinet on that subject which was and, therefore, an appeal to his anteof the most vital importance to the cedents, even if these could be shown

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