not constitute the whole art of war. getfulness of our duties is no new It may go unquestioned now that one. It began, perhaps, at the union the French are our superiors in all of the two crowns of the British Isles, points of war but fighting. Above all, when the two chief parts of the is economy " is their forte; not the nation were safe against each other, wretched economy which stints a and from dangers on the land side, war establishment, mere penny-wise and, like the one-eyed stag in the pound-foolish economy of money, but fable, did not dream of danger coming economy in its true sense of arrange from the sea. Depend upon it, that ment, method, and mutual dependence in the olden time the men of Berwick of parts. We have all heard of the and the burghers of Carlisle were in fable of Menenius in Coriolanus. A 10 danger of becoming members of French expedition is like the mem- the Peace Society. It was provided bers fed by the alimentary canal; an in a statute of Queen's College, OxEnglish, at least the present one, is ford, that the inhabitants of the like the members, and head, and sto. northern counties should be privileged mach attempting to live and act inde- in certain scholarship elections, in pendently and without relation one to consideration of the sufferings of these another. Lamentations are heard in counties from the incursions of the every household, and grief is felt in Scotch. In spite of their sufferings, every heart, at the sad disorganisation we know that Carlisle's burghers bad of our splendid Crimean army. We the character of being “merry." They all feel that somebody ought to be were merry because they were forced disgraced, even to be hanged for to be warriors by their noble enemies. it-but who ? that is the question. Were the men of Manchester ever Where does the blame lie? The called “merry”? They may have truth appears to us that it lies more been when Manchester was a Roman or less on every Briton's door-step, camp; they certainly have never been except such as, like Maga and her since. I am not arguing for the recontributors, bave protested year after peal of the Union between England year against the state of things that and Scotland, for I do not think we produced this crisis. Every man, for could well have spared Sir Colin his health, though he may be engrossed Campbell at Alma or Balaklava, or in study or business, must take daily his kilted men, to whom the French exercise, riding or walking, or in paid the compliment, “Ces solsome kind of athletic pastime. Every dats ne reculent jamais ;" but I do nation, if it would hold up its head think it would be well if we had an among nations, must, whatever be its imaginary border somewhere, and pursuits, take warlike exercise, not imaginary enemies on the other side necessarily in blood-shedding, but in of it, keeping us on the alert, ready to all those practices which depote an carry on war at any time with all the active preparation for war. Woe be appliances of an advancing age. It is to a nation that neglects this health- strange that, in the outcry for reform ful duty! What a mercy it is that on all hands, one great reform was at the time when the Times was always forgotten,-the reform of our launching its philippics, or rather Na, military establishments; we had betpoleonics, against the present sove- ter have left some others alone, and reign of France, she did not take her looked to this. But we suppose that a opportunity and wreak on us her ven- candidate for a manufacturing town geance for some of the old grudges; taking up this cry would probably she is now taking the pobler way of have missed his seat; and in such heaping coals of fre on our heads by cases men, πάντων απερίοπτοι είσι παρά clothing our naked soldiers, and con- to vikây, care for nothing but success, veying our wounded to hospital, who without regarding the principle on would otherwise be helpless ; for the which success is founded. Better horses are all gone, and the saying of days are, we hope, in store for us: we “dying like sheep" will soon be have escaped a great danger, it is changed for “dying like cavalry horses more than fortunate that our weakat Balaklava." This propensity to ness has been shown us in a struggle lapse into unwarlike obesity and for- with a power comparatively unable



to injure us, at least while our navy counter to his principal patrons ; he is intact. We ought to be thankful is free to do so, and starve. Let the that the chastisement we have re- dependent clerk try to act independceived has not been heavier. Our ently against the master who pays women (the boast of Sparta) have bim; he is free to do so, and starve. never yet seen the smoke of an ene. Take any of our towns, dominated my's camp. They might have seen by a popular preacher or by a reliit, even more plainly than they now gious clique, and let a medical man, can see the smoke of our quondam or any other dependent on the public, enemy's camp at Boulogne. We have act on different principles; he is free now drawn the sword, with the fall to do so, and starve. The individual of the Coalition Ministry, entirely might resist the tyranny; he might out of the sheath: the scabbard had refuse to be lengthened out or cut better be thrown away for ever, for down to the measure of the bed of there can be no harm in keeping the his Procrustes; he might face starvasword drawn ; for while our empire is tion by himself in a country where what it is, our envious enemies must poverty is the unpardonable sin; but, be legion.

alas! perhaps he is not alone; and Adieu, despotic France: we are in “ baby fingers, waxen touches," take free England again, as we heard an the image of his manhood from his Italian refugee congratulate himself; breast, and he bows his neck to the and it struck us that, after all, to sober inevitable slavery. well-conducted people there is not so Yes, when every British member much difference between a despotic votes exactly as he thinks, and every and a constitutional country. We British elector according to his concannot help in sadder moments think- science, without consideration of his ing a constitutional government like custom, it will be time to wear the a constitutional walk, a necessary cap of liberty, and even to plant trees bore. Certainly for all practical pur- of it; but the time is not come yet. poses a good dictatorship is much Not one of us can move hand or foot better, if we can secure its goodness. without feeling the rasp or the itch of And is not our boasted freedom to some social chain ; and until we can nine Britons out of ten the merest get rid of every vestige of this feel. fallacy? Individuals who keep out ing, we have no right to speak, or of his way are generally too small to even to think, in disrespectful or unbe crushed by a big despot, but in complimentary terms of our noble the freest of free countries there are allies across the Channel, and the ena thousand ramifications of petty lightened despotism to which, as the tyranny which take the joy out of the best thing under the circumstances, life of a private man. Let the Dis- the good sense of the majority has senting minister, for instance, under taught them to submit. Ever yours, the Voluntary system, try to act




DURING the lull in the operations, a astounding number of 14,000 men inglance at our present situation, and effective in the British army. the successive stages which led to it, The force thus weakened was by may not be out of place. We find no means replenished by the reinourselves, after two great battles and forcements which arrived from Engsome minor actions, in possession of land and the Mediterranean garria position which, itself of great natu- sons, and, in consequence, the duties ral strength, has been so fortified as of those who remained effective were. to be almost impregnable, if held by increased in severity. The trenches an army sufficiently strong to occupy must be held at any price, and the it throughout its extent. The allied same guards sometimes manned them works are pushed close to those pro- for three successive nights. tecting the town, and reinforcements To feed the army it was necessary reach us constantly; while the garri- to bring provisions daily from Balason of Sebastopol and the Russian klava; the labour of the siege had been army outside must be suffering great such that up to the end of December privations, and their expenditure of our means of transport had never men and material cannot be replaced. permitted us to accumulate one day's So far the advantage would seem to provisions in advance. Day after day be with us.

accordingly saw men and horses, enBut the sufferings of our troops, feebled by hardship, traversing the exposed to the rigour of winter, with roads, clogged by mire and snow, to out clothing or shelter sufficient to and from Balaklava. Strings of solresist it, had, when published from a diers might be met carrying pieces of hundred sources, excited universal raw pork, and often these provisionsympathy. As soon as the change carriers, until late in the afternoon, of temperature checked the ravages of did not break their fast. The cavalcholera, the wet set in, bringing a new ry brought up their forage on their train of diseases. Horrible cramps horses, the artillery theirs on stript resembling those of the epidemic, but ammunition - waggons and Flanders accompanied by different symptoms waggons. A horse carried a truss of and excited by other causes, seized hay weighing from 180 lb. to 200 lb., numbers of those exposed, sometimes or a sack of corn—a waggon took five for nights in succession, to the duty or six trusses, and required ten horses of guarding the trenches. In their to draw it thus loaded ; and these, ragged garments, and with feet al. starting from the camp soon after daymost bare, they paced the wet mud, light, seldom returned till late in the or, wrapt in a single blanket, lay in afternoon. Rows of waggons and of holes which they dug in the reverse cavalry horses waited (men and aniof the batteries and lines, shivering mals up to their knees in mud) till the live-long night. When relieved, their turn for loading came—the rule they crept back, rigid with cold, to being that only one boat-load of forthe bleak shelter of the tents. On age should be disembarked at a time, the troops newly arrived from Eng. as very few commissariat clerks could land these unaccustomed hardships be spared to superintend the issue. fell with double severity, and they It occasionally happened that the men died in appalling numbers, while the of some of the divisions were for a endurance of those seasoned by the day, sometimes two, without the reprevious campaign was now tried to the tion of meat and rum, having only uttermost. In the months of Decem- biscuit and unroasted coffee, while ber and January the sick in the Eng- balf allowance was by no means unlish camp alone varied from 2000 to common. Now, if the reader will 3000 ; and including those at Bala- visit, in the coldest days of English klava and Scutari, or invalided to winter, the poorest family in his neighEngland, the sick returns showed the bourhood, whose food is just sufficient to sustain existence; who, never get. which, for all purposes of war, a ting coals except in charity, search remarkable degree of ignorance prethe neighbouring commons and hedges vailed. Travellers who had hastily for furze and sticks wherewith to traversed these regions suddenly found cook their meagre meals; who lie the notes and observations made for down hungry and cold at night on a their own amusement or profit become miserable pallet, to shiver till cheerless information of the first importance. morning, -and will then remember A reconnoissance of the coast had that to all these privations were enabled us to select a suitable spot added want of shelter from drenching for the landing, but had left us as comrain, and sleet, and frost, he will be pletely in the dark as to the obstacles able to realise the condition of the interposed between us and our object troops in front of Sebastopol after the as were Jason and his companions end of October.

when they sailed in search of the These facts, once known in England, Golden Fleece. The maps showed excited sympathy entirely unbounded, us three rivers between the point and, with the supplies sent to our re- selected for landing and the city lief, the public poured forth indignant aimed at, any or all of which might questions as to how our straits had be strongly guarded; the numbers arisen. Why had the expedition and resources of the defenders of the been delayed till so late in the sea- soil could be only guessed at; and the son? When so long delayed, why city was surrounded by fortifications, was it attempted? Why had provi- of the nature and strength of which sion not been made for a winter cam no certain intelligence existed. paign? Why was our force not more Landing unopposed, we overthrew commensurate with the difficulty of the enemy at the Alma, when such a the proposed achievement ?

shout of triumph arose in France and It is evident that so long as Silistria England that the mere reverberations was likely to fall--that is, till July, were mistaken for fresh pæans of victhe most important object was to tory, and on the 18th of October the check the progress of the hitherto men in front of Sebastopol read what successful invader towards the Turk seemed to them the bitter mockery of ish capital. Soon after the Russians its reported fall. It is not easy to had retired across the Danube, and suppose that the confident anticipabefore the preparations necessary for tions, thus rife at home, of the speedy assuming the offensive in this new accomplishment of the enterprise, aspect of affairs could possibly be should have been without effect on completed, the cholera broke out. the efforts made to provide for the

But the English public, through the contingency of a protracted siege. press, were clamorous for immediate Nevertheless, before the middle of action. Taunts on the inactivity of November, a supply of warm clothing the forces, pictures of the success arrived, which unfortunately was lost which awaited bold and sudden mea- with the steamer Prince. Other supsures, invidious comparisons between plies following were landed and dissuch generals as were supposed to be tributed as soon as possible to the in favour of delay and those eager for troops, the greater part of whom, enterprise, depreciating estimates of however, remained without drawers, the enemy's resources, and exaggerated flannel shirts, or new clothes till statements of our own, these formed January, when these articles began the staple of the articles of the public to arrive in a profusion quite beyond journals, and to these were added fre- our means of transport, which, at quent false reports that the enterprise first inadequate to the wants of the so insisted on was already commenced. army, had diminished every day. Seldom has the British public been O ffering the foregoing remarks as more clamorous for any one thing than in some degree explanatory of why for the expedition to the Crimea. the enterprise had been delayed, why

Thus urged, the allied army, en- it had taken place, and why better feebled by sickness which continued provision was not made for a winter to pursue it, completed in all haste campaign, I now come to the other the most necessary preparations, and question, as to the inadequacy of the sailed to invade a country concerning expedition to accomplish its ends.

Experience daily strengthened the abroad, while baggage and hospital conviction that the radical deficiency trains are absolutely unknown, must to be lamented in the British army of course be always found insufficient, was in the means of transport. It and its arrangements defective, in a was in vain that supplies were landed first campaign against a powerful at Balaklava, while no medium of enemy. Doubtless, to the British conveyance existed from thence to people, proud of the achievements, and the already over-taxed troops in deeply moved by the privations of camp. The baggage animals origi. their army, it appeared impossible nally left behind at Varna had been that they were themselves the authors brought to Balaklava, but the losses of the disasters they deplored. Yet among them were so numerous and how long is it since oracles who proconstant, that sufficient horses, ponies, claimed the impossibility of future and mules did not remain to bring up European wars, and denounced our the necessary provisions and supplies army as a useless and expensive enof ammunition. Thus it happened cumbrance, commanded attention and that we had the mortification of applause? How long is it since the seeing ships lying in the harbour at officers now held up to the world as Balaklava, containing clothing to heroes were considered fair targets for warm and huts to shelter the suffer- daily slanders and abuse, while the ing troops, yet of no more avail, for public looked on, applauding and want of means to transport them, amused? And when did any minister, than if they had been a thousand charged with the office of seeing that miles off. It is an old complaint that the nation got present substantial British troops in the field, in Europe, returns for its expenditure, venture to have been always deficient in means propose an augmentation of the forces of transport, and never was the fault now proved to be inadequate in all more apparent, or more severely felt, except what the public cannot bestow, than in the campaign in the Crimea. to maintain those interests which have Light capacious carriages, drawn by so long engrossed the energies of our strong, well-fed animals, and driven thriving people? by persons in whom there was no The naval portion of our armament necessity for demanding the same was splendid. Our ships of war, our physical requisites as 'in soldiers, fleets of powerful steamers and huge would have been invaluable. The transports, commanded the admiratroops would have been regularly tion and respect of the French. No supplied, clothed, and housed, and signs of national frugality or shorta great number set free to lighten coming were visible there. But a the military labours of the siege; very cursory glance at the condition guns would have replaced those dis- of our military force, when the war abled in the batteries, and ammuni- began, will show its utter inadequacy tion would have been accumulated to our rank and pretensions in the in sufficient quantity for a sustained scale of nations. In all our garrisons attack.

at home and abroad the troops were The efforts made to supply the con- barely sufficient to supply the necesstant drain of the English army left sary guards. At Gibraltar we had Gibraltar, Malta, Corfu, and the Brit- 800 guns, and 500 artillerymen to ish Isles denuded of troops. As work them. At Chobham we thought efficient soldiers cannot be raised at we had done great things when we short notice, it seems that the want assembled 10,000 men to play at of men now felt was altogether owing soldiers, while foreign potentates to the small pumber of troops which laughed in their sleeves at the disthe national jealousy of a military play. Our cavalry force was absoforce allowed to be kept on a peace iutely ridiculous in its weakness, establishment. The army in all its fitter numerically for some petty prinbranches of cavalry, infantry, artil- cipality than for a mighty monarchy. lery, and medical staff, being syste- Regiments appeared in Turkey, admatically kept down to the very lowest mirably equipped, but inferior in point consistent with affording the numbers to a respectable squadron. appearance of garrisons to our colo- The artillery, that complex arm, nies and fortified places at home and involving duties 80 various, and

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