on his way to the election, remember Thus far we have done our best to ing how many destinies are waiting justify our judgment of the merit of to be concluded on his return.

this great writer. With all his faults, Let us confess that, but for those we believe him to be unrivalled in his perplexing things called heroes and vocation. He bas a broader grasp, a heroines, fiction were the most fasci- fuller life, than any one of his connating of arts. But, alas ! that im temporaries ; & more easy and perfect possible union of the ideal and actual knowledge of all the manifold phases which is demanded from the unhappy of humanity - The Varieties of English novelist in the form of a heroine ;-an Life. He is never at a loss, whatever angel in luxuriant ringlets, and dressed the class into which the exigenwith a due regard to fashion, does not cies of his story lead him; but is pass muster in these criticising days. equally felicitous in the stately and We are not quite sure what to say of decorous Earl of Lansmere, and in Helen and Violante- the enthusiast the ruined genius of Burley; in that temperament and the domestic one. kindest of homøopathists who tries to Helen, a sweet child, does not grow harden his heart by means of globules; in this book. We are told, but cannot and in the country tradesman's proud be sure, that she has made much pro- old wife, who preserves the good fame gress, and we certainly have not seen of her family with the sternness of a her advance from a girl to a woman. Spartan. Widow Fairfield, Mrs Leslie, On the contrary, Violante does in- and Lady Lansmere are equally charcrease in stature and development, acteristic; and had the author been a and is a worthy poetic creation, not man of unknown rank and name, we too distinct, but beautiful and ardent should have found it quite impossible enough to be Harley's inspiring ge- to tell in which class he was most at nius. There is much vagueness, too, home. Genius alone does not give about Leonard. Perhaps it belongs this wonderful facility; and these to him rightly in his character of poet; books could only have been written but we think we could have endured in the prime of a long-trained and a more distinct view; though there are, much experienced maturity, and by a indeed, times when this young hero mind which, not content with mere recalls to our recollection a portrait knowledge of the world, has exercised we have seen of Burns, where there its great powers to penetrate, not are the sweet half-surprised eyes— only into the more splendid mysteries that slightest touch of the feminine of our existence, but into the homely which belongs to the poetic character, heart of everyday life. and the bright ingenuous youthful Yet the reputation of Sir E. B. look, as innocent as it is noble, which Lytton contrasts strangely with these should be the singer's too.

his more finished productions. This We are of necessity passing over reputation is a restless, brilliant, dazmuch of this book, and of its charac- zling piece of renown, flashing in our ters, full and overbrimming as it is, eyes with irregular and versatile and can scarcely pause to specify splendour, and not at all like the Dick Avenel, with his ambition, his steady light and broad full atmosmartness, his humbug, yet his Eng- sphere in which his genius has now lish good-looks and manliness; nor the developed itself. In spite of his comsubdued and admirable sketch of his plaints and protests, we cannot sepafather and mother. There is good rate him from his heroes; and to the Mrs Hazeldean too, and " poor" Mrs imagination of most of his readers, Dale; and big John Burley, and all the all- accomplished exquisitism of the Italian interlocutors, good and Pelham and the romantic genius of evil. We can scarcely count the in- Glanville, unite in the author, who dividuals for the crowd, yet we can constantly piques our curiosity, and say with safety that every member excites and rouses our interest, by his of the crowd is an individual; four impatience of his past achievements mighty volumes full, yet every page and daring rush upon the unconquered. rich with its own attraction. And so Uncontented with one triumph, he ends the greatest production which Sir forgets what he has gained to-day in E. B. Lytton has yet given to the world. the new enterprise into which he

throws himself to-morrow. He is never Edward Bulwer Lytton as a dramasatisfied to leave a field of adventure tist, a poet, or an orator; but we know, un visited, or a trial of strength unes- as all the world knows, that in each sayed. Instead of building himself of these avenues to fame he has preup in his stronghold of undisputed tensions, and that if his success there excellence, a new opportunity of dis- does not yet entitle him to the highest, tinction has always a charm irresis- it still confers upon him a distinguished tible for this Orlando of literature. place. To very few men has fallen “If a path be dangerous known,

such a lot of universal achievementThe danger's self were lure alone.” to very few, such unvarying distincAnd there is an Admirable Crichton- tion. One triumph is generally as ism in his universal accomplishments, much as one life is good for; but this which gives a certain charm, fresh man has won all the prizes in this and boyish, to the sober and splendid brilliant lottery — has triumphantly victories of the man. We are re- rescued and increased the laurels which minded of Pelham's adventure with the once seemed about to glide from his pugilistic earl, who tempts the dandy grasp, and has rung the changes upon to a bout at singlestick, with the ami. the sweet bells of imagination and able and good-humoured purpose of philosophy, only to gain from them, breaking the dandy's head for him. at each touch of his bold and rapid The exquisite humours the savage, finger, a new and varying fame. and defends himself with affected We will not congratulate our author awkwardness, till he is weary of the on his triumphs; but we will congrarough sport, when suddenly, with easy tulate him that he has lived to fulfil skill, he lays his rude opponent at his the high promise of his youth-that feet, and (like Hogginarmo) there was he has outlived all that could make an end of him. "Calton played well his name a questionable sound in the enough for a gentleman," says Mr literature of his country, and nobly Pelham, “but he was no match for obliterated the impression made by one who had, at the age of thirteen, that one unfortunate period of his litebeat the Life Guardsman at Angelo's." rary career which had almost lost for And we can believe that Bulwer him- him, not success, but the good opinion of self as little as his hero could endure good men. Sentimentalism may somethe superiority even of the Guardsman times wake weak echoes of false senat singlestick. That national attri. timent; but we can never persuade bute which runs through so many ourselves into love for the overstrained, great and so many little matters, the exaggerated, or the criminal, either that “won't be beat"—which inspires in reality or fiction. To the two last our armies in the field, and strengthens works of Sir E. B. Lytton, on the conMrs Perkins for the labours of her trary, we turn with affectionate gratiball-is strong in the nature of Sir titude. There are few men in the Edward. His conscious power carries world who could introduce us on famihim on with a gay and rapid impulse. liar terms to the society of Austin He flies at everything, in the rush of Caxton, to the friendship of Roland, his high blood and eager spirit; and or make us privy to the amicable contempts, defies, and dazzles criticism troversies of Dr Riccabocca and Parin his endless changes. Perhaps more son Dale. For placing such society fables are told of him than of any within our power, we owe the author other name in literature ;-such rose- no common thanks; and in tendering coloured bowers the popular fancy them, we do not repeat only our belief erects for its Sybarite—such dainty that he has won thereby the highest stories believes of his luxurious re- place in modern literature, but - a tirement. Did he don a smock-frock greater matter—that he has made a for the nonce to beguile us, we still fit use of the genius with which he is could see only a superb dandy in the gifted, and done his devoir gallantly and author of Pelham; for it is difficult to well for his great audience, the people believe that even in this particular -as a man had need to do who exerour novelist would tamely suffer him cises one of the greatest faculties beself to be surpassed. It is not in our stowed upon earth, under the eyes of rôle to discuss the qualities of Sir Heaven.


[EDWARD FORBES was born in the Isle of Man in February 1815, and died near Edinburgh on the 18th of November 1854, in his 40th year, six months after his appointment to the Regius Chair of Natural History in the University of that city. His great and varied gifts and accomplishments, his remarkable discoveries, and his singularly lovable, generous, and catholic spirit, made him an object of esteem and affection to a very wide circle of friends, and a still wider circle of acquaintances. All were exulting in the prospect of the long and honourable career which awaited him, when, in the height of his glory and usefulness, he was suddenly stricken by a fatal disease, and died after a brief illness.

The following lines scek to apply, mutatis mutandis, to the mystery of the great Naturalist's death, certain canons which he enforced in reference to the existence of living things, both plants and animals. Their purport was, to teach that an individual plant or animal cannot be understood, so far as the full significance of its life and death is concerned, by a study merely of itself, but that it requires to be considered in connection with the variations in form, structure, character, and deportment, exhibited by the contemporary members of its species spread to a greater or less extent over the entire globe, and by the ancestors of itself, and of those contemporary individuals throughout the whole period which has elapsed since the species was created.

He further held, that the many animal and vegetable tribes or races (species) which once flourished, but have now totally perished, did not die because a " germ of death " had from the first been present in each, but suffered extinction in consequence of the great geologic changes which the earth had undergone, such as have changed tropical into arctic climates, land into sea, and sea into land, rendering their existence impossible. Each species, itself an aggregate of mortal individuals, came thus from the hands of God, inherently immortal; and when He saw fit to remove it, it was slain through the intervention of such changes, and replaced by another. The longevity, accordingly, of the existing races can, according to this view, be determined (in so far as it admits of human determination at all) only by a study of the physical alterations which await the globe; and every organism has thus, through its connection with the brethren of its species, a retrospective and prospective history, which must be studied by the naturalist who seeks fully to account even for its present condition and fate.

Those canons were applied by Edward Forbes to the humbler creatures; he was unfailing in urging that the destinies of man are guided by other laws, having reference to his possession individually of an immaterial and immortal spirit.

The following lines, embodying these ideas, contemplate his death, solely as it was a loss to his fellow-workers left behind him : their aim is to whisper patience, not to enforce consolation.]

Tuou Child of Genius ! None who saw

The beauty of thy kindly face,
Or watched those wondrous fingers draw

Unending forms of life and grace,

Or heard thine earnest utterance trace
The links of some majestic law,
But felt that thou by God wert sent
Amongst us for our betterment.

· And yet He called thee in thy prime,

Summoned thee in the very hour
When unto us it seemed that Time

Had ripened every manly power :
And thou, who hadst through sun and shower,

On many a shore, in many a clime,
Gathered from ocean, earth, and sky,
Their hidden truths, wert called to die.

We went about in blank dismay,

We murmured at God's sovereign will;
We asked why thou wert taken away,

Whose place no one of us could fill :

Our throbbing hearts would not be still ;
Our bitter tears we could not stay :
We asked, but could no answer find;
And strove in vain to be resigned.

When lo ! from out the Silent Land,

Our faithless murmurs to rebuke,
In answer to our vain demand

Thy solemn Spirit seemed to look ;

And pointing to a shining book,
That opened in thy shadowy hand,
Bade us regard those words, which light
Not of this world, made clear and bright :-

" If, as on earth I learned full well,

Thou canst not tell the reason why
The lowliest moss or smallest shell

Is called to live, or called to die,

Till thou with searching, patient eye,
Through ages more than man can tell,
Hast traced its history back in Time,
And over Space, from clime to clime;

" If all the shells the tempests send,

As I have ever loved to teach;
And all the creeping things that wend

Their way along the sandy beach,
Have pedigrees that backward reach,
Till in forgotten Time they end ;
And may as tribes for ages more,
As if immortal, strew the shore ;

" If all its Present, all its Past,

And all its Future thou canst see,
Must be deciphered, ere at last

Thou, even in part, canst hope to be

Able to solve the mystery
Why one sea-worm to death hath passed
How must it be, wlien God doth call
Him whom He placed above them all ?"

Ah, yes! we must in patience wait,

Thou dearly loved, departed friend !
Till we have followed through the gate,
Where Life in Time doth end ;

And Present, Past, and Future lend
Their light to solve thy fate;
When all the ages that shall be
Have flowed into the Timeless Sea.


1st January 1855. VOL. LXXVII.-YO. CCCCLXXII.



I HAD heard much of the excellent Batteries were placed at suitable points arrangement of the French field-hos- of the intrenchment, which was garripitals, and rode one day to see the soned by 8000 men, English, French, principal one, near General Canro- and Turks. The trees in the meadows bert's headquarters. It was a tall and gardens of the valley were cut wooden building like a barn, very airy, down, partly to furnish abattis and for there was a space between the fire-wood, partly to prevent the enemy roof and the walls, yet very warm- from obtaining cover, if they should the change from the cold air without succeed in penetrating the outer line being most pleasant. The principal of defence. I have already described surgeon, a man of very fine and in the appearance of the valley when we telligent countenance, accompanied us entered it. Now it was sadly changed; round the beds, courteously indicating all traces of cultivation had been the most remarkable cases among the stamped out by the multitudes of passpatients. These poor fellows, all ing feet and hoofs, and only the stumps wounded men, were arranged in rows, of the graceful willows or fruitful in excellent beds, and seemed as com- apple-trees remained to show where fortable as such sufferers ever can be. was once a garden or a grove. Amputations had been very numerous, The first division was posted about and the stumps of arms and legs pro- half a mile in rear of the second. On jecting from the bed-clothes were fre- its right a narrow path descended the quent along the rows. One man lay steep boundary of the plateau to the covered up, face and all ; he had un- valley of the Tchernaya, crossing a dergone amputation of the hip-joint, ford of the stream between the ruins the surgeon said, four days before, was of Inkermann and the cluster of heights doing well, and would probably live. where part of Liprandi's force was postI told him of the case of the young ed. About a third of the way down, Russian officer, which I had witnessed a shoulder projected from the precia few days before, as already narrated. pice like a terrace, and on this the There was a little gleam of professional French made a small redoubt, into exultation as he repeated the fatal which we put two guns to fire down termination of the case to the surgeons on the plain, and to sweep the terrace, in attendance; and then, turning to and which was at first garrisoned by me, remarked that many similar ope- guardsmen, but afterwards made over rations had been successful in their to the French. The latter had formed hospitals. He pointed out one man, an almost continuous intrenchment a chasseur, who had served in from their great redoubt on the plaAlgiers, as of noted valour. He had teau above the Woronzoff road to this lost both arms in the French cavalry point, and we had begun on the 4th charge at Balaklava. The attendants November to carry it onward round seemed especially tender and assidu- the face of the cliff opposite Inkermann, ous in their treatment of the wounded. so as to include the front of the

The attacks of the 25th and 26th second division. But the work prohad shown the necessity of strength- ceeded but slowly and interruptedly; ening our position at Balaklava, and and up to that time, the ground which opposite Inkermann. A continuous had already been the scene of an atintrenchment was carried in front of tack, and was now again to become the former place, extending from the so, had only two small fragments of plateau across the entrance of the insignificant intrenchment, not a bunvalley, up the hills, and round to a dred yards long in all—and more like mountain path near the sea, which ordinary drains than field-works--one communicates with the Woronzoff on each side of the road, as it crossed road. On the lowest hill in the valley the ridge behind which the division of Kadukoi, a strong fort was erected. was encamped.

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