Jermoloff built some fortresses in the began, “ The worthless Tchetchenzes Tchetchna country; but the mountain- have again revolted;" and used such eers surprised the castle of Amir expressions as, “ If heaven were to Hadji Yar, and put the garrison to the fall, the Russian bayonets would be sword. Two Russian generals, Gre- able to prop it up." Absurd as this kof and Lissanewitch, came to besiege style may appear to European ideas, this castle, Dow in the enemy's posses it was calculated to impose on Oriension. The Tchetchenzes fought till tal imagination, and was defensible on their powder was exhausted, and then the same grounds that the pompous made a rush, sabre in hand, by which restoration of the gates of Somnauth, they succeeded in cutting their way in India, was defended. out through the Russian army. The General Sass made his name so Russians now thought it worth while terrible in the Caucasus, by his rapid to invite them to a conference. They expeditions and severe measures, that dared, however, to admit only one it became a bugbear to unruly childMullah to the council of war. Fear ren, as those of many worthy and lessly did this Tchetchan listen to their unworthy heroes of modern and anproposals; but wben the generals be- cient times have been. The same gan to speak of falsebood and trea- compliment was occasionally paid to chery, the proud mountaineer gave Lizianoff; and Jermoloff himself was them back their own, and expressed called by the Circassians the “Rusbis hatred against the oppressors of sian Devil.” But the official successor his country in the strongest and most of Paskiewitch, as governor-general unmeasured terms. “Peace, traitor," of the Caucasus, was General Rosen. said general Grekof, “ or I will have In the mean time the war had consi. thee banged." "Is that the way ye derably extended its limits; for Kasi honour the laws of hospitality ?" Mullah, like a true descendant of the answered the Tchetchan, in a fury, Propbet, bad gone forth preaching a tbrew himself on the general, and holy war, with the standard of insurstabbed him to the heart. There was rection in one hand, and the Koran in a clash of sabres, a report of pistols, the other. He raised Daghestan to the room was filled with soldiers; but revolt, attacked the Russian garrisons before tbe Russians could bring down on the Caspian Sea with partial sucthe Mullah, not only General Lissane- cess, and plundered the adjacent witch, but a colonel and two subordi- country. To stop bis aggressions, nate officers, bad yielded their lives to Rosen determined to attack him in the force of his single arm.

bis stronghold of Himri, the place After the recall of Jermoloff, Paskie- where he was born. He placed himwitch was appointed to the command self at the head of the expedition diof this province. Without immediately rected on this point in the year 1832; assailing the central Caucasus, he but though he shared its fatigues and drew the meshes of Russian conquest perils, its laurels were reserved for closer round it, by the subjugation of Wiliaminoff. On the 18th of October the Persian provinces to the south of Kasi Mullah was massacred with his it, and by his brilliant campaign in Murids; whilst Schamyl, one of this Asiatic Turkey in the year 1828. religious order, whose fame dates from After this he was engaged in an ex- that day, escaped in a marvellous and pedition against Abchasia in 1831, apparently miraculous manner. Bewhich he left for the Polish war, re- fore we proceed with our notice of this signing bis command to General Pan- singular personage, we must caution cratieff. About the same time the readers that doubts have been enterRussian general Pullah received a tained as to the simple fact of his exsevere check in the so-called Devil's istence, as if he had lived long ago Pass, the Gibraltar of the Tchetch. instead of in our own time—the same enzes.

kind of doubts that have been thrown General Wiliaminoff, who died a out regarding the existence of Theseus natoral death in 1839, inherited Jer or Hercules, or other semi-mytholo. moloff's popularity with his country. gical characters. An habitual reserve men. He affected a peculiar style in and assumed sanctity has wrapt up bis general orders, which commonly Schamyl in the same obscurity in

which other heroes are enveloped by story of this is connected with the time and distance. Most of the facts " vendetta," or traditional family fend, related with regard to him only rest which appears to be as common in the on hearsay evidence; some of them, Caucasus as in Corsica, or as formerly as we shall see as we go on, being of among the Highland clans. In the a character to invalidate the evidence country of Dagbestan, that region on which they rest. He is extraordi- about the south-western coast of the nary and mysterious in every way, Caspian, lived a khanum, or princess, most extraordinary in the hair-breadth of the name of Pashubike, who, being escapes he is said to have experienced. Russianised, had acted as an enemy In this, as well as the general charac- towards Kasi Mullah. Hamsad Bey, ter of his exploits, he resembles closely the follower of this prophet-chief, who the semi-fabulous hero of ancient was killed, as we may remember, at Messenia, Aristomenes. This diffi Himri, having enticed the two sons culty of obtaining authentic informa. of this khanum into his tent, under tion regarding Schamyl, seems owing pretence of negotiation, slew them, in part to the unapproachableness of and by these means more easily sucthe scenes of his life, in part to the ceeded in capturing Chunsak, her careligious seclusion in wbich he lives, pital town, and putting the kbanum, either from natural disposition, or with their mother, to death. Here was a a view to his influence on those about glaring case for the avenger of blood. him. The very nature of the narrow Omar Khan, the eldest son of the escapes told of him would make many khanam, had been brought up with sceptical as to his surviving them; for two brothers, named Osman and Hadji supposing them true, his safety would Murad. These brothers fell on Hamappear miraculous.

sad Bey, as he was worshipping in the We have before mentioned the affair mosque, and, undismayed by the sancof October 18, 1832 (only twenty-three tity of the place, killed him on the years ago, we must remark), when the spot. This deed, however, cost one Russians stormed the castle of Himri, of them his life. Osman was sabred after having long been kept at bay by by the Murids who were present. His Kasi Mullah, and the Murid Schamyl. brother, however, escaped, and raised They won the stronghold only after a revolt among the people, who fell they had battered the defences with upon the Murids in overwhelming cannon, and also had fought for a long numbers. Those who escaped the time hand to hand with the besieged. massacre which ensued made their In the storm, Kasi Mullah fell, and way to the tower. Schamyl was one several of the Murids. Schamyl him of these ; and his presence, added to self, wounded by a musket-shot and their despair, prolonged the defence. bayonet-thrust, managed to cut his Hadji Murad ordered the tower to be way out and disappear, to be heard of set on fire. Two Murids only escaped. soon again in some other direction. One was a man who had betrayed to This was the first of these strange Hadji Murad the original plan of his escapes. One version of this event is associates, after swearing to keep their singular. It was long maintained by secret. His escape was only for a some that Schamyl was taken prisoner time, for he was dragged back and at Himri, and, after having been burnt alive. The other was Schamyl. brought to St Petersburg, appeared in How he escaped, none knew; but he bis own country again as a Russian did escape, leaving no clue as to where officer in arms against his countrymen; or how he was gone. Schamyl's third but having taken umbrage at some extraordinary escape bappened in the conduct of his general, deserted back year 1839, at the taking of the fortress to his own people. This story is Achulko. This was a siege in which again said to be true, not of Schamyl, a remarkable contempt of death was but of one Daniel Bey, a Caucasian displayed on both sides. The Tchechieftain, who deserted the Russian tchenzes defended, and the Russians service, in which he held a command, attacked. The place was at last carto join Schamyl. Two years after- ried in spite of the precipices on which wards, Schamyl is said to have had it stood, and which were crowned not another escape of the same kind. The only by men, but by women, who emulated the fabled Amazons of the thirty-seven years of age when he beCaucasus, and were seen above, in came chief of the Tchetchenzes. He fluttering robes, loosening masses of was born in the village of Himsi, the stone, handling firearms, and exciting scene of the first of his great escapes, to the contest the men themselves. It in the year 1797, and is consequently was on account of Scbamyl, and with at present fifty-seven years of age, hope of taking him, that this eagle's though said by some to be nearer nest was attacked. Achulko was taken, seventy. but not Schamyl. He was looked for Of course, in such cases figures are first among the slain, then among the hardly ever infallible. Men and prisoners ; but he was nowhere to be women who lead hard lives in the found. There were left, indeed, a few mountains, look older than they are; Tchetchenzes, who had climbed to the and most semi-barbarous people seem clefts of the rocks higher up. Their to bave a superstitious objection to movements were watched; and some, too great accuracy on these points, so who gave themselves up, were asked that those who obtain information if they knew what had become of from them can only profess to approxiSchamyl. After much hesitation, they mate to the numbers of a tribe or the confessed that he was still above, but age of an individual, as some railway intended to let himself down in the directors, in defence of their notorious night, and make for the open country. unpunctualities, only profess to apHis capture now seemed certain, and proximate to the hours marked on a party of soldiers were expressly set their time-tables. to watch for bim. After waiting till Schamyl, even in boyhood, distinmidnight, this party heard a very guished himself by precocious intellislight noise overhead. Down came gence, and a prond spirit impatient of one of the mountaineers, who, after control. He was never satisfied with an examination of the ground, made & second place in any attainment, a sign to those above that the coast physical or intellectual. He ever was clear, and on this down came strove to overcome a natural weakanother as softly and as nimbly as a ness of body by exertion strained to cat. A third followed. It must be its highest pitch; and whenever he be, thought the Russians, who às yet was surpassed in the sports and trials had not moved, for this one was wrapt of strength in which he and his comin the white mantle which Schamyl was panions engaged, he would shut himknown to wear. The soldiers rushed self up for whole days to mourn over out, pounced upon them, caught all the discomfiture. Nor was his mind three, and went off with them to the less active than his body. This was General's tent, eager for thanks and re- the reason why the untamable boy ward. Great was their disappointment was yet all respect and obedience to when they found that neither of these one man who had power over him, was Schamyl. As for the real Schamyl, that man being his tutor, Jellaladdin. he had taken advantage of the short By him he was thoroughly imbued absence of the Russian guard to slip with knowledge of the Koran and of down at the same spot, and to gain the Arabian school of philosophy. His the bank of the river Koïssu. They tutor, a member of the school of the fired in the direction in which they Sufis, directed all the latent enthusithought he was gone, but they could asm of the pupil into the channel of not prevent him from gaining the other religious fanaticism, and by this mean bank and vanishing in his peculiar and prepared him to achieve his peculiar supernatural manner.

greatness. At the death of Hamsad Schamyl kept his own counsel with Bey, Schamyl was invested with his regard to this escape from Achulko; mantle by acclamation. He has ever if his people considered it miraculous, since remained the acknowledged head so much the better for his influence of an ultra-Mahomedan sect, the very oven them.

Jesuits of Islam. He professes to be This singular man, who has ever guided in all he says and does by since these occurrences been the life direct inspirations from Allah. Then and soul of the anti-Russian party in a feverish exaltation, not in his case the Caucasus, is said to have been without its majesty, attends his words and deeds, and has a strong effect on Shot and shell soon did their work those who are under bim. “He bas," on the rudely-built walls; but they says a poet of Daghestan, "lightnings were as far from taking the place as in his eyes, and flowers on his lips." ever. The rock was burrowed like a

He is of middle height, fair coun- rabbit-warren ; and from the subtertenance, and light hair ; but fire is ranean passages of this inland Gibraladded to his eyes by their contrast tar, the mountaineers, out of danger with the shade of dark and bushy themselves, fired with the deadliest brows. The only exception to an ap- effect upon the besiegers. Nothing pearance of energy and youtbfulness was to be done without storming, so is a beard which has become grey early an assault was attempted, wbich failin life. Nor is this fiery activity artifi. ed, with the loss of two-thirds of the cially kept up, for, though an old cam- assailants. Consideration for the paigner, he messes like an anchorite. lives of his men might have deterred He eats little; he drinks, as some would a Wellington from a desperate attack say, nothing, as he only drinks water; on Burgos, and induced him to place and sleeps the fewest possible number bis fame in abeyance till the next of hours.

campaign, but was not likely to interThese particulars rest on the evi- fere with the programme of a Russian dence of Russian prisoners of war general. Two fresh assaults put the who have returned from Dagbestan, Russian commander in possession of Schamyl's residence, or rather strong- two important points, and it was dehold, was for a long time the castle of termined to attempt to carry the Achulko, the scene of the third of the whole place by undermining it. The strange escapes we have mentioned. besieged, fearing to be blown up with He made his Russian prisoners build the fortress, withdrew for a time to him a two-storeyed house there in the surrounding rocks, and prepared European style. From this little spot to resist the assault there. he made his sway felt far and wide for The Russians took advantage of many years. For some time he was their momentary panic to assault the witbout the sinews of war-he had no place, and this time with success, on pay for his troops-in fact, it is said the 22d August 1839. All the garrithey had to keep him; yet their fan- son were put to the sword, Schamyl, atical spirit, kindled by bis, made him it was believed, being among them. as rich in influence as if he had pos. We have already related the particusessed millions. The lives of his Murids lars of his escape. He turued up were at his disposal at a moment's suddenly and unexpectedly among notice, and at the slightest sign. the Tcherkesses or Circassians proper;

The Russian general Grabbe was and how he came there, no one knew. the most determined enemy that Driven from Daghestan, he preached Schamyl ever bad. Having obtained with but moderate success the holy permission to reach him if he could in war against Russia among the Adighes bis rat's-hole of Achulko, in the spring and Ubiches. Finally, he reappeared of 1837, he set out on his perilous in his own mountains, and established expedition. The place was sixty himself in Dargo, where Grabbe again versts from the most advanced Russian determined to find him out, making post. The intervening country was the attempt in May 1842. This time cut up with ravives, and it cost the the Russian general fared worse than Russians many toilsome days to arrive the last. The Russian column got at the foot of the rock wbere Schamyl's entangled in the woods and defiles, castle stood. But as yet the invaders and in this state was fallen upon by had none but natural difficulties to Schamyl's people, and obliged to overcome. The Tchetchenzes bad been retreat with the loss of half its numgathering at Achulko to receive them, ber. Ever since that time, war has and thus had forborne to impede their been going on with changing fortunes, march. The Russians thought that but unabated violence. Latterly, the the great business was to get their pressure of the Russian power has guns and mortars within range of the been taken off the Caucasus by the castle; and this done, the surrender of war with Turkey, and Schamyl is said the enemy would follow.

to have taken advantage of this to

make forays into the Russian terri- every ten families providing one. tory, in which the mountaineers have The family to which that one rider carried off a considerable amount of belongs is exempt from other booty, and on one occasion several imposts : the other nine furnish Russian ladies, whose restitution the equipment and provision. These representatives of the allies at Con- horsemen must be ready to mount stantinople are said to have endea and ride for their lives at all times, voured to procure, as a graceful even in the night. This reminds one present to a national enemy--with of the martial law enforced by the wbat success we know not. It is to fiery cross of the Highland clans. In be feared that some of them may have the year 1813, Schamyl had eight already been added to the numerous thousand of such horsemen. These wives of the mountain chiefs, this serve for his standing army; but fate having befallen other captive besides these be has a militia. The ladies. Scbamyl is now no longer whole male population of the Auls the mere head of the Tchetchepzes, or Caucasian bundreds is exercised but all the neighbouring tribes pay in arms and horsemanship. This him the blindest obedience. His militia is bound to defend its own deeds against Russia are only a part district in case of attack, and on of his greatness. The state of the emergency to take a part in the Caucasus in our time has been like prophet's expeditions. Schamyl's own that of the Rhine-land in the middle body-guard consists of a thousand ages--a sort of feudal anarchy, where men, each of wbom has a fixed porwhat the Germans call “fist-right" tion of the spoils of war, besides an was the only code of laws systematic allowance of three florins a-month. cally acted upon. Not only was every To belong to this body is an object of tribe hostile io its neighbour on civil ambition to all the Auls of Daglestan. and religious grounds, but family was Schamyl's revenues consisted at first in fend with family in the same tribe, entirely of the black mail he levied in and the law of blood-vengeance, which the Russian provinces. Of this he had we have already adverted to, was the a fifth, according to immemorial cusrule under wbich all lived and many tom. Of late, however, a regular taxdied. Schamyl, seeing that the per- ation has been introduced, and the petuation of this state of things pre- common treasure is swelled by a tithe vented any common action against of the harvest. Another source of the the public enemy, and especially sinews of war is remarkable, considerobjecting to offering up valuable lives ing the fanaticism on which the systo petty feuds, has managed to modify tem rests. It consists of a kind of lay it so that even the hostile sects of the impropriation of the revenues of the same religion-namely, those of Omar mosques and dervishes; but some of and Ali-are induced by him to make the ministers of religion are indempicommon cause against the Christian fied by being taken into military serfoe. When it is taken into consider. vice, and others by receiving civil ation that religious sects commonly appointments; and, after all, the war bate each other more in proportion to might be considered in the light of a the slightness of their doctrinal differ- crusade, and that, in carrying it on, ences, and in all cases each other religious funds would not be much more than those of an entirely oppo- misapplied. A system of couriers site religion, this will not appear the riding from village to village has also least difficult task that he had to been set on foot, probably revived perform. The whole of the country from antiquity, as we know the Perover which he rules is divided into sians had it in the time of Xenophon. twenty provinces, each governed by Bravery in war is bonoured, in the a man called II Naib; but only European manner, by orders; wbile four of these governors, who are the the punishment of death is inflicted most tried adberents of the prophet, for cowardice, treachery, theft, or bave absolute authority: the rest are murder. Schamyl does not disdain obliged to refer to the superior power to resort to pious frauds to uphold his for the ratification of their acts. Each power, and pretends, perhaps himself furnisbes three hundred horsemen - in part believing, that he has confer

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