teristic excuse from their commander, has a
“ I will not kill my young mens ;"
but, as Napier says, the English blon
was hotter, and the English co
rode into destruction among
and broken ground. But
but the exaggeration of f

eruation of - The pluck, and they did not danger before. In this

s, accompanied by

- Ip hetore Sebasto. these gay cavaliers,

unting up have been “ Celeri conspici

- TI should have had the rode with his eye

l be army are scattered review in the Phi

sve been unable to collect splendid in his t

120g the events of the day. in his bearing,

'est passed, being in the thick the ladies in

• 185 my horse, receiving three upon him,

a missed through him behind my death. B

uscating me, bad bis thigh carried this. It

anda piorious business. The cannonduty. 1

assed, almost without intermission. not, ha Never trium of th:


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e vais positions, forced them to move, on ouses different occasions, a little to the rear ;

0 re- but, after a time, this ineffectual anon 10 find noyance was for the most part dis

u. Bat, continued, and at the beginning of ruer (called October the rest of the allied army

of turkeys, was moved up to the position it was des and revol. intended to occupy, leaving the cavalry, werty was to be a troop of horse-artillery, the 93d Re

1 Kadukoi, the giment, and some marines and seamen, end of the valley, with guns from the fleet, to protect eloors, window- Balaklava.

up the most part For eight days the time was spe - issuud. Some of in landing and bringing up the mate.

tur cook up their rials and armament for the batteries & post-office of attack; and these being collected


in sufficient numbers. 1

in sufficient numbers, the trenches www.tuu vapa laden with

were opened. This process was ren

very difficult and laborious by muts the road in dered very difficult and labo,

was extremely rocky,

a the progress made in it neceshaud coave. sarily slow. As the whole interest of seculators the campaign was now focussed in

this particular portion of the Crimea,

* it will be well to describe minutely Javvie in the position which was soon to be

come the theatre of a series of the conflicts. These would be but im

perfectly understood without a fuller idea than a map can give of the whole of the ground occupied by the allied



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deur te the great the soil, whi cena vf Wat'Usede vore ren- and the progress made we'll selline seller's ad coave. sarily Bicut d

i n siteulators the cam Sei Diurea. Di dll Victreery and this particular porti

W ednik illte articles it will be well to de cet nougue iuu suntepie in the ne

itu myintai un most come the theatre .24ura Arlanda ng or a dau of the conflicts kevesviits thi s to demand perfectly underst Se sidstudy in hindi

tanto the third durch, and of the ground bogat V&Oua u mure up to the army, and by

lui put, wit vaacked Lookino with it out what it will the for the reade 4ers Now wlis wilduu ww their tends from #1

od in the for

Looking at a map of the Crimea, the reader will see that a valley extends from the inner end of the har




bour of Sebastopol, where the Tcher- across the entrance of the valley and naya runs into it, to that of Bala- up the heights on each side, to the blava. From the former harbour to plains of the peninsula on the one the rains of Inkermann the valley is hand, and to the cliffs above the sea from twelve to fifteen hundred yards on the other, thus forming a natural wide; then the heights on either side line of defensive posts. At about separate till, at the point where the 3000 yards in front of these, on the road to Mackenzie's Farm crosses the plain, sweeping, as before described, Tchernaya, they are nearly four miles from the valley of the Tchernaya, is asunder. Here a rounded cluster of another range of isolated hills, the gentle eminences divides the valley left of which is within cannon-shot of into two defiles: these, sweeping the heights held by the Allies, and round from south-east to south-west, the right one near the village of Kaunite in one plain, which, traversed mara, which lies on the mountains by small hills, spreads to the gorge of forming the southern boundary of the the valley of Balaklava, and up to the plain. This last range of bills, heights right and left. Thus this val- crowned with small intrencbed works ley, extending from one barbour to armed with artillery, and garrisoned the other, forms a wide neck to a by Turks, formed the outposts of the small peninsula, of which Cape Kher. Allies in front of Balaklava. Thus, son is the extremity, and on which the position extended from the seathe allied troops took their position. shore in front of Sebastopol round the This peninsula, having steep cliffs at heights of the peninsula to the Wothe sea-shore, consists of a high un- ronzoff road, and thence across to the dulating plain, or range of plains, last hill on the plain near Kamara; cleft by deep gullies that descend gra- while an inner line of posts extended dually to the basin in which lies Se- across the entrance of Balaklava bastopol. From a point opposite the valley, up to the heights of the peninruins of Inkermann, to that where the sula on the left and round to the searoad from Sebastopol descends to Ba- cliffs on the right, enclosing valley, laklava, the range of heights bound town, and harbour. ing the valley is unbroken, except at Of the gullies already mentioned as a point easily defensible, where the chappelling the plains, the principal Woronzoff road crosses it. But to one divides the peninsula nearly in the left of the point opposite the ruins balf. Resembling at first a wide of Inkermann the ground south of the ditch between grassy slopes, it graduTchernaya slopes upward so gradually ally becomes a deep winding ravine as to oppose po serious obstacle to with steep rocky sides like the dry the advance of troops to the heights, bed of a wide river, and descends to wbile the English division posted the basin of the inner harbour. The there was not on the ridge looking left of the English lines in front of into the valley, but on another ridge Sebastopol rested on one margin of in rear of it. Thus the space between this ravine, the right of the French tbe right of the allied batteries of at lines on the other. The greater part tack and the heights opposite Inker- of the French troops were encamped mann was, while upintrenched, the behind their lines on the site of the weak point of the position. The ancient Khersonesus, leaving a large ground will be more miputely de- space by the sea unoccupied. Their scribed in an account of the two ac- supplies were landed at Kamieth tions of which it was the scene.

Bay, one of the deep parrow recesses The harbour of Balaklava lies, as of Cape Kherson, from whence to has been said, in a cleft between Sebastopol the coast is indented by high and steep mountains. Beyond many inlets. There a fleet of transthe inner extremity of the harbour ports assembled, so numerous that this cleft continues itself for about their masts looked like a forest; and half a mile in the small cultivated a wharf afforded the necessary convalley described in the last chapter. * venience for landing the multitude A row of low isolated hills extends of stores which crowded the beach

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and the environs of a small city of brotherhood, whose devotions, usually tents.

accompanied only by the dashing of Half-way between Cape Kherson the waves below, were now broken by and Balaklava the bold coast lineturns the less seemly sound of the distant back at a sharp angle, close to the bombardment. site of an ancient temple of Diana, The whole of these plains are pronow occupied by the monastery of St bably much the same in aspect now George. It stands on the edge of a high as in the days when Diana's worsloping cliff, and consists of a long low shippers crossed them on the way to range of white buildings, with pillared her temple. A short dry turf, scarcely porticoes and green roofs and domes. clothing the grey rock, which everyThe cliff it stands on is of yellow where pushes its fragments through, clayey stone — the next headland is, except the patches of coppice, the southward, abutting far beyond it, only verdure. No fields nor gardens is of extreme richness of colour— tell of an attempt to make the soil a deep pearly grey, dashed with productive, but here and there vines dark red, of a tone which, even cling to the side of a slope where the on a gloomy day, imparts to the earth is deepest, and are enclosed by mass a kind of sunset radiance and walls of loose stone. A few trees, glow. A sergeant's guard of Zouaves soon cut down for firewood, surround. is stationed in one of the buildings, ed the farm-houses, and others grew and many Russian families continue at intervals down the course of the to inhabit the place. Passing through larger ravines. Lit by a warm sun, the edifice by a steep flight of steps, bounded by a blue sea, and enlivened a gallery is reached extending along by the view of the white-walled city, the upper face of the cliff. Terraces the aspect of the plains in October connected by a winding path jut out was fresh and almost cheerful, while, below, and near its base the rock is looking inland, the tumbled masses of clothed with a shrubbery of small firs. hills always lent grandeur to the There was a sound of chanting as we landscape. But when a north wind passed along the balcony: the Zouave whistled piercingly across the heights who accompanied us opened a door, when the dense fogs of November and motioned us in without ceremony. hung their grey drapery along the The place was a very small low cha- horizon, and rested in cold white pel, its walls hung with sacred pic- masses on the hills—when the green tures executed with elaborate vile. turf grew mire, and the leafy coppice

A priest in a red garment was a texture of wet brown twigs and reading prayers to some others who roots, and yellow turbid pools settled sung the responses. He was bare- along the course of the ravines, it was headed, but the rest, clad in black no wonder that the tents of the Arab, gowns, wore tall cylindrical caps, from who is at least dry and warm in his which black veils descended behind desert, seemed preferable to the camp There was something strange in com before Sebastopol, and the hardiest ing thus suddenly from a great camp soldiers turned now and then a longing into the presence of this secluded thought to the firesides of England.



The ravines already mentioned, five in the absence of permanent defensive in number, beginning in the middle of works, were covered by strong and the plains of the peninsula, descend in solid earthen batteries on commandcourses, more or less winding, to the ing points, thrown up simultaneously basin of the harbour. On the slopes with the progress of our own trenches. of the plain, between these ravines, In front of the right of our attack was the English batteries were traced. In a round tower, surrounded by an infront of them, in the angle made by trenchment armed on all sides with the outer and inner harbours, and on heavy guns. Next was a very large the right of the latter, stand some battery, composed of two faces meetlarge public buildings belonging to the ing in a salient angle; this was known dockyard, and a large barrack. These, during the siege as the Redan. Near

the inner barbour was another, known practicable, the assault is made, and as the Barrack Battery, capable of the garrison being overpowered by firing on onr left batteries or on the superior pumbers, the place is taken. French. These were all that were In the present instance, the asimmediately opposed to us, besides sailing force being insufficient to the broadsides of a line-of-battle ship enclose the whole extent of front, in the inner barbour, and the long the southern side of the harbour only guns of some steamers.

was invested, leaving the formidBetween the English camps and able forts on the north unassailed, the fortress the ground sloped up- and the road from the interior free ward to a ridge, and then downward for supplies of all kinds. The front towards the Russian batteries. It is attacked being about three miles in evident that the farther down these extent, the space at the disposal of slopes our trenches were placed, the the garrison enabled them to reply more they were commanded by the with at least as many guns as the beenemy, and the biglier must be the siegers could bring to attack them. parapets to cover us from their fire. But had the Russian batteries been In such very stony and deficient soil it totally silenced, and the south side would have been almost impossible taken by assault, the outer harbour, to obtain the requisite amount of acting as a huge wet ditch, presented earth very low down on the slopes, a fresh obstacle, backed by a fresh line and our first batteries were placed on of batteries, and rendered a new series some spots where the ground rose of operations necessary. If the hargently upward for a space on the face bour had remained open, the fleet of the descent.

might have come in to support an From the left of the great ravine to assault of the land forces; but, on the Quarantine Harbour the ground is entering Sebastopol after the defeat at comparatively flat and unbroken, and the Alma, Menschikoff had caused on the right portion of this space the eight large ships to be sunk across the French trenches were opened at much entrance. Henceforward, so long as shorter range than those of the Eng- this obstacle existed, the operation of lish. In the angle of the outer and the feets was limited to making a inner barbours, opposite the French diversion by attacking the forts at the attack, stands the town of Sebastopol, entrance'; and this was the part it protected partly by parapets of ma took in the combined attack. sonry, partly by earthen batteries. Until the whole of the allied bat

The distinctive features of the cam teries were ready to open together, not paign have been noticed in a preced a gun replied to the fire which the ing chapter; the siege now commenced Russians did not cease to direct, first has also its peculiarities.

upon our camps, and afterwards on In ordinary sieges, the place baving our trenches. Hidden as the allied been completely invested so as to con camps were behind the crest of a hill, fine the garrison to its own resources, there must have been something of the trenches are opened at about six mystery and awe for the garrison in hundred yards, enclosing one or more this strange silence, almost the only salient points of the fortifications. token of the presence of an enemy Thus the works of the assailants being being the increasing height of the on the arc of the outer of two con- parapets of the trenches. centric circles described from a point On the 17th at daylight, pursuant to within the fortress, while the defences the general orders of the night before, are on the arc of the inner one, six hun- the silence was broken by such a peal dred yards nearer the centre, it follows of artillery as has scarcely ever before, that the besiegers always have space in the most famous battles or sieges, for a far greater number of guns than sbaken the earth around the combatare mounted on the works to oppose ants. A hundred and twenty-six them. When the superior fire from pieces, many of them of the largest the batteries in the trenches has over calibre, opened at once upon the Ruspowered that of the place, the works sian defences, and were answered by are pushed forward; other batteries a still larger number, of equal range are established close enough to breach and power. The din was incessant, the walls; and the breach becoming and the smoke in the batteries so dense

that after a few rounds the gunners The less sanguine had prescribed laid their pieces rather by the line on three days as the limits of the contest the platforms than by a view of the Our progress hitherto had fallen object aimed at. The first visible short even of the latter estimate. effect of our fire was on the Round On the Russian side many guns had Tower, the pieces mounted on which been disabled, the works had been were soon dismounted, and its surface much damaged, and Fort Constantine deeply scarred by the shot of the was said to be seriously shaken by heavy 68-pounder guns in the naval the fire of the two line-of-battle ships; battery on the right, practising at a but on ours, the French attack had range of more than 2000 yards. totally ceased since the explosions of Several explosions took place this day the morning. The Russian works, -the first in a French battery, where being of earth like our own, were rea magazine blew up at half-past eight paired with equal facility, and the in the morning, killing and wounding disabled guns were replaced by fresh fifty men and disabling the battery; ones from the arsenal. It was while another less serious one occurred after watching the renewed vigour of the wards in the French lines. In the enemy's fire, and seeing our own afternoon the Russian magazine in the wounded borne by from the trenches, Redan was fired by a shell from the that we received on the 18th the mail English batteries, and silenced a great bringing the absurd and mischievous number of its guns; and shortly after- announcement of the fall of Sebas. wards a number of cases filled with topol, and read the details of our own powder blew up in rear of the English imaginary victory-an announcement trenches, doing but little damage. The happily characterised afterwards in a Lancaster gups (a new invention now newspaper article as “discounting" tried for the first time in war), of the glory of the conquest. It was which there were several in our robbing success of its best rewards batteries, sent forth their missiles with thus to give us our honours before a rushing noise exactly like that of a they were due. railway train, and were distinguish- The interest excited by a contest able at each discharge amid the din of artillery, without decided advanof the cannonade.

tage on either side, soon languishes ; At one o'clock the French and Eng. and in a few days the thunder of the lish fleets, whose attack had been bombardment was almost unheeded. anxiously expected, stood in, and en- But the troops in the trenches and gaged the forts at the mouth of the batteries were bardly worked, and harbour, the former on the south, the exposed by day incessantly to a trelatter on the north side; and the deep mendous fire. The space in the volleying thunder of their broadsides, magazines in our batteries was at continuing without an instant's pause, first insufficient to hold ammunition gave a new character to the cannon- for the day's consumption, and to ade, while a dense canopy of smoke, take in fresh supplies formed one of hanging heavily above the scene, hid the most trying duties which artillerythe sea, the harbour, and the towu, men can be called on to perforin. from the spectators on the heights in Waggons filled with powder, drawn front of the English camps. The Aga- by horses of the field-batteries, were memnon and the Sanspareil main driven down the face of the hill for tained on this occasion a position much upwards of half a mile, in full view, nearer to the forts than the rest of the and quite within range of the enemy's feet, which anchored, for the most guns. A shell bursting in the wagpart, at upwards of 2000 yards. gons would have blown horses and · When the fire ceased at nightfall, men into the air ; and to the risk of and the gains and losses were counted this were added the usual chances up, the result was by no means com- of being struck by shot or splinters; mensurate with the expectations pre- yet neither the officers (often mere viously afloat in the allied army. boys) nor the drivers ever showed the High authority bad been quoted for slightest hesitation in proceeding on the opinion that we should silence their perilons errand. Several horses the Russian batteries in a few hours. were killed by cannon-shot, and on

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