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I would like to point out that in the 100 percent of costs of a 608 the normal profit of the contractors, general contractor and subcontractors, were figured, and that the extra amount, which I heard mentioned yesterday, represents a straight subsidy to either the builder or the mortgage banker or some group other than the consumer. So when we ask for 100 percent of cost alone to the middle-income group, it is obvious that we are coming in here to ask for less than was given to the groups represented in the previous testimony this morning.

For that reason, we feel this isn't special legislation. It is simply finishing the job that Congress began back in 1933. Thus, we will have with this bill a complete housing program which will house on one end, through public housing, those people who will be our future citizens, whose children must be aided by public housing. This bill, which is pending, which will aid the middle-income groups to help themselves, those who wish to join cooperatives, and in this American fashion help themselves to get better housing, through doing many of the things that the upper income group can afford, to let the mortgage banker, the speculative builder do for them. We can't afford to do that. I understand the Congress is considering further aid to FHA. We are not opposing those things. We simply ask that we be treated along with them.

We also would like to point out for the record that our group has been in the process of organizing. We are now at the point where our building plans have been submitted to the proper department in Detroit. We hope this bill will come through quickly enough so that the benefits can come to us, as well as to the mortgage units that we initiated.

Senator SPARKMAN. Thank you.
Mr. MONSON. Thank you.
(The brochure submitted by Mr. Monson is as follows:)

The Detroit Cooperative Housing Association was formed 2 years ago by a group of people active in the fields of housing and city planning and in the labor and cooperative movements, to sponsor the development of cooperative housing in the Detroit area. The group has served in an advisory capacity to the organizers of Schoolcraft Gardens Cooperative and has assisted its development in many ways.

The incorporators of Schoolcraft Gardens Cooperative, and the temporary officers of its board of directors, are Joseph Eaton, president; Robert Halbeisen, treasurer; Edward Winkes, secretary; Leonard Bensky; Andrew W. L. Brown; Bette Jenkins; Vincent Kibildis; Donald Monson; Harold Sheppard; and Ralph Showalter.

Here is what a few members of the board of the Detroit Cooperative Housing Association have to say about Schoolcraft Gardens Cooperative: The Honorable G. Mennen Williams, Governor of Michigan

"It is a pleasure to extend to you the greetings of the State of Michigan and my personal best wishes.

"Cooperative housing is a fine manifestation of the American way of doing things, of the capacity of our people to get together and help themselves to meet their own needs.

“Together with public housing projects and the private building industry, cooperative housing has a definite role to play in providing adequate homes for all our people.

“The Schoolcraft Cooperative deserves the highest commendation and support. It is pioneering in a field which holds great promise for the future.” James H. Inglis, director-secretary, Detroit Housing Commission and chairman

advisory board, Detroit Cooperative Housing Association Cooperative housing holds out the promise of moderately priced, well-planned housing for families whose incomes are above the level that are served by public housing.

"I have worked closely with the leaders of the Schoolcraft Gardens Cooperative because this is the first group of housing cooperators in Detroit who actually have obtained a site and are ready to build. Too often housing cooperatives never get beyond the conversation stage.

“I should add that, although the Detroit Housing Commission has no official connection with this cooperative other than our over-all interest in general housing conditions, I feel that we certainly cannot afford to overlook any new approach to the housing problem in this country.Victor G. Reuther, educational director, UAW-CIO

"I have no hesitation in calling the homes in Schoolcraft Gardens the 'best buy' in Detroit today. The member family will get bigger rooms and better design and equipment for his money than in any other housing now on the market.

“Good homes in a good neighborhood, plus genuine cooperative ownership, mean lower prices as well as security for the family savings. I have participated in organizing this co-op, and I have great hopes that this is but the first of a growing number of cooperative housing developments in which our members, together with other American families, may get much needed homes at prices they can afford.Finlay C. Allan, secretary, Detroit Building Trades Council, AFL

"Inasmuch as the possibilities of private home ownership are usually limited to families in the higher income brackets, cooperative housing offers advantages to families of moderate income through large-scale planning and lower financing costs.

“Organized labor has a stake in cooperative housing both as consumers and as producers. As consumers, we are the majority of the families of moderate income who need good housing and, so far, have found difficulty in securing it at a price we can pay. As producers, we are interested in providing decent homes for all income levels in order to insure a continuing market and a prosperous Nation.

"I have worked with the sponsors of Schoolcraft Gardens Cooperative from the beginning and have been particularly impressed with the careful planning that has gone into it and by the fact that these plans are workable plans made by practical people."

SCHOOLCRAFT GARDENS COOPERATIVE

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Schoolcraft Gardens is the name of the first section of a five-hundred family cooperative housing development being built on Detroit's west side. It is located on a gently rolling tract of land half a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide, with the Rouge Park system bordering its entire half-mile western side. It is organized as a nonprofit cooperative designed to provide for families of moderate income, homes of a high standard of space and equipment in an environment embodying the best technical know-how in modern home and neighborhood planning:

Design and construction.-Schoolcraft Gardens will set a new standard of housing quality in Detroit. Its spacious rooms, ample closet space, lasting construction, and modern design and equipment will make comfortable and gracious living a reality for families of average income.

Safety.—Children will be safe from traffic hazards. There are no through streets in the development. The only traffic will be that of the residents and those having business with them.

School facilities.—The Don Hubert elementary school is two short blocks from the development and is not used to capacity. Children from Schoolcraft Gardens will walk to school in specially designed walkways separated from streets carrying traffic.

Shopping and community facilities.-Land for a shopping center with ample parking space, has already been zoned within the site of the development. Space has also been set aside for the future construction of a community building with rooms for meetings, club activities, a nursery school, a clinic, etc.

Playgrounds.- Playgrounds will be provided within the development for the smaller children. Eliza Howell Park, with baseball diamonds, tennis courts, and other facilities for older children, adjoins the development on the north and west.

Parks.-In addition to Eliza Howell Park, the extension of the Rouge Park system will place Detroit's most extensive park facilities within one-fourth mile of every family in the development.

Transportation.-A major highway, Schoolcraft, borders the development and insures adequate public and private transportation. DSR bus service is now available on Schoolcraft, and connects with Grand River express service.

YOUR HOME IN SCHOQLCRAFT GARDENS There will be various building types, including terraces and garden apartments, in Schoolcraft Gardens. The first section to be built will be two-story buildings and will consist of 64 dwellings: 4 one-bedroom apartments, 12 two-bedroom apartments, 16 two-bedroom terraces, 32 three-bedroom terraces, 32 garages, 32 off-street parking spaces. By combining these different types of dwellings, the designers feel that they have avoided monotony and achieved a more attractive plan.

The dwellings are of brick veneer construction and are designed to have the living rooms face south, overlooking lawns and gardens. Floor-to-ceiling Thermopane type windows are used on south elevations. Entrances are generally on the north side of the dwellings. The terrace units and the first-floor apartments, have a paved garden area opening out from the living room, while the second-floor apartments have a balcony opening out from the living room and overlooking the garden. Space standards.-Gadgets and trick sales features can

never make up for rooms too small for comfortable family living. Schoolcraft Gardens space standards were set from the point of view of the people who will live in the development and not to cut costs to the last possible dime in order to produce a in-sale price.

The one-bedroom apartments in Schoolcraft Gardens have approximately 760 square feet of floor space, compared with 700 square feet for a typical two-bedroom economy house and 800 square feet in a standard FHA-insured two-bedroom house. Our two-bedroom apartments and terraces average 1,020 square feet in floor area, compared with 950 square feet in many three-bedroom homes now built for sale in this price range. Schoolcraft Gardens three-bedroom terraces have approximately 1,275 square feet of floor area, a space standard ordinarily found only in custom-built, luxury-priced homes.

Orientation to sun, winds, and view.The site plan has been carefully worked out so that each garden apartment and terrace secures the maximum amount of light and warmth from the sun in the winter months and adequate protection from the sun's rays in the summertime. In addition, the buildings are so laid out as to permit taking advantage of the prevailing summer breezes and pleasant view.

Arrangement. -All apartments and terraces are designed to have through ventilation. Circulation within each dwelling unit has been carefully planned. Each dwelling unit is entered through a vestibule provided with a closet. Access to bedrooms and bath is from a hall. All rooms have ample wall space for a variety of furniture arrangements.

Closet and storage space.-Considerable attention has been given to this question because of its importance in providing for the family's comfort. All Schoolcraft Gardens dwelling units have unusually generous closet and storage space. Most closets have sliding doors. Coat closets, linen closets, and broom closets are standard equipment.

Bathrooms.-All bathrooms have tiled walls and floors. They are provided with showers over built-in tubs and are equipped with all necessary accessories. Three-bedroom terraces have an additional toilet and lavatory on the first floor.

Kitchens.-All kitchens are fully equipped for good housekeeping, and also have ample room for serving light meals. They are furnished with double-drainboard sinks, plenty of cupboard space, and ample table work area. All kitchen sinks have built-in garbage-disposal units. There will be no garbage-can problem in Schoolcraft Gardens, and there will be no rats, vermin, and messy alleys.

Basements and laundries.-Every apartment and terrace has its own separate and private basement area, which includes double laundry tubs, gas burner plate, and an automatic gas water heater. Basements are provided with incinerators for the burning of waste paper and other dry trash (not garbage). Basements, even in the apartments, are large enough to be fitted up as rumpus rooms or for hobby or shop space.

Heating.- Each terrace will have a separate gas-fired automatic forced air heating system controlled by a thermostat in the living room. The apartments will be heated by a circulating hot-water system, with each apartment controlling its own heat by a thermostat in the living room. One gas-fired boiler will supply the heat for all 16 apartments.

YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD IN SCHOOLCRAFT GARDENS

Schoolcraft Gardens is located about 11 miles from Detroit's city hall, at the northwest corner of Schoolcraft and Lamphere. It is about half a mile inside the city limits. It is a community planned in advance to provide for the convenience and comfort of its residents and to maintain the character of a pleasant residential neighborhood for the life of the development. Contrary to the usual haphazard growth and premature decline of neighborhoods in Detroit, it embodies all modern principles of site design and neighborhood planning to make it an ideal place in which to live and raise a family.

Location.The city's largest park system, extending for miles to the north and south of the development, is the western border of the site.

Within easy walking distance are the playing fields, picnic grounds, and unspoiled countryside which other Detroiters must drive miles to find.

Schools.—The Don Hubert Elementary School is located just north of the site, and the board of education's next year's building program includes construction of a new school, the Healy School, one block south of the site. The Hubert School has a capacity of 1,040 pupils, but as of June 1949 had an enrollment of only 715. Approximately 1 mile to the east is Stoepel Park, the site of a proposed intermediate school. Redford High School is 2 miles to the northeast.

Transportation.-Bus service is available on Schoolcraft connecting with Grand River and other lines. Grand River will ultimately be developed as an expressway. The Lodge Expressway, which is already under construction, will connect with Schoolcraft at Grand River, and eventually Schoolcraft will also be developed as an expressway.

Schoolcraft Gardens is a half mile east of Telegraph Road and within ready access to the main arterial highways in the general area.

Shopping. A major neighborhood shopping center is now located at Fenkell and Outer Drive, and the Redford business center, one of the largest in the city, is 2 miles from the development. A local shopping center providing for the everyday needs of the residents, such as a supermarket, a drug store, dry cleaning and shoe repair services, etc., is included in the plans of the development. Stores and parking facilities will be screened by suitable planting and lawns from the nearby residences. Space is also set aside on the site for a clinic, a nursery school, a meeting hall, and other community buildings.

Site planning.--Schoolcraft Gardens contains over 70 acres of land, which are divided into superblocks having short dead-end lanes and garage courts and parking areas. There are no through traffic streets within the entire development. Walkways are so arranged as to give access to the shopping center, grade school, and playgrounds within the development with a minimum number of street crossings. Ample playgrounds are provided for small children. In addition, there is easy access to the extensive park areas bounding the site.

Protection against encroachment.—The nature of the location of Schoolcraft Gardens, and the large size of the development itself, effectively insure it against premature deterioration and blight, which so frequently occur in residential neighborhoods. Freedom from traffic, dirt, noise, and adjacent industrial uses removes almost all the usual hazards which lead to a neighborhood's becoming undesirable long before the homes in it are structurally outworn or the mortgage paid off.

Privacy.-A feature of Schoolcraft Gardens is the absence of crowding. The number of homes per acre is less than half as many as permitted under zoning regulations and currently being built by speculative builders. Maximum privacy is afforded residents by careful planning and the ample grounds between buildings.

Freedom from dirt and noise.—Generally the dwellings do not face the street. Houses are free from dirt, noise, and gasoline odors. As they will be automatically heated with gas, the air will be free from smoke and soot. The parks which surround the development, and the absence of any industrial plants close by, assure additional protection.

Off-street parking.Each dwelling unit is provided with one off-street parking space, either in a garage or in a parking compound located within easy access to it, leaving the streets free for visitor parking.

Community buildings. It is proposed to erect a community building upon completion of the dwelling units. It will house the management office and such lecture halls, meeting rooms, hobby rooms, preschool play centers, and other facilities as may be desired by the families living in the cooperative. Schoolcraft Gardens--Your cooperative

Housing cooperatives are not new in the United States, but it was not until August 1948 that Congress passed a law giving them the same kind of mortgage insurance provisions enjoyed by speculative builders. Cooperative home ownership combines the security of tenure given by home ownership with the mobility of tenancy enjoyed by renters. Each resident of Schoolcraft Gardens is both a landlord and a tenant: as a landlord he owns his share of the entire corporation, and as a tenant he is responsible to the group for the care and maintenance of the dwelling unit he occupies.

The cooperative feature of the development, with the entire property kept in single ownership, makes possible planning for the total site instead of for the typical subdivision lot characteristic of the individually owned home. As a result the designers are free to apply modern principles of neighborhood planning without being subject to the narrow physical restrictions imposed by the usual gridiron pattern.

Mobility. When a family grows larger or smaller, arrangements can be made to shift to another dwelling unit of suitable size and type. Such a change does not involve disposing of one's home, paying a commission to an agent, and possibly having to move to another neighborhood.

Stability.--The character of the neighborhood is maintained by the fact that the cooperative continues even though the individual may have to move from the development. The interest of each member in the appearance of his home, together with the standards maintained by the cooperative's management with regard to the maintenance of all public areas and the exteriors of all buildings, will prevent the setting in of deterioration.

Resale.--In case a member needs or wishes to move from the development, he may sell his shares. However, the cooperative has first option to buy back the shares and resell them to a prospective member on the waiting list. In this way a member can dispose of his interest without having to pay a broker's commission, which usually amounts to at least 5 percent of the total price of the house. The member selling his shares will in general receive an amount equal to his original investment, plus his accumulated equity less depreciation, adjusted in accordance with the bylaws of the cooperative.

In the event that the cooperative does not exercise its option to purchase the equity, the member may then sell his interest to any purchaser subject to the rules of the corporation.

Management.-Schoolcraft Gardens will be managed by a board of directors chosen by the residents for a definite term. Each resident family has one vote. The board will determine general policies, in accordance with the bylaws of the corporation. It will appoint a manager who will be responsible for the management of the development. Appropriate committees of the corporation, such as admissions, buildings, and grounds, community activities, etc., will assist the manager in an advisory capacity.

Future development.—The first section of 64 dwelling units will be a separate corporation for mortgage purposes, as will subsequent sections of the total 500-family development. As these sections are completed, it is contemplated they will be tied together into one over-all corporation. In the meantime, option on the land not yet built upon will be held by a board of trustees composed of (1) representatives of the completed section or sections of the development, (2) the sponsoring board of the Detroit Cooperative Housing Association, and (3) the owners of the land. This board of trustees will be responsible for the formation of the subsequent corporations which will build the later sections of the development in much the same manner as it sponsored the formation of the first section of 64 units.

Eligibility for membership in Detroit Cooperative Honsing Association. -Membership in the Detroit Cooperative Housing Association is open to any family on payment of a $5 registration fee. Members are entitled to receive copies of bulletins and reports issued by the association and to be kept informed of its progress and activities, and are eligible to apply for membership in Schoolcraft Gardens Cooperative.

Eligibility for membership in Schoolcraft Gardens Cooperative. The incorporators of Schoolcraft Gardens have elected a temporary board of directors to serve until such a time as all 64 families have subscribed to and paid in the necessary share capital to erect the development. In passing upon applications for admission, the board of directors will attempt to enroll a fair cross section of the general population, so as to insure a variety of interests as well as the financial stability of the corporation. Members will share a mutual interest in establishing a neighborhood based on their common efforts.

Applicants for membership in Schoolcraft Gardens and for occupancy of one of the dwelling units in the development are required to pay a membership fee of $100 to defray the costs of organizing the cooperative and the processing of their applications.

Cancellation or rejection of applications. - If a member cancels his application for occupancy prior to having been accepted, or if his application is rejected, he

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