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spectively to the gold, silver, brass, and iron, of the great image.
The first was like a lion, and had eagles' wings. Verse 4. The Chaldean empire, as advanced to its summit of prosperity under Nebuchadnezzar, was intended by this beast.-Scott.
The second like to a bear, and it raised itself up on one side, and had three ribs in its mouth. Verse 5. A fit emblem of the character and conquest of the Persian nation which succeeded Babylon B. c. 538.—Prideaux, Vol. I, p. 139.
And lo, another like a leopard, which had four wings and four heads. Verse 6. This was the emblem of the Grecian or Macedonian empire, which for the time was the most renowned in the world. It was erected by Alexander the Great on the ruins of the Persian monarchy, and it continued in four divisions under his successors. The leopard being exceedingly fierce and swift, represented the kingdom, and especially under Alexander, its founder, but the swiftness of the quadruped was not an adequate emblem of the rapidity with which he made his conquests; the leopard had therefore four wings of a fowl upon his back.-Scott. Prideaux, Vol. I, p. 380. Rollin's Hist. of Alexander.
And behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly. Verse 7. The kingdom that succeeded Greece was Rome, the invincible fortitude, hardiness and force of which, perhaps were never equaled. This beast had ten horns. These are declared in verse 24 to be ten kingdoms. The ten kingdoms are enumerated by Marchiaval, Bishop Lloyd, and Dr. Hales, as follows: 1. The Huns, A. D. 356. 2. The Ostrogoths, A. D. 377. 3. The Visgoths, A. D. 378. 4. The Franks, A. D. 407. 5. The Vandals, A. D. 407. 6. The Suevi,
A. D. 407. 7. The Burgundians, A. D. 407. 8. The Heruli and Rugii, or Thuringi, a. D. 476. 9. The Anglo-Saxons, A. D. 476. 10. The Lombards, a. D. 483. It is certain that the Roman Empire was divided into ten kingdoms; and though they might be sometimes more and sometimes fewer, yet they were still known by the name of the ten kingdoms of the western empire. Scott.
I considered the horns, and behold there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots. In this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things. Verse 8. This little horn is by all Protestants acknowledged to be a symbol of the Papacy. Said the angel, speaking of this horn, "He shall subdue three kings." Verse 24. The three kingdoms that were plucked up to make way for the Papacy were, 1. The Heruli, in 493. 2. The Vandals, in 534. And 3, The Ostrogoths in 538. Gibbon's Decline and Fall. Into the hands of this power the saints, times, and laws, were to be given for a time, times, and the dividing of time, (1260 years; see Rev. xii, 6, 14). From 538, when the Papacy was set up, 1260 years extend to 1798; and it is a notable fact of history, that on the 10th of February, 1798, Berthier, a general of Bonaparte's, at the head of the Republican army of France, entered Rome and took it. The papal government was abolished, and the Pope died in exile in 1799. (See Croley on the Apocalypse, Their's History of the French Revolution, Clarke on Dan. vii, 25.) The Papacy has never been restored to its former power. We are by this chain of prophecy brought down to the eighteenth century. And the prophet does not see this beast gradually changing his wild and ferocious
nature to the innocence and gentleness of the lamb, to make way for a temporal millennium; but he looks only a step further, and says,
“I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame." Dan. vii, 11.
DANIEL, CHAPTER VIII.
It is characteristic of the different chains of prophecy, that each succeeding one introduces particulars not furnished in any previously given. The seventh of Daniel, after covering the general field symbolized by the image of chapter ii, instructs us more particularly concerning the development of the little horn, or man of sin. In the eighth chapter we are again conducted over a portion of the world's great highway, with additional particulars concerning the mighty kingdoms that stand as waymarks along our journey. On the symbols of this chapter, the ram, he-goat, and horn which waxed exceeding great, the prophet received the following in
The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. Verse 20. The Persian division of the empire was the highest and came up last. The ram with the two horns was the well-known emblem of the Medes and Persians. It was usual for the Persian kings to wear a diadem made like a ram's head of gold.-Scott.
And the rough goat is the king of Grecia; and the great horn that is between his eyes, is the first king. Verse 21. This was Alexander, who was born B. C. 356, decided the fate of Persia at the battle of Arbela, B. c. 331, and died eight years thereafter in a drunken fit, at the age of 33, B. c. 323.
And whereas the great horn being broken, four came up in its stead, four kingdoms, said the angel, shall stand up out of the nation. Verse 22. These were Macedonia, Thrace, Syria, and Egypt, into which the empire was divided shortly after Alexander's death, governed respectively by Cassander, Lysimachus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy.
And out of one of them came forth a little horn. Verses 9, 23-27. Rome was not connected with the people of God, and hence is not introduced into prophecy, till after its conquest of Macedonia, one of the horns of the goat; hence it is represented as coming forth from one of those horns. That this little horn which waxed exceeding great was Rome, the following considerations prove :
1. It was to rise in the latter part of their kingdom, that is, of the four kingdoms. So did Rome, so far as its place in the prophecy is concerned. Its connection with the Jews commenced B. c. 161.-1 Mac. viii. Josephus' Antiq., B. xii, c. x, sec. 6. Prideaux, Vol. II., p. 166.
2. It was little at first. So was Rome.
3. It waxed "exceeding great, towards the east and towards the south." So did Rome. It conquered Macedonia, B. c. 168; Syria, &c., to the river Tigris, B. C. 65; Egypt, B. c. 30. From this horn's increasing toward the south and east particularly, Sir Isaac Newton infers that it arose in the north-west corner of the goat's dominion, i. e., in Italy; which points directly to the Romans.
4. It cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground. So did Rome; persecuting the disciples and ministers of Jesus as no other power ever did.
5. He magnified himself even to the Prince of the
host. Thus did Rome, when both Herod and Pontius Pilate conspired against Jesus.
6. He shall destroy, wonderfully, the mighty and the holy people. Let from 50 to 100 millions of martyrs make good this charge against persecuting Rome. See Religious Encyclopedia.
7. It was the only power that succeeded the four kingdoms which waxed EXCEEDING GREAT.
8. In this vision Grecia succeeds Medo-Persia, just as it had been seen twice before; and it is absurd to suppose that the power which follows them in this vision is a different power from the one which twice before had been seen succeeding them, in chapters ii and vii; and that power was Rome.
9. He shall be broken without hand. How clear a reference to the stone cut out without hand, which smites the image upon its feet. Chap ii, 34.
THE 2300 DAYS.
Besides the symbols of governments contained in Dan. viii, there is a definite period of time brought to view, which claims attention. As recorded in verse 13, Daniel heard one saint ask another the question, how long the vision should be concerning the daily [sacrifice] and the transgression of desolation to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot. The angel then addressed himself to Daniel and said, "Unto two thousand and three hundred days, then shall the sanctuary be cleansed." Waiving for the present the question as to what may constitute the sanctuary, we wish to ascertain if possible the nature, the commencement, and termination of this period of time. There are two kinds of time to be met with in the Bible; literal and sym