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II.
Freeze, freeze, thou bitter sky,
That dost not bite so nigh

As benefits forgot :
Though thou the waters warp,
Thy sting is not so sharp,

As friend remember'd not 29.
Heigh, ho! sing, heigh, ho! &c.
Duke S. If that you were the good Sir Rowland's

son, As you have whisper'd faithfully you were; And as mine eye doth his effigies witness Most truly limn'd, and living in your face, Be truly welcome hither: I am the duke, That lov'd your father: The residue of your fortune, Go to my cave and tell me. -Good old

man, Thou art right welcome as thy master is : Support him by the arm.—Give me your hand, And let me all your fortunes understand. [Exeunt.

Though thou the waters warp.'_ Mr. Holt White has pointed out a Saxon adage in Hickes's Thesaurus, vol. i. pinter sceal gepeonpan peden, Winter shall warp water. So that Shakspeare's expression was anciently proverbial. To warp, from the Gothic Wairpan jacere, projicere, signified anciently to weave, as may be seen in Florio's Dict. v. ordire; or in Cotgrave v. ourdir.

Though thou the waters warp' may therefore be explained, as Nares suggests, • Though thou weave the waters into a firm texture. The following very apt illustration, which has occurred to me in Propertius, was probably unknown to the Poet:

• Africus in glaciem frigore nectit aquas.'—El. 3. lib. iv. The context of the song

*Freeze, freeze, thou bitter sky'is also in favour of this explanation ; those who have seen the beautiful experiment of the congelation of water by artificial means, the projection of intersecting spiculæ, and the network appearance which first takes place on the surface, would be inclined to think the expression' to warp or weave the water' appropriate.

29 Remember'd for remembering. So afterwards in Actiii. Sc. ult. And now I am remember'd,' i.e. and now that I bethink me, &c.

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ACT III.

SCENE I. A Room in the Palace.

Enter Duke FREDERICK, OLIVER, Lords, and

Attendants.
Duke F. Not see him since? Sir, sir, that, can-

not be:
But were I not the better part made mercy,
I should not seek an absent argument?
Of my revenge, thou present: But look to it;
Find out thy brother, wheresoe'er he is;
Seek him with candle: bring him dead or living,
Within this twelvemonth, or turn thou no more
To seek a living in our territory.
Thy lands, and all things that thou dost call thine,
Worth seizure, do we seize into our hands;
Till thou canst quit thee by thy brother's mouth,
Of what we think against thee.

Oli. O, that your highness knew my heart in this! I never lov'd

my
brother in

my

life. Duke F. More villain thou.—Well, push him out

of doors; And let

my

officers of such a nature Make an extent?

upon

his house and lands: Do this expediently 3, and turn him going. [Exeunt.

| The argument is used for the contents of a book; thence Shakspeare considered it as meaning the subject, and then used it for subject in another sense.

2 Seize by legal process.

3 i.e. expeditiously. Expedient is used by Shakspeare throughout his plays for expeditious. So in K. John:

• His marches are expedient to this town.' And in K. Richard II.

Are making hither with all due expedience.'

SCENE II. The Forest.

Enter ORLANDO, with a Paper. Orl. Hang there, my verse, in witness of my love:

And thou, thrice-crowned queen of night', survey With thy chaste eye, from thy pale sphere above, Thy huntress' name, that my

full life doth

sway. O Rosalind! these trees shall be my books,

And in their barks my thoughts I'll character; That every eye, which in this forest looks, Shall see thy virtue witness'd every

where. Run, run, Orlando; carve, on every tree, The fair, the chaste, and unexpressive? she. [Exit.

Enter CORIN and TouchSTONE. Corin. And how like you this shepherd's life, master Touchstone ?

Touch. Truly, shepherd, in respect of itself, it is a good life; but in respect that it is a shepherd's life, it is naught. In respect that it is solitary, I like it very well; but in respect that it is private, it is a

Now in respect it is in the fields, it pleaseth me well; but in respect it is not in the

| This passage seems to evince a most intimate knowledge of ancient mythology, but Shakspeare was doubtless familiar with that fine racy old poet, Chapman's Hymns to Night and to Cynthia, which, though over-informed with learning, have many highly poetical passages, among which the following may have been in our poet's mind :

Nature's bright eye-sight, and the night's fair soul,
That with thy triple forehead dost control
Earth, seas, and hell.'

Hymnus in Cynthiam, 1594. All the learning of all the mythologists was poured forth in the notes to these poems. ? i.e. inexpressible. So Milton in his Hymn on the Nativity:

· Harping with loud and solemn quire,
With unexpressive notes to heaven's newborn heir.'

very vile life.

court, it is tedious. As it is a spare life, look you, it fits my humour well; but as there is no more plenty in it, it goes much against my stomach. Hast any philosophy in thee, shepherd ?

Cor. No more, but that I know, the more one sickens, the worse at ease he is; and that he that wants money, means, and content, is without three good friends :—That the property of rain is to wet, and fire to burn: That good pasture makes fat sheep; and that a great cause of the night, is lack of the sun: That he that hath learned no wit by nature nor art, may complain of good breeding, or comes of a very dull kindred.

Touch. Such a one is a natural * philosopher. Wast ever in court, shepherd ?

Cor. No, truly.
Touch. Then thou art damn'd.
Cor. Nay, I hope, -

Touch. Truly, thou art damn'd; like an ill-roasted egs,

all on one side 5. Cor. For not being at court? Your reason.

Touch. Why, if thou never wast at court, thou never saw'st good manners; if thou never saw'st good manners, then thy manners must be wicked; and wickedness is sin, and sin is damnation : Thou art in a parlous state, shepherd.

3 Of good breeding,' &c. The anomalous use of this preposition has been remarked on many occasions in these plays. In The Sad Shepherd, Lionel says of Amie:

'She's sick of the young shepherd that bekist her.' i. e. sick for him, or wanting him.

4 A natural being a common term for a fool, Touchstone evidently intended to quibble on the word.

5 • Touchstone,' says Malone, 'I apprehend only means to say, that Corin is completely damned; as irretrievably destroyed as an egg that is spoiled in the roasting, by being done on one side only. With Johnson I must say, that 'I do not fully comprehend the meaning of this jest.'

Cor. Not a whit, Touchstone: those, that are good manners at the court, are as ridiculous in the country, as the behaviour of the country is most mockable at the court. You told me, you salute not at the court, but you kiss your hands; that courtesy would be uncleanly, if courtiers were shepherds.

Touch. Instance, briefly; come, instance.

Cor. Why, we are still handling our ewes; and their fells, you know, are greasy.

Touch. Why, do not your courtier's hands sweat ? and is not the grease of a mutton as wholesome as the sweat of a man? Shallow, shallow : A better instance, I say; come.

Cor. Besides, our hands are hard.

Touch. Your lips will feel them the sooner. Shallow, again: A more sounder instance, come.

Cor. And they are often tarr'd over with the surgery of our sheep; And would you have us kiss tar? The courtier's hands are perfumed with civet.

Touch. Most shallow man! Thou worms-meat, in respect of a good piece of flesh: Indeed!— Learn of the wise, and perpend: Civet is of a baser birth than tar; the very uncleanly flux of a cat. Mend the instance, shepherd.

Cor. You have too courtly a wit for me; I'll rest.

Touch. Wilt thou rest damn’d? God help thee, Shallow man! God make incision in thee! thou art raw 7.

6 •God make incision in thee! thou art raw. It has been ingeniously urged that insition or graffing is here meant, and that the phrase may be explained “God put knowledge into thee,'— but we want instances to confirm this. Steevens thought the allusion here was to the common expression of cutting for the simples; and the subsequent speech of Touchstone, “That is another simple sin in you,' gives colour to this conjecture. The passages quoted from Beaumont and Fletcher have not the same

7 i. e. ignorant, unexperienced.

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