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hy lighting a fire upon it; or if a cow lies down upon it, or walks over it, or in time it will purify itself. If a cow touches any food with her mouth, or a hair, a fly, or any other insect falls therein, it is purified by ashes or water. If it is defiled by any filth falling off the body of the person who is eating, he must wash it with water, or scour it with earth, till it is perfectly clean, If a man defile himself in the upper parts of the body, excepting the hands, he must scour himself with earth, and bathe. If he defiles himself in the lower parts, he is purified by washing the parts. If he is defiled by drinking wine, or by having connection with an impure woman, or by any human excrement, he is purified by washing, scouring with earth, and by washing again, if below the navel : but if it happens above the navel, then after the second washing, he must anoint the parts with ghee," cow's milk, and curds, and cow's dung and urine ; and he must also drink three handsful of river water. If he is defiled by the touch of a washerman, or a dealer in leather, or an executioner, or a hunter, or a fisherman, or an oilman, or a tame dog, he is purified by water alone. But if he touch an unclean woman, a sweeper, a sinner, a corpse, a dog, ass, cat, crow, cock, or hen, or a mouse, or a camel, or is defiled by the smoke of a corpse that is burning, or by the dust shaken off an ass, dog, sheep, or goat, he must go into the water with his clothes on, look at the sun, and repeat some particular
prayers. If he touches human fat, or bone, he must bathe with his clothes on; or drink three handsful of water ; or look at the sun ; or put his hand upon a cow. If he is soiled with the blood of clean animals, he is purified by scouring himself with earth and water. If a garment of wool or silk is polluted by such things as would require a man, if touched, to bathe, it is purified by the wind or sunshine.
When we see so much zeal manifested, and so much attention excited to avoid matters proscribed by a worthless religious system, is it not reasonable to suppose that if that pure and rational system of salvation, laid down in the Christian Scriptures, were fairly proposed to a people groaning under such burthensome and useless rites, it would be most joyfully received? But, alas, so perverted is the soul of man, that he would rather spend his money for that which is not bread, and his labour for that which satisfieth not, than receive the salvation of God without money and without price.
We have reason, however, to anticipate in pleasing hope the time in which it is likely this degraded people will cast off this oppressive yoke ; as by the labours of the Protestant missionaries now resident in Calcutta the Sacred Writings have been or are in the progress of being translated into the principal languages of India, and distributed among millions of miserable idolaters. Several thousands of copies of the Old and New Testaments in Bengalee have already been printed and dis
* Ayeen Akbery, Vol. III. p. 213.
tributed among the Hindoos ; and I have authority to add, they were gladly received, and eagerly read.
Among the Mohammedans purification is considered as essential to devotion, and the very key of prayer, without which it is of no effect. It is of two descriptions, the ghosse, or complete ablution of the whole body; and the wasoo, or washing of the hands and feet on particular occasions, and after a particular manner. In many respects the purifications among the Mohammedans are similar to those among the Jews. Indeed Mohammed copied many from the Jewish Scriptures, of which he made a pretty extensive use in composing his Koran."
A Supplement to Chap. XI. concerning the Music
and Poetry of the Hebrews.
Referred to p. 101.
THERE were no instruments of music used in the worship of God from the foundation of the world till the time of David. He introduced singers and players on musical instruments: but this was rather by the permission, than by the express au
thority, of God. As David was a very elegant poet, and was led to devote his extraordinary talents to the most sublime and glorious of all subjects, the celebration of the being and attributes of the most High God; and as instrumental music was generally a concomitant of the poetic gift, and probably observing a fondness for such instruments among the people at large, who appear to have made an improper use of them in feasts, &c. he thought proper to consecrate them to the service of the sanctuary ; and composed a variety of Odes or Psalms with which they were to be accompanied on the different solemnities among the Jews.
It is in vain to attempt to trace the use of musical instruments in the service of God any higher than the days of David; for the horns and trumpets which were in use before appear to have answered no other purpose than merely to convoke the public assemblies, as bells were not then in use. Nor does it appear from any part of the Scriptures, as far as I can recollect, that their introduction was ever sanctified by Divine authority. In 1 Chron. xvi. 42. it is said, that Heman and Jeduthun were appointed with trumpets and cymbals for those that should make a sound ; and with musical instruments of God; and this text is supposed to be a clear proof, that these were of Divine appointment. But the last clause, musical instruments of God, when examined in the original, will not support this inference. On7587 by kelee sheer haeloheem,
See Isa. v. 12. compared with Amos v. 23. and vi. 1-5.
literally signifies, the instruments of God's song : properly translated by the Septuagint oργανα των wów tou cou, the organs of the songs of God. The parallel text in 2 Chron. vii. 6. the instruments of music of the LORD, has precisely the same meaning with the above, the words being the same; only TT yehovah is, in the latter text, put for One eloheem in the former. The song God inspired, and commanded to be sung ; but the instruments were of a different appointment.
In the first, the pure and perfect ages of the Christian church, there were no instruments of music used in the worship of God: indeed, had they been proposed, they would doubtless have been considered by the Primitive Christians as an attempt to judaize Christianity, by conforming the church to the synagogue.
The Syriac version of 1 Chron. xvi. 41, 42. is very remarkable. I shall subjoin a literal translation of it, which the reader may compare with the English version, or with the Hebrew text. These are the names of the men who were employed in praises. Heman and Erithunb (and other righteous men whose names are unknown) that they might give thanks to the Lord, whose goodness is everlasting. And these are the righteous men who did not sing with instruments of music, nor with
• Erithun is, I suppose, a corruption of the word Iduthun, or Jedithun; for as, both in Syriac and Hebrew, the daleth bears the nearest resemblance to the resh, these letters may be readily mistaken for each other.