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the same time the necessity of artificers; and there were then many among the Jews." The apostles, Joseph, and Jesus Christ Himself, are undeniable examples of it; and, what is most remarkable, St. Paul, though brought up to letters, was likewise master of a trade. The Jews relate the same of their most celebrated rabbins. *
Their Sects and Superstitions.
THE difference of sects began at that time : under Jonathan the son of Mattathias there were already Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. The Pharisees joined the traditions of the fathers to the text of the law, which were preserved without writing; and, though the doctrine they maintained was good at the bottom, they mixed a great many superstitions with it. They believed in fate, moderated by free-will, or rather by Providence, which guides it. The Sadducees, who were a sort of Deists, imputed all to free-will. They acknowledged only the five books of Moses as divine; and these they inter
u Ecclus. xxxviii. 27,
&c. Joseph. Ant. xiii. 9. xviii. 2.
preted literally; and pretended that they did not oblige them to believe a 'resurrection, or the immortality of the soul, or that there were angels or spirits. Thus they served God only for a temporal reward, and gave themselves up much to sensual pleasures. They had little agreement among themselves, and but small authority with the people. Their number was not great ; but they were the chief of the nation, and even many of them priests. The common people were more attached to the Pharisees, who kept up an outward shew of great piety. Queen Alexandra gave them considerable power in the minority of her sons."
The sect of Essenes was the most singular. They avoided living in great towns, their goods were in common, and their diet very plain. They spent a great deal of time in prayer, and meditating upon the law. Their manner of life was very like that of the prophets and Rechabites. Some of them too observed a perfect continence, leading a life altogether contemplative; and in such purity, that many of the fathers have taken them for Christians. They were a very simple and upright people, and are never reprehended by Christ or His apostles.
The Pharisees lived in the midst of the world,
great amity with one another, leading a plain and outwardly strict life : but most of them were interested, ambitious, and covetous. They valued
themselves on a great exactness in the outward performance of the law. They gave tithes not only of large fruits, but of the smallest herbs, as cummin, mint, and anise. They took great care to wash themselves, to purify their cups, their plate, and all their furniture. They kept the sabbath so scrupulously that they made it a crime in our Saviour to moisten a bit of clay at the end of his finger,' and in His disciples to pluck some ears of corn to eat as they passed along 5 They fasted often, many of them twice a week, i. e. on Mondays and Thursdays. They affected to wear the totaphot,' or phylacteries, on the borders of their garments, together with their tsitsith, or fringes, much larger than ordinary." The totaphot, tephillin, or phylacteries, are scraps of writing, containing some passages of the law, fastened upon their forehead and left arm, in obedience to the command of having the law of God always before their eyes, or in their hands." The tsitsith, or fringes, were of different colours; and they were ordered to wear them on the borders of their garments, that they might look upon them, and remember the commandments of God." The Jews, even to this
• Matt. xxiii. 23. Mark vii. 2. ' John ix. 6. * Matt. xii. 2.
Luke xviii. 12. nu Totphot, according to R. S. Jarchi, signifies two and two, or twice two ; ou signifies two in the language of the Cath. pians (a people of Spain,) and no the same in the African or Punic tongue. Hence the totphot are always divided into four compartments. See Jarchi on Exod. xiii. 16. * Matt. xxiii. 5.
Deut. vi. 8. m Numb. xv. 38.
day, wear these outward marks of religion, when they go to the synagogue : but upon working days only ; for upon the sabbath and feast-days they pretend they have no occasion for these remembrancers."
» Buxtorf. Synagog. Jud. c. 4. PHYLACTERIES, quàaxtmpia, from quracow to keep or preserve, were small slips of parchment or vellum, on which certain portions of the law were written. These the Jews tied about their foreheads and wrists, -1. To put them in mind of those precepts which they should constantly observe. 2. To procure them reverence and respect in the sight of the heathen. And, 3. To act as amulets or charms to drive away evil spirits. The first use of these phylacteries is evident from their name. The second use appears from what is said on the subject from Gemara, Beracoth, quoted by Kypke, “Whence is it proved that phylacteries (roon tephilin) are the strength of Israel ? Ans. From what is written Deut. xxviii, 10, All the people of the earth shall see that thou art called by the name of 71. Jehovah; and they shall be afraid of thee.” The third use of them appears from the Targum on Cant. viii. 3. His left hand is under my head, &c. “The congregation of Israel hath said, I am elect above all people, because I bind my phylacteries on my left hand and on my head; and the scroll is fixed to the right side of my gate, the third part of which looks to my bed-chamber, that dæmons may not be permitted to injure me."
An original phylactery now lies before me. It is a piece of fipe vellum, about eighteen inches long, and an inch and a quarter broad. It is divided into four unequal compartments. In the first is written in a very fair character (with many apices after the mode of the German Jews) the first ten verses of Exod, xiii. In the second compartment is written from the eleventh to the sixteenth verse of the same chapter, inclusive. In the third, from the fourth to the ninth verse inclusive, of Deut. vi. beginning with Hear, O Israel, &c. In the fourth, from the thirteenth to the twenty-first verse inclusive of Deut. xi. And it
The Pharisees gave alms in public, and made their faces dismal that they might look as if they fasted much. For an unclean person to touch them was reckoned the highest affront: and such they esteemed not only the Gentiles and public sinners, but all that were of an odious profession. In short, most of them were devout only out of interest; they misled ignorant people by their specious discourses ; and the women even stripped themselves of whatever was valuable, to enrich them; and, under pretence that they were the people of God, with whom the law was deposited, they despised the Greeks and Romans, and all the nations
shall come to pass, &c. These passages seem to be chosen in vindication of the use of the phylactery itself, as the Reader will see in consulting them. Bind them up for a sign upon thy hand, and for frontlets between thy eyes. Write them upon the posts of thy house, and upon thy gates; all which commands the Jews took in the most literal sense. Even the phylactery became an important appendage to a Pharisee's character; insomuch that some of this sect wore them very broad, either that they might have the more written on them, or that the characters beiog larger, they might be the more visible, and that they might hereby acquire greater esteem among the common people. For the same reason they wore the fringes of their garments of an unusual length. Moses had commanded (Numb. xv. 38, 39.) the children of Israel to put fringes on the borders of their garments, that when they looked even upon these distinct threads, they might remember not only the law in general, but also the very minute or smaller parts of all the precepts, rites, and ceremonies belonging to it. As these hypocrites were destitute of the life and power of religion within, they endeavoured to sopply its place by phylacteries and fringes without.
• Matt. vi. 2, 5, 16–18.