further repaired and beautified, and new works were erected i He died at Winchester-house, in Southwark, on the 25th of by Cardinal Beaton in 1546; but it was demolished by September, 1626, and was buried in the church of St. Saan act of council in or about 1547, and though it was again viour's, where a handsome marble monument, bearing a long partially repaired by Archbishop Hamilton, it never re- Latin inscription, was erected over his remains. His tomb covered from this overthrow.

was opened, and his coffin discovered, in the course of the In the cliff between the harbour and the castle is a sin- recent reparation of the church. gular cave, consisting of two apartments.

The principal work which Bishop Andrews published St. Andrews was the scene of several remarkable events, during his life was a thick quarto volume, printed in 1609, during the progress of the Reformation in Scotland. The with the title Tortura Torti ; being an answer to a treatise fires of persecution were repeatedly kindled, for the town in which Cardinal Bellarmin, under the name of Matthew was the ecclesiastical metropolis of the kingdom, and the Tortus, had attacked the doctrine laid down by King James stronghold of the Catholics. Here in 1527 Patrick Hamil- in his Defence of the Rights of Kings, respecting the authoton, the first Protestant martyr in Scotland, was burned ; and rity of Christian princes over persons and causes ecclein 1545, Wishart, one of the most eminent of the Scotch siastical. Andrews undertook his performance on the comreformers, suffered ; Cardinal Beaton, the then archbishop, mand of his majesty; and was considered to have executed looking on from a window of the castle. The martyr, his task with great ability. He is also the author of a with his dying breath, foretold the downfall of his per- Manual of Private Devotions and Meditations for every Day secutor, and his prophecy was remarkably verified about a in the Week, and a Manual of Directions for the Visitation year after. Norman Leslie, son of the Earl of Rothes, with of the Sick. After his death, a volume, containing ninetyKiteen associates, proceeded to the castle, and with great six of his sermons, was, by the direction of Charles I., address and resolution cleared it of the cardinal's retinue, printed under the care of Bishops Laud and Buckeridge; and of the workmen employed in the repairs or new and another volume, consisting of a collection of his tracts crections, amounting altogether to 150 persons, and pro- and speeches, also appeared in 1629. His work, entitled ceeding to the cardinal's chamber, deliberately murdered The Moral Law Erpounded, or Lectures on the Ten Comhim. The conspirators with their friends held out in mandments, was first published in 1642. His 'ATOOTAGthe castle for several months against the troops of the uária Sacra, or Collection of Posthumous and Orphan government aided by a body of French; but were at last Lectures delivered at St. Paul's, and St. Giles's Crippleobliged to surrender upon terms. It was upon this sur- gate, appeared in a folio volume, in 1657. Bishop Andrews render that the act of council for the demolition of the castle was, also, one of the authors of the common translation of was issued. The murder of Archbishop Sharp, in 1679, the Bible. The portions in which he was concerned were took place on Magus Moor, about three miles S.W. of St. the Pentateuch, and the historical books from the Book of Andrews, and within sight of the town.

Judges to the Books of Kings inclusive. St. Andrews is thirty-nine miles N.N.E. of Edinburgh; All the writings of Bishop Andrews display abundant and in lat. 56° 19' 33" N., long. 2° 50' W. from Green- learning; but his eloquence, notwithstanding the deliglit wich.

it appears to have afforded his contemporaries, is but little It is said that the name of the district where St. Regulus calculated to please the present age. Overspread as it is arrived was Mucross; and the promontory on which the with verbal conceits and far-fetched allusions, and exhibitcity stands was called Kilrymont till the middle of the ing in this way a perpetual labour of ingenuity, it altoninth century. The navigation of the bay is dangerous. gether wants that simplicity and directness of effect which is (Grierson's Delineations of St. Andrews ; Beauties of Scot- the soul of good writing. Not that there is not a great deal lund, and Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland.) of excellent sense wrapt up in its tinsel tropes, and other

ANDREWS (LANCELOT), an eminent English pre- puerile and grotesque decorations; but the whole life and late, was descended from an antient Suffolk family, and spirit of every thought is most commonly suffocated under a was born in the parish of All-Hallows Barking, London, load of dead verbiage. The bishop's style, however, would in 1565. His father, Collier says, was a merchant of good seem to have wonderfully fascinated every body in his own repute;-according to the Biographia Britannica, he had times. Fuller, who is greatly taken with it, and who spent the most part of his life at sea. Young Andrews was affirms that Dr. Andrews was an inimitable preacher in educated first at the Coopers' Free School at Ratcliff, and his way,' in an anecdote which he tells with the view of then at Merchant Taylors

' School, from which he was sent showing how difficult or impossible it was for those who to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, by Archdeacon Watts, on attempted to copy him to match their model, unconsciously one of the exhibitions founded by the latter in that College. records a severe and, at the same time, well-deserved conHe greatly distinguished himself at the University by his demnation of the manner of writing which he so much studious habits and extensive acquirements; and also in admires. * Pious and pleasant Bishop Felton,' he says, certain lectures which he read as catechist displayed the first his contemporary and colleague, endeavoured in vain in promise of that talent for pulpit oratory for which he was his sernions to assimilate his style, and therefore said afterwards celebrated. Having taken orders, he soon be- merrily of himself, I had almost marred my own natural came known as a preacher. His first patron was the Earl trot by endeavouring to imitate his artificial amble.' of Huntingdon, who took him with him to the north of Eng. Bishop Andrews was all his life a hard student, and is land; but he had not been long there before he obtained stated to have made himself conversant with all the learning the notice of Walsingham, the Secretary of State, who gave of his age. After he had been three years at the university, him first the lease of the parsonage of Alton in Hampshire, we are told, it was his custom to come up to London for a and soon after obtained for him the vicarage of St. Giles's month every year; and during that space, which he spent Cripplegate, London. To this preferment were afterwards in the house of his father and mother, he always put himadded the dignities of prebendary and canon residentiary of self into the hands of a master, and studied some language St. Paul's, and prebendary of the collegiate church of South- or branch of science with which he was before unacquainted. well. The mastership of Pembroke Hall, and the appoint- Casaubon, Cluverius, Grotius, Vossius, and other eminent ment of chaplain in ordinary to the queen followed ; and so scholars of the time, have all highly eulogized his extensive greatly was her majesty delighted with his manner of erudition, which was wont, it appears, to overflow in his preaching, that she was not long in giving him a stall in conversation, as well as in his writings. He was also celeWestminster Abbey, a place which he soon exchanged for brated for his talent at repartee, of which the following inthe deanery of that church. He held this situation when stance is told by the writer of a life of Waller, the poet, James I. came to the throne. With that monarch he im- prefixed to his works. Waller having one day gone to see mediately became a great favourite, and the bishopric of James I. at dinner, saw the Bishop of Winchester and Dr. Chichester having become vacant, he was presented to Neale, Bishop of Durham, standing behind the king's it, and was consecrated on the 3d of November, 1605. chair, and overheard the following conversation : · His The king at the same time made him his lord almoner. majesty asked the bishops,-My lords, cannot I take my In 1609 he was translated to the see of Ely; and subjects' money when I want it, without all this formality was soon after made a privy-councillor both for England in parliament? The Bishop of Durham readily answered, and Scotland. When James, in 1617, visited the latter God forbid, sir, but you should ; you are the breath of our kingdom, Bishop Andrews was one of the persons by whom nostrils. Whereupon, the king turned, and said to the he was accompanied. In 1618, he was advanced to the Bishop of Winchester, Well, my lord, what say you? Sir, bishopric of Winchester, and was at the same time made replied the bishop, I have no skill to judge of parliamentary dean of the chapel royal. These were his last preferments. cases. The king answered, No put offs, my lord ; answer

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me presently. Then, sir, said he, I think it lawful for you , dible. (See Josephus's Antiquities, lib. xiii. cap. 7, ed. to take my brother Neale's money, for he offers it. Aurelia Allobrog., p. 434; and Jost's Geschichte der Juden,

Bishop Andrews, we ought to add, adorned his learning vol. ii. pp. 308, 309.) and shining talents by the highest reputation for piety, ANDRONI'CUS COMNE'NUS, emperor of Constanhospitality, charity, and munificence. One of Milton's tinople, was grandson of Alexis I. In his youth he disearly Latin poems is an elegy on the death of this distin- tinguished himself in the army under his cousin, the guished prelute, in which he is bewailed in a strain of the Emperor Manuel, against the Turks and Armenians, but most impassioned regret and admiration.

having entered into a treasonable correspondence with the ANDRISCI'S. (See PhilippUS.)

King of Hungary, he was arrested and confined in a ANDROMACHÈ, the wife of Hector. It is also the tower of the palace, where he remained twelve years. He title of one of the extant tragedies of Euripides.

contrived to escape, and after several romantic adventures ANDRO'MACHUS, a native of Crete, and physician to arrived at Kiew, in Russia, where he won the farour the Emperor Nero. He was the inventor of a celebrated of the Grand Duke Jeroslaus. Like Alcibiades, Androcompound medicine called Theriake (Onpaký), the prepara- nicus could assume the manners of every country, and his tion of which he described in a poem which has been pre- athletic constitution could support the vicissitudes of all served in the collection of Galen's works.

climates; he could pass suddenly from the fatigues and ANDROMEDA, a constellation, so called by the Greeks privations of the camp to a life of luxury and debauch. He from Andromeda, the mythological daughter of Cepheus was a great favourite with the fair sex, and he won the and Cassiopeia, who was bound to a rock and thus exposed affections of no less than four royal princesses in succession, to a sea-monster, from whom she was delivered by Perseus. beginning with Eudocia, the emperor's niece, who for him Thus constellation occupies a considerable region of the forsook the palace, and accompanied her lover in his early heavens below Cassiopeia, by which it may be thus found. campaigns. Andronicus, in his exile at Kiew, became inA line drawn through the brightest star of the five in strumental in forming an alliance between the Russian C'assupera, marked B, and the pole star, passes through a prince and the Emperor Manuel, and thus obtained bis star of the first magnitude in the head of Andromeda, pardon from the latter. He led a hody of Russian cavalry marked a, and called Alpherat. A line drawn through from the banks of the Borysthenes to the Danube, and « Cassiopeix, at the other corner, and the pole star, passes assisted the emperor against the Hungarians at the siege through Almach in the foot of Andromeda, marked y, of Semlin. After the peace, having returned to Conwhile in the line between the two stars thus found, lies stantinople, he protested against the adoption of Bela, Prince Mirach, marked B, in the girdle of Andromeda. The fol- of Hungary, who had married the only daughter of the lowing list, taken from the Mem. R. Astron. Soc. vol. v. emperor, as presumptive heir to the throne. Andronicus shows the references to the different stars of this constella- was himself next in the order of succession. The Emperor tron in different catalogues. The first column contains the Manuel however having married a second wife, Maria, letter, by which the star is denoted; the second its number daughter of Raymund of Poitou, Prince of Antioch, had by in Flamsteed's catalogue ; the third that in the Astrono- her a son, who was afterwards Alexis II. Meantime, mical Society's catalogue, and the fourth the magnitude of Andronicus, who held a command in Cilicia, fell in love the star.

with Philippa, Maria's sister, who gave herself up to him,

as Eudocia had done before. The emperor, although himNo, ta Catalogue of

No. in Catalogue of

self dissolute in conduct, reproved this connexion of Andronicus with his own sister-in-law; and Andronicus, being

obliged to leave Philippa, undertook, accompanied by a Flamsteed. Society


band of adventurers, a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where he

won the favour of Almeric, the Christian king of that 1 2:31

76 4

country, and one of the successors of Godefroy de Bouillon.

Andronicus received from him the principality of Beroot, 7 2771


83 4 (Berytus,) on the coast of Syria. There he fell in love with 8

88 6

a third princess, Theodora, the young widow of Baldwin III,

King of Jerusalem, who was herself of the Comnenian lina 16 2619

94 4

and a distant relation to Andronicus. She lived openly with 19 2-24

7 39


him as his concubine, and had two children by him. Andro

nicus being no longer safe in Palestine from the hostility of 20 12837 5 9 42

117 5 the Emperor Manuel, repaired, accompanied by Theodora, 21 2591




to Damascus, where the Sultan Noureddin received him 1

hospitably. From thence he travelled to Bagdad, and other B

3: E 46

143 5

parts of the east, and at last settled among the Turks in 18


5 Asia Minor, whence he made frequent incursions into the

Greek territories. For this he was excommunicated by the 6 R: 51

176 3:4 church and outlawed by the emperor. The governor of Tre-
33 43

185 5

bizond having found means to seize Theodora and her

two children, and send them to Constantinople, Andronicus, 30 58 4 ข


in despair, made his submission to the emperor, and repair. 31 59 3

ing to Constantinople, sued for pardon in the most abject manner. He was banished to Denoe, a town of Pontus,

on the coast of the Euxine, between Cape Heracleum ANDRONI'CL'S was the advocate of the Jews under and Cape Jasonium, where he remained till the death of the reign of Ptolemæus Philometor in their proceedings Manuel, in 1180, and the disorders of a disputed succes. against the Samantans in Egypt, who, by asserting the au- sion, induced the patriarch and the principal patricians to thority of the temple on Mount Garızım, or Gerision, against rerall Andronicus, as the only man who could restore the temple at Jerusalem, occasioned a controversy which peace to the empire. He arrived in the capital in the terminated in boodshed. The Egyptian Jews (although midst of acclamations, acknowledged the young Alexis as they had built, about the year 150 2.c, an heretical temple emperor, but arrested the empress-mother, who had been of their ow 11, in the province of Heliopolis) zenlously defended in some measure the cause of the troubles. Andronicus the authority of the ternple at Jerusalem. After the argu- was associated in the empire as colleague and guardian to ments were exiqueted, both parties took up arms, and Alexis. He then developed his ambitious views. He first having found that blinas could not decide the matter, they caused the empress-mother to be tried on a false charge of appalend w the Kinz. Prolemru, Plalmetor, who appointed treasonable correspondence. She was condemned unheard, a letra das of juistent. In full court it was agreed, that and was strangled, and her body thrown into the sea. He those who were suund in error should be killed for the next murdered young Alexis himself, and then assumed bioodsbed already come, surd. The Samantan advocates, the undivided authority as emperor in 1183. He married Sabbas (Sabbass) and Theodh muills, lost their cause against Agnes, Alexis's widow and sister to Philippe Auguste Andronicus, and were put to death. The arbitrary adını- of France, who was still almost a child. •Andronicus's nistration of Justice in ihone lines, and the character of short reign,' says Gibbon, .exhibited a singular contrass of Ptolemæas Philometur, render this pecount not quite incre- vice and virtue' when he listened to his passions, he was the










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scourge; when he consulted his reason, the father of his sieged Magnesia, which had a Greek garrison, seized Gallipeople. In the exercise of private justice he was equitable poli on the Hellespont, and behaved, in short, worse than the and rigorous; he repressed venality, and filled the offices Turks themselves. Andronicus, partly by force and partly with the most deserving candidates. The provinces, so long through bribes, succeeded at last in getting rid of these the objects of oppression or neglect, revived in prosperity and troublesome allies, at an enormous cost. In 1320, Michael, plenty, and millions applauded the distant blessings of his son of Andronicus, having died, Michael's son, Andronicus, reign, while he was cursed by the witnesses of his daily distinguished by the historians by the appellation of the cruelties. The antient proverb, that bloodthirsty is the man younger,' revolted against his grandfather; and after sevewho returns from banishment to power, was verified again ral years of a ruinous war, was crowned as colleague to the in Andronicus.' (Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.) old emperor in 1325. Another sedition broke out in 1328, He put to death, or mutilated in a cruel manner, all those which ended in the abdication of the elder Andronicus, who who, during his long exile, had traduced him, opposed his retired to a convent under the name of the monk Anthony. views, or insulted his misfortunes, as well as those who He died in his cell four years after his abdication, and in were the friends of the murdered empress and of her son. the seventy-fourth year of his age. He was a weak and A wretch of the name of Aaron, who had been secretary to bigoted, though not unlearned, prince. It was during these the Emperor Manuel, and had his eyes put out on account disastrous wars between the two Andronici that the Ottoof treason, suggested to Andronicus not to content himself mans effected almost without resistance the conquest of all with blinding those he suspected, but to cut out their Bithynia and advanced within sight of Constantinople, tongues also, by means of which they might still have in. while other Turkish emirs took possession of Lydia and jured him. Many of Andronicus's intended victims escaped Ionia and the adjacent islands. The ruin of the seven to Nicæa and Prusa, where they made a stand, but were churches of Asia was then consummated. Andronicus, the overpowered, and those unfortunate towns were treated with younger, attempted bravely to stem the torrent, but was the greatest barbarity. At last, so many terrors drove the defeated and wounded by Orchan, the son of Othman, who people of Constantinople to revolt; Isaac Angelus, one of took Prusa, Nicæa, and Nicomedia. He was, however, the proscribed and a descendant in the female line from spared the mortification of seeing the Ottomans on the Alexis I., took refuge in the church of St. Sophia. A crowd European coast. He died in 1341, in the forty-fifth assembled and proclaimed him emperor. Andronicus was year of his age, leaving by his wife Jane or Anne of then, with his young wife, in one of the islands of the Pro- Savoy, a boy, John Palæologus, who was put under the pontis; he rushed to Constantinople, but was overpowered, guardianship of John Cantacuzenus. (Gibbon's Decline taken prisoner, and dragged to the presence of Isaac An- and Fall; the Byzantine historians Gregoras, Pachymer, gelus, who, without any form of trial. gave him up to the and Cantacuzenus; and Hammer, Geschichte des Osmapersonal revenge of his enemies. He was insulted and nischen Reiches.) tormented in every possible manner; his teeth, eyes, and ANDRONICUS, RHO'DIUS, or the Rhodian. It hair were torn from him, and lastly, he was hung by the appears from Plutarch, Strabo, Galen, Aulus Gellius, Amfeet between two pillars. In his painful agony he was heard monius, Simplicius, and other antient writers, that there to appeal to heavenly mercy, entreating it ‘not to bruise a resided at Rome, about a century before the birth of Christ, broken reed.' At last some one ran a sword through his an eminent Peripatetic of this name, who had previously body, and put an end to his sufferings. This dreadful taught philosophy at Athens. He is said to have first catastrophe happened in September, 1185; Andronicus was arranged, indexed, and published the works of Aristotle, then past sixty years of age.

after they had been brought to Rome in the library of ANDRONI'CUS CYRRHESTES, an architect who Apellicon of Teos, by Sylla; the manuscripts had been comconstructed, or, at least, a person whose name is attached municated to Andronicus by Tyrannion, the grammarian, to, one of the existing remains of antient Athens, commonly who seems to have been originally employed to put them in called the Tower of the Winds; the building takes this order. Some of the authorities also refer expressly to the name from the figures of the eight winds being cut in relief Commentaries of this Andronicus on certain of Aristotle's on the exterior wall of the building, with their names above works. The first work, however, supposed to be by this them on the frieze. (See Spon, ii., p. 135, Amsterdam, writer, which was recovered in modern times, was a short 1679.) This monument stands to the north of the treatise, published by David Hoeschelius, in 12mo., at AugsAcropolis, and is thus described by Vitruvius :—Those burg, in 1594, under the title of Andronici Rhodii Peripuwho have paid most attention to the winds make them eight tetici Philosophi Libellus llepi Ia6wv. In his preface, in number, and particularly Andronicus Cyrrhestes, who Hoeschelius referred shortly to the different antient authors built at Athens an octagonal marble tower, and cut on each who had mentioned Andronicus. In 1607, Daniel Heinsius face the figure of the several winds, each being turned to published, in a quarto volume, at Leyden, from a MS. the quarter from which that wind blows; on the tower he which had fallen into liis hands, a Greek Commentary, or erected a marble column (meta), on which he placed a Paraphrase, on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, probably so Triton of bronze, holding out a rod in his right hand; and named from having been originally addressed to his son he so contrived it, that the figure moved round with the Nicomachus. Heinsius accompanied the text of his author wind, and constantly stood opposite to it; the rod, which with a Latin translation; but although in the manuscript was above the figure, showed in what direction the wind the work was attributed to Andronicus, the Rhodian, he blew.'

did not consider himself warranted to insert that name in This building was intended for å sun-dial, and it also the title-page. The inscription on the manuscript, he contained a water-clock, which was supplied with water says in his preface, was evidently by an illiterate hand; and from the spring under the care of Pan on the north-west he insinuates that there is no proof that Andronicus, alcorner of the Acropolis. Colonel Leake is disposed to assign though he arranged and indexed the writings of Aristotle, the date of this building to about B.c. 159. (See Leake's ever wrote a conimentary on any of them. In 1617, howTopog. of Athens ; British Museum, Elgin Marbles, vol. i., ever, he published a second edition of the Paraphrase at

Leyden, in octavo, in which he entitles it Andronici Rhodir ANDRONICUS, LIVIUS. [See Livius.)

Ethicorum Nicomacheorum Puraphrasis, 8-c. In this edition ANDRONI'CUS PALÆO'LOGUS, the elder, son of the former preface is withdrawn, and another is substituted, Michael, emperor of Constantinople, was raised by his in which he refers to the other antient authors, besides Plufather as his colleague to the throne in 1273, and after tarch and Strabo, who have spoken of Andronicus, and exMichael's death in 1282, he reigned forty-six years more. presses his conviction that the work is really by him. He was The reign of Andronicus, like that of most Byzantine well acquainted, he says, with the several passages in his emperors, was continually disturbed by religious contro- newly-adduced authorities, which tend to render this not imversies, civil wars, and foreign attacks. In 1301, Othman probable, although they had escaped his recollection when first invaded the territory of Nicomedia, the passes of Mount he published his former edition. It is most likely that his Olympus having been left unguarded by the neglect or par- attention was called to them by having, in the interim, met simony of the Byzantine court. A formidable host of Cata- with the preface by Hoeschelius to the treatise llepi Ilaowv; lonian and other adventurers came to Constantinople in especially as we find him now reprinting that treatise at the 1303, to give Andronicus their assistance against the Turks, end of the Commentary. The next edition of the Combut in fact to live at the expense of the empire, and to plun- mentary appeared at Cambridge in 1679. It professes to der both sides of the Channel. They defeated the Turks in be an exact reprint from the text of Heinsius, but of which Asia, but they ravaged the country, sacked Philadelphia, be- I edition is not said, although Heinsius himself, in his No. 68. (THE PENNY CYCLOPÆDIA.]


p. 29.)

second preface, speaks of his first edition as being full of Lawrence opposite Quebec, has its sources near those of the blunders. This second preface the Cambridge editor sup- Androscoggin, on the north and west side of the same highpresses, and prints instead of it the other, which Heinsius lands. The Androscoggin tlows by numerous bransebes for had withdrawn. To that he adds another of his own, an about twenty-five miles south into a number of lakes, the inspection of which may possibly explain his curious selec- chief and most western of which is Umbagog. The united tion from the two written at different times by his prede- waters forming a large stream flow from this lake is a ressor. It consists chiefly of an elaborate display, at full western direction, which soon becomes a souttern one, for length, of passages respecting Andronicus from the writers thirty miles, under the name of Amariscoggin. Toentes previously indicated by Heinsius and Hoeschelius. All having reached the northern base of the nucleus of the tis learning the worthy editor evidently wishes to pass off White mountains, turns due east, and piercing the mountaias his own. Heinsius, accordingly, he gravely tells us, chain flows in this direction for fifty miles. Here it makes preserres a deep silence respecting his author; and to bear another bend at right angles, and runs south for thirty miles, Cu: this assertion he prints, as we have said, the original to the latitude of 44o. Below this point, by a curving course prefire only of that eminent scholar. If Heinsius, however, of twenty miles south-east, then east, and finally northis defrauded of some glory by this clever management, it east, it joins the Kennebec at Merry-meeting Bay, about pa't be confessed that he is only foiled at his own weapons, six miles above the town of Bath, in the state of Maine, ar i receires no more than the treatment he had himself prac- The entire course, measured along the windings, as given by te on Hoeschelius. The facts, we think, are worth re- the maps, is not less than 200 miles. Below the mountains, ciring as another illustration of the common saying, that the river is called the Androscoggin; it has no large tributiere are tricks in all trades. It may be added, that in taries, but is increased by numerous rivulets, and, like the 1579 the curators of the Clarendon press at Oxford pro- other rivers of Maine, is, for its length, a very large one. do a farth edition of the Paraphrase of Andronicus, in The tide ascends the Androscoggin to near Durham, about which with amusing scrupulosity they have followed the thirty-five miles from the open ocean. Though obstructed presius edition of the sister university in all particulars, by falls and shoals, like the Kennebec, both these rivers the ingenijus selection from the prefaces of Heinsius in- afford great facility for inland navigation: the chief article c.uded.

transported down them is timber. (See Darby's GeograAfter all, great doubts have been entertained by several phical View of the United States.) critic as to the work being really the production of Andro- ANDUJAR, a town of Spain, in Andalusia, 35° N. nicus the Rhodian. The different opinions upon the sub- lat., 4° W. long., 40 miles E.N.E. of Cordova, and ject may be found in Bayle. Gabriel Naudé conceives 19 N.W. of Jaen, situated on an elevated plain at sbe Olympiodorus, who lived in the sixth century after Christ, foot of Sierra Morena. The river Guadalquivir embraces to be the author. Saumaise (Salmasius) also is decidedly it on the east and south. The confined situation of Andujar of opinion that it is not the work of the Rhodian peripatetic. renders it very sultry in summer, and subjects the inhabitOthers have even attributed it to an Andronicus Callistus, ants to bilious and putrid intlammatory fevers. The soil is a native of Thessalonica, who lived in the fifteenth century, very fertile, and produces wheat, barley, oil, wine, honey, and came to Italy after the taking of Constantinople. He and silkworms. The wines of Andujar are of a sharp gave lessons in Greek in different cities of Italy, Angelo taste, from their containing a large portion of tartar, Pitian being one of his scholars; after which he came to but are rendered palatable by a particular process called Paris, and was the first who taught the language in the uni- by the Spaniards arropar, or sweetening. At Andujar feruity there. He died in 1478. There is as much diversity the coolers, called alcarrazas, are manufactured of clay. of cosecture about the authorship of the short tract Ilepi The inhabitants are principally employed in agriculture, but Ilutur; it is generally believed at any rate not to be by the there are also at Andujar some tanneries, and manufactories author of the Paraphrase. It is stated in the Biographie of soap and earthenware. There is a very ancient bridge l nitapalle, that a manuscript in the Imperial Library of of fifteen arches over the Guadalquivir, which is in a very France (now the Bibliothèque du Roi) cited by M. Sainte bad state of repair. In January, 1823, the river overflowed, Crux, in bis Eramen des Historiens d' Alexandre, p. 524, and damaged one of the piers; in consequence of which, altrules the Paraphrase to a Heliodorus of Prusse, that two of the arches fell downt. The general post and coachis, Bru-a in Bithynia, we suppose.

offices for all Andalusia are at this town. An Eng'ish translation of the Paraphrase on the Nico- The population of Andujar amounts to 13,662 souls with97.theo appeared in a quarto volume at London, in 1807, in the city, but a greater number of persons live in the

а *t's the liowing title : The Paraphrase of an anony, numerous cortijos, farms, of the neighbourhood. Andujar D'U8 Groep Writer, hitherto published under the name contains five parish churches, six convents of monks, four

introvus Rhuius, on the Nicomachean Ethics of nuns, one hospital, one school, and two alms-houses, one of Arra!,!lp, translated from the Greek by William Bridg- for twelve old men and another for the same number of Lan, FLS,

aged females. (See Miñano; Ponz, carta V., n. 6—2€, AO!ROS, (S«. BAHAMAS.)

tom. xvi.) A'S DRO», an band of the Grecian Archipelago, lying ANDUZE, a town in France in the department of Gard.

end of F. sbera, from which it is distant six The town itself is ill built, but it is in a pleasant country, on

1:a is a NW. and S.E. direction, is twenty-one the right or S.W. bank of one of the streams called Gardon, o ne bo 2:1 6.qut brusasi, with a population of about and which is distinguished as the Gardon d'Anduze.' The

1.16.22,4 14 sery bigh and mountainous, and the inhabitants, who amount to more than 6000, are mostly pro*.to retain the snow during many months in testants, and are engaged in the manufacture of hats, so year. Ils town called Andros, or Castro, is on the cloth, serge, silk stockings, pottery, and glue, which find **m east, besides which there are sixty-six villages a sale at the great fair of Beaucaire, in the same departil:red over the island. The soil is very fertile; and ment. (See BEAUCAIRE.) It is about 22 miles N.W. 1.6 numerous gardens, which are well laid out, produce ex-of Nismes, the departmental capital. etilent lemons, oranges, and pomegranates. Much wine is ANEGADA, or the DROWNED ISLAND, one of Hale, but all consumed by the inhabitants, who are great the lesser Antilles, and the most northern of the group crnkers., to the amount of about 3000 pounds on an known as the Virgin Islands. The surface of Anegada is aserike, is exported annually. It is the practice to sow the production of lithophyta, based on a submarine fourdawlieat and barley together, of which they make their bread, tion. The island is for the most part a dead level. On the but there is not sufficient grown for the consumption of the south-east, there is a gradual rising of the ground frurn inland; the deficiency is easily made up from the neigh-north to south to the elevation of sixty feet, and this is the bouring inland of Eubarı. On the west whore, there is a highest point of the island. The south side is a continueri part called Gabriel, partially sheltered by simall island from mass of shelves, loosely covered with vegetable mould, mixed the S.W., but on this side of Andros there are no inhabi with sand. This mouid is the result of sea-weed, which has tants, the coast leing so very steep and rowky. The N.W.I lost its saline properties through exposure to the sun; it is print, called Puint Guardia, is in 37° 57' N. lat., 21° 42' | light, and of a dark brown colour, and in many places corers E. long

the ground only to the depth of a few inches. Where the ANDRO COGGIN, or AMARISCOCCIN, a river of shelves are intersected by openings which occur continually moh Ameru a, u tich ris in aliit 15 !!N lat., 71°13' and of various widths, larger quantities of sea-weed hare 'ing.. on the cant rule of the highlands of low llamp-byen detained, and a considerable amount of regetable and Maine. The Chaudiere, wirb enters the St. mould has been accumulated, in which plants grow of a

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