are meeting-houses for Baptists, Quakers, Independents, , derived from the cultivation of the vine. The eastern and Methodists; a free grammar school, with a school- Christians, who are in number about 1000, have seven house built and kept in repair by the corporation; and an churches in the town ; which gives an average of scarcely almshouse for six poor men, erected and endowed by John more than 157 persons to each church. This singular cirPollen, Esq., one of the mernbers for the borough in the cumstance originated in the immigration of the Servians time of William III. Another almshouse, for six poor under Leopold I., each sect of whom founded their own women, was built with funds bequeathed by Catherine place of worship. Hanson, but not endowed. There is also a school-house ANDRE' (JOHN), appears to have been a native of erected and endowed by John Pollen, Esq., for educating Lichfield, and to have been born there in 1751. In 1769 twenty poor children. This establishment is now incor- he met at Buxton a Miss Honoria S, and the conporated with the National School, wupported by additional sequence was an immediate attachment, which became one subscriptions, in which 250 children are educated.

of remarkable devotedness on his part, and which would The town-hall is a handsome stone building with a Gre- seem to have been also returned by the lady. Her friends, cian front, supported by arches; the under part is used as a however, interfered, and she was induced not only to disconmarket-house. It was erected within these few years. The tinue her correspondence with André, but some years after corporation is said to be as ancient as the time of John; to give her hand to another. Meanwbile André had bebut the present charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth. come a clerk in a commercial house in London. But on

Andorer first returned members to Parliament in the receiving intelligence of Miss S.'s marriage be determined time of Edward I.; but the right was lost, or disused, from to quit both his profession and his country, and having prothe first year of Edward II., to the twenty-seventh year of cured a commission in the army, he proceeded with his regiQueen Elizabeth, when they were again sent, and have ment to North America, then the seat of war between Great since been regalarly roturned: Before the passing of the Britain and her colonies. In this new field of enterprise his Roformn: Bif, 'ahe night of deation was in the corporation, talents and accomplishments soon raised him to distinction : which was. considered to be under the influence of the Earl and he attained the rank of major, with the appointment of of Portsmouth.: By:tlo. Boundary Act connected with the adjutant-general to the North American army. In the Reform 'Bat the ething of Foxcote was added to the summer of 1780 Major André was with the troops which Borough, which bäd previously included the parishes of occupied the town of New York under the command of GeAndovē :Knight's: Enham. The population of the neral Sir Henry Clinton, when the infamous Arnold, who whole wis, i81612: 1966.:.:

had been entrusted by Washington with the important posiThe chief business of the town consists in malting, and tion of West Point on the Hudson, about 60 miles above in the manufacture of silk, which has lately superseded that New York, sent over to the British commander his proof shalloon, the former staple. A considerable quantity of posals for delivering that fortress into his hands-a scheme timber is forwarded from Harewood forest to Portsmouth, which, if it had succeeded, might not improbably have put by means of the canal from this town, through Stockbridge, an end to the war. On Arnold's overtures being accepted, to Southampton water. The market is on Saturday; and André was appointed to conduct the negotiation with him. there are three fairs in the year.

After some correspondence under feigned names, André and About three miles west of the town, at the village of Arnold met on the banks of the Hudson on Friday the 22d Weyhill, is held one of the largest fairs in England. This of September, when everything was arranged for the execufair begins on the 10th of October, and continues for six tion of the plot on the following Monday, and the necessary days. It is thus described in . Magna Britannia Hiber information in writing was put into André's hands to be nia,' a survey of Great Britain, published in 1720. This delivered to General Clinton. Unfortunately for André, the fair is reckoned to be as great an one as any in England, boatmen who had brought him on shore from the English for many commodities, and for sheep, indisputably the sloop of war in which he had come up the river, having had biggest, the farmers coming out of the south, north, and east their suspicions or fears awakened, refused, although he to buy the Dorsetshire ewes here. It is also a great hop and bore a tlag of truce from General Arnold, to convey him cheese fair, the former being brought out of Sussex and back, and he was obliged to determine upon attempting to Kent, and the latter out of Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and make his way to New York by land. Arnold, to whom he Somersetshire. The above account of the chief articles of returned, insisted, in these circumstances, that he should extrade, will apply with little alteration to the present day. The change his military uniform for a plain coat; and to this sale of sheep, though the favourite breed may be different, André reluctantly consented. A person of the name of is still great: more than 140.000 have been sold on the first Smith was then sent away with him as his guide, and they day. The Farnham hops, the choicest of any grown in set out together ; but when they reached the next post, they England, are chietly sold here, and a place appropriated to found themselves obliged, in order to prevent suspicion, to their sale, bears the name of Farnham Row. Many horses, follow the advice of the commanding officer, and to remain particularly cart colts, are also sold.

there for the night. Next morning they proceeded on their During this fair, assemblies are held in the town-hall journey, and Smith having conducted his charge till they at Andover.

had come within view of the English lines, lett him a little Near Andover, there are the remains of some Roman below Pine's Bridge, a village on the Croton. André rosie encampments, especially one on the summit of Bury Hill, on alone for about four leagues farther, when as he was ena mile or two south-west of the town; and some beautiful tering the village of Jarrytown, his horse was suddenly taken specimens of Roman pavement have been found in the hold of by three men, who turned out to belong to the New neighbourhood. (Warner's Hampshire ; Beauties of England York militia. With unaccountable imprudence, André and Wales.)

assumed that they were of the English party, and instead of ANDOVER, a town in the state of Massachusetts, producing his passport desired them not to detain him, as he United States, about twenty miles direct distance N. by W. was a British officer. When he found his mistake, he endeaof Boston, and about two miles from the southern bank voured to induce them to let him go by the offer of his watch of the Merrimack river. It is also watered by the Shaw- and the most tempting promises; but the men were not to be sheen. Andover is divided into three parishes, and has bribed, and having found the important papers of which he some inconsiderable manufactures. The north parish con- was the bearer concealed in his boots, they immediately contains the Franklin Academy, and the south parish the ducted him to the nearest station. His first anxiety now was Theological Seminary, and Phillips's Academy. The Theo- for the safety of Arnold; and he contrived to prevail upon logical Seminary opened in 1808; it has four professors and the officer in command, who must have been a person of (in 1831) 139 students, with a library of 10,000 volumes. very little perspicacity, to forward a notice of his capture to The whole number that has been educated here was (in that general, by which the traitor obtained the opportunity 1931) 514. This establishment has acquired some celebrity of escaping with his life. Having secured this point André f on the impulse it has given to the study of Hebrew in the now stated who he was, on which he was conducted to the Unite States. The population of Andover in 1820, was presence of General Washington at Tappan or Orange Town. 3889. (Encyclop. American.; Journal of Educalion, Nos. On the 25th, his case was submitted by the American general X., Xi.)

to the consideration of a board of fourteen general officers, ANDRE' (ST.), or ST. ENDRE', the capital of a lord - among whom were Rochambeau and Lafayette, who had reship in Hungary, in the circle called the Hither Danube, cently arrived with the troops from France. Before this tribuand in the departn.ent of Pesth; the number of its inha-nal, André urged that he had come on shore under the sanction bitants scarcely exceeds 3000. Their chief support is of a passport, or tlag of truce, transmitted to him by Amold,

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who was, at the time of granting it, a major-general in the afterwards attained. His powers were first developed in American army, and of course had sufficient authority so to some works executed in conjunction with a friend and act. But the circumstance of his having been found dis- fellow-student, called Francesco Bigio, for the churches and guised and bearing a false name was considered as taking convents of Florence; but the great picture of St. John from him the benefit of this plea, although he proved that preaching, entirely by his own hand, established his claim in both these points he had acted in obedience to the com- to independent reputation, and it was considered that the mands of Arnold, under whose orders he was while he bore work which immediately followed, the life of Filippo Benizi, his tlag of truce. The decision of the court-martial, though in ten compartments, for the church of the Servi, entitled the members do not appear to have been unanimous, as has him to rank with any competitor in his native city. Stimusometimes been asserted, was that the prisoner ought to be lated by this success, Andrea felt anxious to try his strength considered as a spy; and he was accordingly sentenced to with his great contemporaries at Rome, and accordingly be executed. Both entreaties and remonstrances were em- made a visit to that city. Vasari relates, that, on seeing the ployed in vain by General Clinton to avert his fate; but as paintings of Raffaelle, he felt so humiliated, that he reretaliation was not taken by the execution of any American turned immediately to Florence, without staying to invesprisoner, it may be inferred that it was felt even by the tigate the great works which had impressed him with so English that his sentence was according to the rules of painful a sense of inferiority. Other authorities affirm that martial-law. He himself exhibited the most perfect re- he remained in the imperial city a considerable time, dividsignation to his fate, and does not after his condemnation ing his attention between the study of Michel Angelo, appear to have disputed the justice of the decision under Raffaelle, and the Antique ; this account is by far the more which he was to suffer. He only begged that his death probable, especially as the first works which he executed might be that of a soldier. He was kept in ignorance of after his return to Florence manifest an obvious improvethe determination of the court-martial upon this point; but ment in style. Among these, the most conspicuous were when upon being brought to the fatal spot, on the morn- the Descent of the Holy Ghost, the Birth of the Virgin, and ing of the 2d of October, he perceived that he was to perish the Last Supper, painted for the monastery of the Salvi. on a gibbet, he exclaimed, 'It is but a momentary pang, | Of the last picture Lanzi relates, that during the siege of and gave no further expression to his feelings. He died | Florence, in 1529, the soldiers having got possession of the with the respect even of those who had found themselves suburbs, and having demolished the church and part of the obliged to execute bim. 'André,' said Washington, in a monastery, on entering the refectory were struck with such letter to a friend, has met his fate, and with that fortitude reverence at the sight of the painting, that they remained which was expected from an accomplished man and a gal-awbile motionless, and then returned, without committing lant officer.' A monument was erected to his memory, at any further injury. the public expense, in Westminster Abbey,

The increasing reputation of Andrea del Sarto procured Whatever the books which are considered the standard him an invitation from Francis I. to visit the court of France, authorities upon international law may say in reference to and that monarch expressed a wish to retain him altogether such a case as that of André, there is no good apology in his service. The political troubles of his own country, for his conduct. To say that he acted under the orders which rendered the pursuit of art a precarious and unprofitof an officer whom he knew to be playing the part of a able employment, induced Andrea to embrace with eagertraitor, can not be considered as any exculpation. There ness the proposal of the French monarch, and he set out for would be no security for an army or a government if it were his court, where he was received with the most flattering not to be at liberty, when it had them in its power, to punish demonstrations of kindness and respect. His first perpersons detected in devising such plots as this of Arnold | formance was a portrait of the Dauphin, for which he was and André, under whatever subterfuge they might attempt paid the sum of 300 gold crowns, he painted also for the to shelter themselves. The having recourse to the use of a king the superb picture of the Charity, which is now in tlag of truce, in such circumstances, must be regarded as a the French museum. A multitude of commissions poured mere trick. General Clinton and Arnold were the great in upon him from the principal nobility, and every circumculprits, of whom the latter only has received his due share stance seemed to conspire for his honour and advantage. of opprobrium.

He was engaged on a picture of St. Jerome for the queenTo his last moment André had cherished the hopeless mother, when in an evil hour he was induced by earnest passion which had driven him from his country and his solicitations, sent by his wife and friends from Florence, to early pursuits. In a letter written after his capture, which return to that city. He obtained permission from Francis I. has been printed, he states that when he was stript of every- to depart, on the assurance that the sole purpose of his thing, he had concealed the picture of Honoria s—in his journey was to transport his family to France; and the mouth. This lady, although it does not appear that he had king, being desirous to avail himself of Andrea's taste and been informed of the event, had died of consumption only judgment in the acquisition of works of art, intrusted him a few months before.

with large sums for the purchase of pictures and statues. This unfortunate officer was a person of cultivated mind Andrea was perhaps, originally, neither profligate nor un. and elegant accomplishments. He excelled in painting and principled; but his character was impaired by that want of music, and was also no despicable writer of verse. His moral firmness, which, beginning in weakness, too often humorous poem, entitled the Cow-chase, which appeared in ends in vice. His wife was improvident, and he was surthree successive portions at New York, in 1780, the last rounded by dissipated acquaintances; and he expended in being published on the very day on which its author was a round of expensive pleasures, not only the money with taken prisoner, is a production of decided talent. It is in which Francis I. had liberally rewarded his services, but the style of Cowper's John Gilpin, which celebrated poem that also which the monarch had consigned to him for the was not written till some years later. For further parti-purpose of selecting objects for bis museum. Of course, he culars respecting the subject of this notice, see Miss never returned to France. Indigence came upon him, and Sewarà 's Monody on the Death of Major André, 4to., Lon- the remorse with which he was continually tormented from don, 1781, from the notes and letters attached to which we the consciousness of ingratitude towards his royal benefactor, have taken most of the facts of his private history ; a pub- was aggravated, not only by the desertion of his gay friends, lication by Joshua Hett Smith, Esq., (the person who acted but by that of his wife also, who fled from him, leaving him as his guide on his return to New York,) entitled An a prey to despondency and distress. His afflictions were Authentic Narrative of the Causes which led to the Death of terminated by the plague which visited Florence in 1530, Major André, 8vo., London, 1808; and an elaborate article and carried him off in his forty-second year. in the Encyclopædia Americana, under the head of * Arnold, The genuine productions of Andrea del Sarto are not Benedict.

frequently seen out of Florence, but they abound in the ANDREA VANNUCHI, called DEL SARTO from churches, convents, and palaces of that city. His style is the occupation of his father, a tailor at Florence, was born so various that it is difficult to say what was the natural bent in that city, in the year 1488. He was initiated in the of his mind. He was not incapable, when the subject deprinciples of design by Giovanni Barile, and he studied sub- manded it, of impressing his works with an air or stern sequently in the school of Pietro Cosimo. He learned little grandeur, whether in relation to the style of design, or to more from these masters than thc, mechanical practice of his the effect of chiar' oscuro; but his more general characterart, but in the frescoes of Masaccio and Ghirlandaijo, and istics are those of harmony and suavity; his colouring is in the cartoons of Michel Angelo and Leonardo da Vinci sometimes most delicately tender. He was so expert in he found the principal elements of whatever excellence he mechanical practice, that a copy made by him of a portrait


of Leo X., by Raffaelle, deceived even Giulio Romano, I quitted his post when the war broke out again between although he had inspected the progress of the original, Austria and France in 1809, he was present in the campaign and had even assisted in the execution of it. One of of that year, and was appointed governor of Vienna after the most pleasing of Andrea del Sarto's pictures, although the taking of that city. He was next sent as ambassador to by no means an example of his general style, is that of the Ottoman Porte, in which important_situation he won the Holy Family, now in the Louvre at Paris, in which the general esteem of both Franks and Turks. After the St. Joseph reposes on a sack of corn. The panegyrists abdication of Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII. recalled Anof Andrea have asserted that if he had studied longer dreossi from Constantinople, and sent him at the same time in Rome, he would probably have rivalled the great the cross of St. Louis. Andreossi was living in retirement works of Raffaelle and Michel Angelo; but without con- when Napoleon landed from Elba, but he then appeared ceding such extravagant praise, it is quite enough for his again on the political stage to assist his old master in his reputation that he established it while those great artists last struggle. He was created a peer during the hundred were still practising, and that his name has kept its place days. After the battle of Waterloo he withdrew again to amidst all the revolutions of taste, during a lapse of three private life, and busied himself in revising and publishing hundred years.

several interesting memoirs which he had written during his ANDREASBERG, (Mount of St. Andrew,) the second residence in Turkey. His work on Constantinople et le in importance of the mountain-towns of the Upper Harz, Bosphore de Thrace is deservedly esteemed. His memoir is situated in the province of Grubenhagen, in the king on the Springs and Conduits by which Constantinople is dom of Hanover, and crowns an eminence which stands at supplied with Water, contains much curious information on an elevation of 1936 feet above the level of the sea. The the art of hydraulics as practised by the Turks. Andreossi neighbourhood is rich in mincs, yielding silver, copper, iron, had written also in 1810 a History of the Canal of Lancobalt, and arsenic; and these, as well as the spinning of guedoc, in which he claimed for one of his ancestors, yarn, lace-making, and the rearing of cattle, afford profitable | François Andreossi, the principal merit in the planning of employment to its inhabitants, who are above 4000 in num- that great work, which had till then been ascribed to the enber. It has a public school for the middling classes. In gineer Riquet. This book was the occasion of much contro1728 a piece of silver ore, weighing eighty pounds, was versy with Riquet's descendants, in which the astronomer, found in one of the mines near the town, and presented to De la Lande, sided with the latter. Count Andreossi died the Cabinet of Natural History in Göttingen, from which it in September, 1828, at Montauban. was, however, stolen in 1783. Andreasberg lies about fif- ANDREW, kings of Hungary. (See HUNGARY.] teen miles north of Goslar. The mountain of this name is ANDREW, SAINT, one of the apostles, the brother of the highest point in the Harz at which slate is found. St. Peter. His father's name was Janus. From the first

ANDREEWA, (also called Endery or Endri,) is a chapter of St. John s Gospes, he appears to have been one principality of the Kumükian Tartars, lying along the of the followers of John the Baptist, whom he left at the Kasma, between the river Aksai and the Caspian; about call of Jesus, being the first disciple whom the Saviour is 25 miles west of the last-mentioned sea. It forms at recorded to have received. Andrew introduced Peter to present one of the districts composing the government Jesus. According to St. Matthew and St. Mark, Jesus of Caucasia in Russia in Asia, and embraces the penin- found Peter and Andrew together, foliowing their occupasula and gulf of Agraschanskoi. Its surface presents tion of fishermen, as he was walking by the sea of Galilee, an intermixture of fertile plains and arid wastes of and called them, when they immediately left their nets and sand; produces grain, and abounds in mineral waters followed him; but this is supposed to have happened and springs of naphtha. Andreewa is likewise the name some time after the first interview recorded by St. John. given to its capital, and is the mart to which the Les- That evangelist mentions Andrew as the disciple who in. ghian tribes resort for the purpose of disposing of the pro- timated the presence of the lad with the few loaves and duce of their depredations. It is an open town situated fishes, when the miracle of feeding tho five thousand on the Aktash, at the foot of Mount Tshumlu, and contains was performed. Such is nearly all that is stated respectupwards of 3000 houses, with a population, which is stated ing this apostle in Scripture. by some writers at 12,000, and by others at 15,000 souls. The ecclesiastical historians, however, have professed to Andreewa was, not long since, an avowed asylum for all the give us accounts in considerable detail of the latter part of vagabonds and freebooters in the Caucasian regions, and his life. According to Theodoret, he employed himself for is to this day a thriving market for the sale of slaves. some years in journeying and preaching the faith throughIn this last respect it runs a miserable race of competition out Greece; but Eusebius, and other writers, speak of with the town of Aksni, on the river of that name and in the Scythia as the province of his missionary labours. The samo principality. It is the seat of some Mohammedan common statement, however, is, that he suffered martyrdom schools, to which the Circassian Mollahs are sent for educa- at Patræ, now Patras, in Achaia, having been put to death tion. Though little deserving the name of education, yet by order of Egæus, the pro-consul of that province. The the smattering of reading and writing which they here ac- year in which this event took place is not mentioned; but quire, is sufficient to furnish them, upon their return amongst both in the Greek and in the Latin church the festival their fellow-countrymen, with the means of keeping the commemorative of it is held on the 30th of November. The tenets and prejudices of Mohammedanism alive in their notion that St. Andrew suffered on a cross of the form of bosoms, and thus maintaining a wall of separation between the letter X, appears to be of considerable antiquity; but the native and his heretic fellow-subject of the Greek faith. the oldest writers say that he was nailed to an olive

ANDREOSSI, Count, was born at Castelnaudary in the tree. They used to keep, in the church of St. Victor, at province of Languedoc, in March, 1761. His family was of Marseilles, what was affirmed to be the very cross on which Italian descent. At the age of twenty he was made lieu- he had been suspended; it was enclosed in a silver shrine, tenant of artillery. In the beginning of the French revolu- and was of the common form, that is, with one limb per tion he shared in the general enthusiasm for the new order pendicular, and the other horizontal. of things, and he afterwards served under Bonaparte in the The Scottish historian, Fordun, delivers a legend respect. carly Italian campaigns, where he distinguished himself ating the relics of St. Andrew, which several of his countrythe siege of Mantua, in 1796. He next followed Bonaparte men have copied. In the middle of the fourth century, it to Egypt, where he took a conspicuous part both in the inili- seems, the bones of the saint, which still remained at tary and the scientific labours of that celebrated expedition. Patræ, were in the custody of Regulus, an abbot, or, as He was appointed a member of the Institute of Cairo, and other accounts style him, a bishop, of the Greek church. wrote several memoirs, On the Lake Menzaleh, On the Val- In the year 345, the Emperor Constantius II. gave orders ley of the Natron Lake, On the Waterless River, &c. When that these precious remains should be brought to ConstantiBonaparte returned secretly to France, Andreossi was one of nople ; bui on the third night before they were removed, the few officers who accompanied him, and he ever after an angel appeared in a vision to Regulus, and ordered him provod devoted to the fortunes of his great commander. to abstract from the chest in which they were kept the Andreossi served in the so-called Gallo-Batavian army under upper bone of one of the arms, three of the fingers of the Augereae on the banks of the Mayne. After the peace of right hand, and the pan of one of the knees. Some acAmiens he was sent as ambassador to England.' When counts add a tooth to the list of items. Regulus having Napoleon assumed the imperial crown, Andreossi was made done as he was commanded, was, some years after, directed inspector-general of artillery, and a count of the new empire. by another vision to take his departure, with the relics, He went afterwards as ambassador to Vienna, and having from Patrw; and, having accordingly set out, he was, after A great

a long voyage, shipwrecked with his companions in the bay | Sharp, erected by his son, exhibiting, in rude sculpture, of St. Andrews, in Fifeshire, then forming part of the terri- the murder of the unfortunate prélate, and setting forth tory of the Picts. Hungus, the Pictish king, received the his praises in a long inscription. There is a spire to the strangers with great hospitality; and by their instrumen-church. The chapel of St. Salvator's college is a handtality, he and his subjects were soon after converted, when some edifice with a Gothic front, situated in North Street. a Christian church was erected at the place where the mis- Within is the handsome monument of Bishop Kennedy, sionaries had been driven on shore, and was dedicated to founder of the college. It is the place of worship for the the apostle, the fragments of whose skeleton they had parish of St. Leonard, which comprises a few districts in brought with them. Such is said to have been the origin of the town and neighbourhood; and the ministry of which the city of St. Andrews, and of the assumption of St. An- was for a long period held by the principal of the United drew by the Scotch as their patron saint.

College, but this is not the case now. There are three disSeveral of the fathers, but none earlier than the seventh senting places of Worship, one Episcopal, the others belongcentury, cite a book called the Acts of St. Andrew, pro- ing to the Burghers and Independents. The town house, fessing to be written by that apostle, but which they con- or tolbooth, is in the centre of Market Street; and contains demn as a forgery of the Manicheans, or other heretics. one or two antiquities of local interest, but little else There is still extant a narrative bearing this title, but pro- worthy of notice. St. Andrews was made a Royal Burgh fessing to be written by the priests of the Church Achaia, in 1140: the magistracy consists of a provost, a dean of guild and entirely different from the former. It may be found in and four baillies. The town, conjointly with Cupar, Anthe sixth volume of Surius's Vitæ Sanotorum, and in other struther Easter, Anstruther Wester, Crail, Kilrenny, and collections indicated by J. A. Fabricius in his Codex Apo-Pittenween, sends one member to parliament. The trade cryphus Novi Testamenti. Mention is also made in a de- of St. Andrews is small. In 1792, a factory for sewing cree of Pope Gelasius II., who flourished in the beginning and tambouring muslin was established, which gave of the twelfth century, of a Gospel of St. Andrew. His employment to above 100 girls as apprentices; but as this holiness condemns it as spurious; but it does not now exist. branch of industry is unnoticed in later authorities, it is ANDREW, (ST.) [See Isle of Bourbon.]

probably extinct. The manufacture of sail-cloth was ANDREWS, (ST.) an ancient city of Scotland, on the established about a year after, and promised to become concoast of Fifeshire, and on the small bay of St. Andrews. siderable ; but this has also been given up. The direction of the side of the bay on which the city stands number of golf balls are made. About 4000 annually is W.N.W. and E.S.E., and St. Andrews is open to the are used in the town and neighbourhood, and about 9000 N.E. winds, which prevail greatly in April and May, are sent to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and other places. Some and bring with them cold, unpleasant vapours, which load ten or eleven vessel belong to the port, and are chiefly the air and check vegetation. The climate is, however, employed in the coasting trade ; and eight or ten boats are in general healthy, except for persons who are liable to engaged in fishing. The population of the parish of rheumatism, or have weak lungs. Since the establishment St. Andrews, which extends about nine miles in length, of hot baths, the city has been much frequented as a favourite was in 1831, 5621. There are five fairs in the year. watering quarter.

The university of St. Andrews consists at present of two The town stands on a lofty cliff or rock, and on a sort of colleges ; viz. the United College of St. Salvator and St. peninsula, formed by the bay and the burn of Kinness, Leonard (formerly distinct), in which the several branches or the ‘Nether Burn,' a smallstream which, skirting the town of general literature and science are taught; and the New on the southern and eastern sides, forms, at its mouth, a College, or St. Mary's, which is appropriated to the study harbour, guarded by piers, and capable of receiving vessels of divinity, or of kindred subjects, and is attended solely by of 300 tons at spring-tides. On the N.W.of the town, 'the theological students. There is no medical or legal school Links,' uneven downs formed by the sea, stretch away connected with either college. for nearly two miles to the mouth of the river Eden, and This university, the most ancient in Scotland, was are used for the game of golf, which is much practised. founded in the year 1411, by Henry Wardlaw, then Bishop There are similar downs S.E. of the town. The extremity of St. Andrews, who granted a charter with the immunities of the peninsula on which the town stands is occupied by and powers usually granted to universities, to an association the ruins of the cathedral and by some other interesting of certain men of learning, who had about a year before remains of antiquity. From this part, the three main commenced a course of public lectures on divinity, the civil streets, North Street, Market Street, and South Street or and canon laws, logic, and philosophy; and had attracted Shoegate, diverge; the principal and most southern of them, a considerable concourse of students. The charter of South Street, runs nearly east and west. These threc Bishop Wardlaw was confirmed by the pope; and in 1431, streets are intersected at right angles by the Lanes or further immunities were granted by King James I. of Wynds. There was once a fourth street, called Swallow Scotland, and ratified by succeeding sovereigns. The seat Street, running to the north of the others and inhabited of the university at this period was the spot where St. chiefly by the merchants, but this has disappeared, and the Mary's College now stands, and was called the Pædagogy:* site of it is occupied by a public walk called the · Scores.' St. Salvator's College was founded in 1455, or 1458,7 by

Before the Reformation, St. Andrews was an opulent James Kennedy, nephew of James I., and successor of and commercial city. To its annual fair, which commenced Wardlaw in the see of St. Andrews, and endowed with in the month of April, and lasted several weeks, from sufficient revenues for the maintenance of a principal, six 200 to 300 vessels from all parts of the commercial world fellows, and six poor scholars. The buildings of this college resorted. When the town was in its most flourishing in North Street, form a quadrangle of 230 feet long by 180 state, in the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth broad, into which quadrangle you enter from the south by a centuries, there were in it sixty or seventy bakers, and as gateway, over which is a steeple 156 feet high, and a clock many brewers.

After the Reformation, it gradually to the right of the gateway is the chapel already mentioned. decayed, and moreover suffered in the great civil war : so The buildings of this college having gone very much to that Dr. Johnson, who visited it in 1773, thus spoke of it, decay, a grant has been made by government, and a rew One of its streets is now lost; and in those that remain, structure has been erected on the east side of the quadrangle. there is the silence and solitude of inactive indigence and St. Salvator's College is the seat of the United College. gloomy depopulation.'

St. Leonard's College was founded in 1512, by Prior By the exertions of individuals, however, a considerable Hepburn, and endowed by him from the revenues of an revival has been effected, and many additional improve- hospital for pilgrims, from the funds of the parish of St. ments are in progress. The principal street is well built, Leonards, and from property of his own. The beforestraight and broad; and in this, as in the other two, the mentioned hospital was made the seat of the college. houses, which are of stone, are commonly three stories In 1747, it was found expedient to unite the two colleges, high; while the lightness of the numerous modern edifices The joint establishment was accordingly transferred to diminishes the sombre appearance resulting from the general antiquity of the buildings.

* A school had been taught on this spot even before the foundation of the The parish Church of St. Andrews is in South Street, university, but was superseded by that institution.

+ Bishop Kennedy seems to have set apart the revenues destined for the ard is a spacious structure, first erected in 1112, and college, and to have granted the first charter in 1453: the second charter is repaired, or rather rebuilt in 1797. It is 162 feet long, and dated in 1458. This last is very long, and contains all the statutes of the 63 broad, and will accommodate 2500 persons : on the colleges

* Authorities vary here :-in Sinclair's Statistical Account it is stated, that wall inside, is a monument to the memory of Archbishop the parish was probably formed about the time of the erection of the college. St. Salrators, and the buildings of St. Leonard's were seventeen monks and three nuns, carrying with him some $0!!, and converted into dwelling houses.

of the relics of St. Andrew; and was wrecked in the bay now St. Mary's College was formed out of the original called St. Andrews, (the shores of which were then covered seminary or pædagogy of Bishop Wardlaw, by James with wood, and infested with huge wild boars,) and lost all Beaton. Archbishop of St. Andrewn (for the see had been except his companions and the precious relics. He succeeded made archiepiscopal in the time of Bishop Kennedy's suc- in converting the King of the Picts, who then governed this CEK50r); and his designs were further carried on by Cardinal part of the country, (near the end of the fourth century ;) Beason, the archbishop's nephew and successor in the sce, and the grateful prince erected for the saint the chapel of and by Arelibishop Hamilwn, who succeeded the cardinal. which the ruins sull remain. They consist of the walls of The enlargement of the pædagogy by Archbishop Beaton the chapel, inclosing an area of thirty-one and a half feet by appear to have been begun in 1333. In 1979, the college twenty-five. The greatest dimension is from east to west. At was remolelled under the direction of the celebrated George the west-end is the tower, a square building with a base of Burunan. The buildings occupy two sides of a quad- twenty feet each way, (measured outside of the walls,) and Pille, on the mouth side of South Street; and have lately 108 feet high. There is no trace of the Gothic architecture bien ubistantially and tastefully repaired.

in these ruins, which are doubtless very antient. Adjoining The curriculum, or course of study in the arts, extends the west side of the tower was another chapel of which no over four spons. These studies are pursued at the part remains. United College, and the session lasts from the end of Oc- The cathedral of St. Andrews was nearly 160 years in tuber to the beginning of May. St. Mary's College has building, (A.D. 1159, or 1161 to 1318,) and was demolished three professorn, ., of divinity, church history, and in one day, in June 1559, by a mob excited by a sermon on tal langties, besides a principal, who also reads lee- of the celebrated John Knox. The eastern gable with its fures on divity; and the complete course of a student two towers is, however, still standing; and there remains illudes four years, but the session is only of four months. also one of the towers of the western gable, part of the south The study of matematic's has always formed a principal wall from the western gable to the south transept, and the brauch of instruction at St. Andrews.

west wall of the south transept. The towers are each 100 In each of the colleges are lolyng-rooms for the students, feet high from the ground to the summit; they rose consiwhuria have been Dow for some time unoccupied ; and there derably above the roof of the church. The architecture are bunaries or endowments, entitling the holders to a cer- varies, Saxon and Gothic (or late Norman and early tain ineome for su many years. Filly-five belong to the English) being intermixed. The western end was of later l'rilled College, and seventeen to Si. Mary's, (Journ. of erection, and in a much richer and more ornamented style Fluc, vl. IV., p. 36.) The riudents of St. Mary's pay no than the other; and exceeded it in width by ten or twelve fees. The emoluments of the professors arise from their feet. The length of the cathedral, as nearly as can be salaries, or, at the United College, from these with their fees measured from the unevenness of the ground, was 350 in adition. The number of students at the university was, feet, (Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland,) or 370 feet, in 1-20-27, 320. (Journ. of Educ.) Those who belong to (Grierson, and Beauties of Scotland,) and the breadth of the the United Coilege are required to attend divine service transept from north to south was 160 feet, (Sinclair's Statistwue in the Sunday at the college chapel; except in the tical Account of Scotland,) or 180 feet, (Grierson.) The Case of Dinsliters, who are allowed to attend their own stone is by no means of so durable a nature as that with plures of wish.p.

which St. Regulus's chapel is built; and the dilapidation The revenues of the United College are somewhat more has been further increased by the use of the materials for than 3000l. pm*r annun, including the sumns received on later erections. The ruined church of St. Leonard's adjoins account of the buruaries; the disbursements in 1823 (the the college of that name. 1.30px !!!ment given in the report of the commissioners An extensive wall about 870 yards in length, twenty-two 2:1pinted by royal authority, some years ago, to visit the feet high, and four feet thick, withı sixteen round or square Sisteh universities) rather exceeded the income, and turrets at different distances, was erected by Prior Hepburn thuse is muilles a consi lerablo debt. The revenue of St. (the founder of St. Leonard's College) in the beginning of Mary's, on the average for seven years before 1826, was the sixteenth century, to enclose for nearly the whole of rutier greater thun the expenditure, and amounted to their circuit the grounds of the great priory of St. Andrews, ahe LiV'0. The university has Lttle property distinct which had been erected about A.D. 1120. The enclosure is frun that possessed by the colleges individually, except about eighteen acres, and contains the ruins of the cathothe lilirar, which is entitled to a copy of every work dral and St. Rule's chapel, besides the relies of some other encored at St.stanet's llall, and contained upwards of buildings belonging to the priory. This wall having been 41,400 sumes in 1330. The officer of highesi dignity is constructed of durable stone iš tolerably entire, and has the chancelier, but his office is merely honorary : the rector three gates still standing; oue, a stately gothic arch, fronts 1.1.0 af ingred by the principals, the professors, and by the end of South Street. ti tuduin of the orgy, and of moral and natural philo- There are some relies of two monasteries, one of the De buip') is the arung heul. He is app inted annually, and minicans, founded by Bishop Wishart in 1274, and the ne of the principals, or of the professors of divinity or other of the Observantines (a species of Franciscans), bib history, must be clerted. He is preses of the founded by Bishop Kennedy at least 150 years later. Part * * tus transmites, by which budy, consisting of the of one of these edilices, though it is not decided to which of prilik pund suid por icons of earh college, all the academical the orders it belongedl, is used for the grammar-school, and torpes are cuitend. Tor thousandang trade once carried | stands in South Street, about 200 yards from the West 011 in medical degrees han lyen given up. A grammar- | pori; it has, however, been entirely modernised. Another schri, am ad schs for Engingin writing and arithmetic, fragment of the same convent with an arched roof is, me neler the patrace of the corporation. Dr. Bell, perhaps, the most beautiful specimen of pointed archi1. seu fisabiler of the Naras laten of eduration, has given i terture in St. Andrews. The other convent was about liu

pencil donatin of 5,0001., 3 per cent. stuck, for, Sards from the west port of North Street outside of the towni. the col.ll! slunent of a comprehensive seminary of educa- Buih were deroolished in consequence of Knox's preaching tn in this bus naudose city, to be called the Madras Cols in June, 1359, when the cathedral was destroyed. lege. The builings for this school, forrning a large and On the shore of St. Andrew's Bay, on a ridge or cliff, hatilo'nde edities on the south side of South Street, some washed on the N. and E, sides by the sea are the ruins of T! 11.4** **st fr m St. Mary College, are nearly complete the castle, which serve as a land-mark to scamen. There

Tive and quality of St. Amorus are numerous and in- are some parts of the walls standing on the W. and E., but 1. Frang. The which are ecelestaral slated near together others have fallen from the encroachment of the sea, wluch J'ht! hardwur. The list anant is the chapel, (si has here gained considerably on the land, while a little way funze) atwit f rty yanla S.E of the cathedral,) the foun- ; N.W. of the castle, (on the Links) as we have seen, it dation of wluh the legi auri'n* to St. Regulus, (com has thrown up earthy matter. The keep or donjon at tie monly called St Rul) the traditionary founder of the north-west corner is entire. This castle was built by Bishop i'ase, b stolovih i porodighly 100 years old at least. The Roger about A.D. 1200, and subsequently enlarged. In sin is, that a baris pusmil

, the ab!wt's a mastery at Patræ, 1336, it was then and garrisoned by Edward III. of Endo (Pairas,) in Alma, laving been warned in a dream wland; re-taken the toilowing year, and nearly demolistei dear! w the delay cu an imanii caled aivan, situated in Bishop Traià repaired it towards the end of the fourteenth tae fastlausi extremity of the Western world, wet sand with century, and it became the episcopal residunce, li was


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