Natural Theology. No. XIII-Of the Face, Complexion and Speech. 203 these erroneous opinions are exploded, agulated substance is the seat of colour and instead of seeing ground for the in the skin, and that whiclı causes the slavery and ill-treatment of our fellow- various shades of complexion in the creatures, in the difference of their different inhabitants of the globe, from complexion from our own, the philo. the equator to the poles; being, in the sopher and the Christian contemplate bighest latitudes of the temperate zone, the shades of the human countenance, generally fair, but becoming swarthy, as he does the variety of its features, olive, tawny and black, as we descend and beholds alikein both the provident towards the south. design and work of the Supreme Ar- These different colours are with, chitect.

out doubt best adapted to their respecDr. Hunter, who considered this tive zones, although we are ignorant subject more accurately than has com how they act in fitting us for situations monly been done, determines abso- that are so different; and the capabi. lutely against any specific difference Tity of the human countenance to ac, among mankind. He introduces his commodate itself to every climate, by subject by observing, that on the ques- contracting after a due time the shade tion whether all the human race con proper to it, affords a fine illustration stituted one or more species, much of the benevolence of the Almighty. confusion has arisen from the sense in This pliancy of nature is favourable to which the term species has been adopt- the increase and extension of mankind ed. He accordingly defines the term, and to the cultivation and settlement and includes under it all those animals of the earth: it tends to unite the most which produce issue capable of propa, distant nations-to facilitate the ac, gating others resembling the original quisition and improvement of science, stock from whence they sprung; and which would otherwise be confined to in this sense of the terın he concludes, a few objects and to a very limited that all of them are to be considered range, and likewise by opening the as belonging to the same species. And way to an universal intercourse of men as in plants one species comprehends and things, to elevate the various naseveral varieties depending on climate, tions of the earth to the feelings of a soil, culture, &c. so he considers the common nature and a common interest. diversities of the human race to be Of Speech. In addition to what merely varieties of the same species, has already been said on the human produced by natural causes. Upon the voice, we may observe, that the organs whole, colour and figure may be styled for effecting speech are the inouth, the habits of body. Like other habits they windpipe and the lungs. The mouth are created not by great and sudden needs no description. The windpipe is impressions, but by continual and al- a passage coinmencing at the back part most imperceptible touches. Of ha- of the inouth, and thence descending bits, both of mind and body, nations along the neck, it opens iuto the lungs; are susceptible as well as individuals. at the upper pare it is constructed of They are transinitted to their offspring five thin cartilages, connected by ligaand augmented by inheritance. Longments and put into motion by small in growing to maturity, national fea- muscles. These cartilages form a kind tures, like national manners, become of chamber at ine head of the tube, fixed only after a succession of ages. which is situated at the root of the They become, however, fixed at last; tongue. The opening of this chamber and if we can ascertain any effect pro- into the throat is a very narrow chink, duced by a given state of climate, or which is dilated and contracted to pro. other círcumstances, it requires only duce every change in the modulation a repetition during a sufficient length of the voice, by the muscles attached of time to augmentandinpress it with to the cartilages, To defend this opena permanent character.

ing there is a beautiful contrivance of It is ascertained that what we deno- au elastic valve which falls flat upon minate the skin of the human body it whenever we swallow, like the key consists of three parts, separable from of a wind instrument, and which' at one another: viz. the scarf-skin, which other times rises up and leaves the is external, the thicker or true skin aperture uncovered for the uninterbeneath it, and a coagulated substance rupted ingress and egress of the air into which lies between both, This co- the lungs. . The windpipe, or tube, 204 Dr. Chauncey's Opinion of the Future State. . 205 in which the total omission of the munication with the world they shall word actually clears the sense in the then be placed in; that they will be. quotation.

S. W. or the Use of the word But.

leading to the longs is so formed as to change of subject, or an opposition to be always open, and to resist compres- what went before.” He, however, sion; at the same time it is quite flex- modestly suspects he may be mistaken, ible, and gives way to all the bendings and asks for information. of the neck; had it not been so we On reference to the “ Diversions of should have been in perpetual hazard Purley," Vol. i. p. 190, &c., I, W. of strangulation. The passage to the and such other of your readers as are stomach, on the contrary, being in- fond of language, may find a clear and tended only for occasional use, has its copious exposition of the word bui. sides always collapsed, upless when Lest, however, I. W. should not have distended by the passing of food. The that inestimable work at hand, which lungs are two cellular bags for contain- it is evident he has never read, I will ing air; they are situated in the chest, endeavour to give him in a few words and both open into the bottom of the a sketch of the learned author's lumiwindpipe.

nous view of the subject. He says, In the act of inspiration the air die “it was the corrupt use of this one lates the lungs; these, like bellows, word (but) in modern English, for two force it back in expiration into the words (bot and but), originally (in the windpipe : here the air is straitened Anglo-Saxon) very different in signiin its passage, and made to rush with fication, which misled John Locke, force along the tube towards its upper and which puzzled Johnson in his Dic. end, where it is variously modulated, tionary, where he has numbered up and the sound of the voice is produced. eighteen different significations of the In articulation the voice is required to word." The first mentioned but or bot pass through the mouth, where it is is the imperative of botan, and answers differently modified by the action of to sed in Latin and mais in French, the tongue, which is either pushed and this appears to be the l'ét to which against the teeth or upward against the I. W. has confined his definition or palate, detaining it in its passage or description-the other but is derived permitting it to flow freely by cone from bute, or butari, or be-utan, and tracting or dilating the mouth. It has answers to nisi in Latin " this last been remarked of the tongue, that it is but (as distinguished from bot) and the only muscle of the body under the wilhout have both exactly the same controul of the will, which is not meaning; that is, in modern English, wearied by incessant use. . neither more nor les than be-out."

Speech is a high and distinguishing It is this last but, the want of the prerogative of mxn. By this noble knowlelge of which has occasioned all faculty we are enabled to express all the perplexity both in the mind of our feelings and inclinations; to com- your correspondent and also of many municate our thoughts, and blend our of his more learned predecessors, and energies, our knowledge and disco- which knowledge was never clearly veries, with those of others. In writo developed but by that man whose phiten language, form and permanence lological labours are an honour to his dre given to evanescent sounds : the memory, and whose valuable papers, ideas and the improvements of one age having been com initted to the flames are transmitted to a succeeding one: by himself in a fit of spleen, are an itthe superior acquirements of one coun- reparable loss to the republic of letters, try are scattered over distant regions, and operate as a serious visitation of the and knowledge, civilization and happi. injuries he suffered, on generations yet pess diffused far and wide.

unborn-a retaliation of injustice, not on those who committed it, but on

innocent and unconscious inquirers. V OUR correspondent I. W.,p.23, The omission of negation before but

has quoted passages from several is one of the most blameable and corAuthors, in which he conceives the word rupt abbreviations of construction in but has been improperly used ; and in our language. In the example, my order to give his notion of the mean- intent is but to play, was formerly ing of the word, he says, " This is a writen, my intent is not but to play. conjunction, which when we meet Most of the instances which I. w. yith it is a kind of stop in the sense, has given of the improper use of the and prepares the mind to expect a word but exhibit a perfect redundancy


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come fitted for sensations of pain, vasta

Jy more various in kind, and greater u I trembling wak'd and for a season after

in degree, than at present, which yet Could not believe but that I was in hell."

they will be able to endure for a much I think he will discover the evident longer continuance; but that, in time, difference between that but which an. the torments they must endure, will swers to his description and the but (again) end in death, that is, in a (se which Mr. Tooke derives from be-utan cond) dissolution of the union between and signifies be-out, nisi.

their souls and their bodies; that, in S. W. God's time, their souls shall be (again)

united to their bodies; and if, by means Mansfield, March 11, 1816. of the torments of hell, they have SIR,

been humbled, and so brought into BEG leave to propose to your cor- subjection to the government of God, 1 respondent W. H. to reconsider as that they are meet for his mercy in the ground upon which he has stated Jesus Christ, the bodies they shall be it as Dr. Chauncey's sentiment, “thàt related to shall, by the Divine wisdom the righteous, in successive ages, will and power, be fitted for that glorious pass through many deaths, or states of dispensation when God shall be all in oblivion" (M. Rep. for Feb. p. 69). all; but, if not, they shall again, in The Doctor's words, in his treatise some other form of existence, be put « On the Salvation of all Men" (Lon- into a state of suffering and discipline, don, printed in 1784) are as follows: till at length they are, in a wise and “ Some will be disposed and enabled rational way, prepared for final and in this present state, to niake such im- everlasting happiness" (p. 281, 282). provements in virtue, the only rational On the contrary, he maintains, in repreparative for happiness, as that they gard to the righteous," that they shall enter upon the enjoyment of it is will pass into that final dispensation, in the next state. Others, who have (in which God himself will be immeproved incurable under the means diately all in all), not by dying again, which have been used with them in but probably in some way analogous this state, instead of being happy in to that in which the believers that are the next, will be awfully miserable ; alive on the earth at Christ's second not to continue so finally, but that coming, shall pass into the resurrecthey may be convinced of their folly · tion state ; upon which account their and recovered to a virtuous frame of life and happiness may properly be miod. And this, as I suppose, will said never to have an end” (p. 283): be the effect of the future torments in proof of which he refers to those upon many; the consequence whereof passages which speak of their not being will be their salvation, they being thus hurt by the second death, of their fitted for it. And there may be yet putting on incorruption and immorother states, before the scheme of God tality, and especially to that declaramay be perfected, and mankind uni- tion of Jesus that they can die no more. versally cured of their moral disorders, (Rev. ii. ii, i Cor. xv, 53, 54, Luke and in this way qualified for, and fi- xx. 36-see p. 287). Without entering nally instated in, eternal happiness," into a discussion of Dr. Chauncey's (p. 12.) He considers the “death," opinions concerning the nature of man, which is said (Rom. vi. 23,) to be or the operation and effect of death, I $' the wages of sin," as the same with presuine that these quotations will suf. what is called (Rev. ii. 11, xx. 14, ficiently prove that the sentiment asxxi. 8.)“ the second death" (p. 277). cribed to him (that the righteous wilt, And, having asserted (p. 279)“ that in successive ages, pass through many the first death is intended to put an deaths) was not his. end, not to our existence, but only to

. J.T. its present mode, with all its connections and dependencies,” he maintains,

Bromley, Jan. 12, 1816. that, “at the resurrection, the souls of wicked men will be again related or COPY of the foregoing Resoluunited to particular systems of matter, tions of a Meeting having been soinehow adaptel, by the wisdom of God, to render then capable of com • Inserted p. 50.- Ed.





Belfast- Resolutions on Persecution in France. lately sent me by a much valued friend sured the proceedings in the South of of mine, who took a prominent part France if we had not impartially rein the proceedings of the day, I send probated the conduct of our Irish the same to you, not doubting but they Orangemen, as being alike hostile to will be generally acceptable to your the principles of civil and religious lireaders, as a gratifying proof how berty." warmly “ the cause of universal liber Yesterday's post brought me the ty of conscience" has been recently as- Belfast Commercial Chronicle of Sam serted in the sister kingdom, by per- turday, Jan. 6), 1816, from which I soits of the inost opposite sentiments send you the following interesting ler oli the doctrines of the Christian reli- ters, and remain, sincerely yours, ,

THOMAS FOSTER. After expressing his preferenee for the 5th of those Resolutions as it was

Friends of Civil and Religious Liberty. fitst moved, my friend in a letter an

The following correspondence on the

subject of the Resolution passed at the nered to thein makes the following

Meeting held in this town on the 11th velt. pertinent observations, which you are

has taken place. The Resolution ran thus: åt liberty to present to your readers. Resolved Unanimously—Ihat the thanks "I do not," says he, « charge the of this meeting be returned to DANIEL British ministers with directly proino O'CONNELL, Esq. as being the first in Ire tiing persecution in France, but I cer- land to call public attention to the Persecue tainly do conceive they were less sus- tion of the Protestants in France, at a meet: ceptible of alarms on this subject than ing of the Catholic Association in Dublin,; in their zeal against liberty and revo

thus evincing, that in the honourable pur lutionary principles. They were anx

suit of Catholic emancipation, and protec ious to place the old dynasty on the

tion froin the hostility of Orange Outragen throne of France; thus ihey risked the

he only sought for himself, and his fellow

Catholics, that Liberty which he was equal. more than probable return of the bi.

sy ready to grant to others." Bötry which characterized many of this

Lisburn, 12th Month, 13th, 1815. feeble race. In the present temper of DEAR FRIEND-I have great satisfaction the times, the governors intoxicated in communicating to thee the annexed rowith their triumphs on the restoration solution of a meeting held in Beltast on the of legitiinate despotism, and the people 1ith inst. It is a just tribute to thy homeanly crouching to them, I should nourable firmness and zeal in the cause of not be much surprised, if for a season,

civil and religious liberty, which, after a arbitrary power should again come into

close attention, I have always tound to be fashion, and by the people surrender

displayed in thy public conduct, as well as

in the private currespondence with which ing their rights, freedom, bóih civil

thou hast occasionally favoured me. and religious, should becoine · Dream

I am, with siucere respect, thine truly, of a dream and shadow of a shade.'

JOIIN IHANCOCK. “I embraced the opportunity of the Dan. O'CONNELL, Dublin. persecution in France by Catholics to turn the public attention to the perse

Merrion Square, 16th Dec. 1816. cution at home of our Protestant MY DEAR' SIR-Tbe kind manner ise Church and State inob against Catho. which you have transmitted to me the vote lies, and even against the liberalamong

“ of the friends of civil and religious liberty the Protestants. Our domestic perse

in Belfast," demands muy sincerest thanks, cution is less severe than the late at

I am truly proud of that vote. It is a rich tacks in France, but in the course of

Teward, infinitely beyond the value of iny

poor exertions in the sacred cause of treetwenty-two years many have fallen durú 'of conscience. victims to it, and many Catholie cha

I have ever squglit Catholic emancipation pels have been burned, as well as in- on principle, and as a matter of sight. That numerable ontrages of less inagnitude prineiple, if established, would be equally committed. The Orangemen have also useful to the Protestant in France and gone as far as the spirit of the times Italy, as to the Catholic in Ireland. It is and the circuinstances of the country a principle which would leave conscience would permit, and our Irish persecus

free and unshackled in every country, ami tiön has only differed from the French



without which real liberty cannot, ia my in being more limited in extent, but

opinion, exist in any country. not in the spirit which actuated it. In

“As a Catholic I feel myself bound, bot

only by the genuine precepts of my religion, short, I think it would have been hy- but by the glorious example of other Capocritical affectation in us to have cen- thólics, to be the first in my humble sphere


Proposal for Abolition of Tythes,

207 to disclaim and oppose" the persecution of to their proper rank and station in the Protestants. The state which first, after community. the reformation, established freedom of con The abolition of tythes would be science, was a Roman Catholic State--that

also a national advantage, especially -of Maryland, in North America. The only

in the present distressed state of agrigovernment in modern days that has granted

culture, whose necessities imperiously total and unqualified emancipation to a religion different from its own, is the Roman

demand their remission. Catholic Government of Hungary ; in which

Who are the persons that would the Protestants were in our own times fully consider themselves aggrieved ? Those emancipated by their Roman Catholic coun who are not entitled to any favour or trymen.

consideration from the public,--the inLet us hope that the day is not distant, dolent and luxurious clergy, the when those noble ex.mples of justice and "fruges consumere nati." I compare pure religion will be not only admired but this class to a large and increasing wen imitat d by Christians of all denominations. attached to the body politic, which is Let us hope that man shall at length be al

drawing off its nourishment, and will Towed o worship his Creator according to the dictates of his conscience, without the

prevent its restoration to health until impious interference of penal laws; and that it be removed. bigotry and persecution may be banished The money drawn annually from the from anjongst nations boasting of Christiani industrious part of the community'unty and civilization.

der the head of tythes is enormous, and I have the honour to be,

the shameful manner in which it is With sincere respect,

distributed renders the burthen more Your very faithful and obedient servant, grievous and intolerable.

DANIEL O'CONNELL. With civil sinecures let us then get Jown Hancock, Lisburn,

rid of spiritual ones, and it would

strengthen us to raise the supplies for Soulhampton, 13th March, 1816.

the year, and save us from the alarm

ing apprehensions and dreadful conseT COULD wish to draw the atten

quences which our present distressed I tion of your readers to the great

and oppressed state cannot fail to exquestion of a religious establishment

'cite in the breast of every thiriking

man. is it wise, just, necessary or politic?

B. T. The Dissenters from the Establishment are now become so numerous and respectable as to challenge and deserve

Sir, the serious attention of the legislature

T COPY the subjoined from Niles's -let them then unite on the broad

1 Weekly Register, published in

Baltimore, America, Vol. II. p. 33, ground of dissent, and present a respectful petition to the House of Com

thinking it not unsuitable to your

work. mons, that they may be no longer sub.

A. B. ject to the payment of tythes."

To be obliged to support a church Legislature of Kentucky, Jan. 10, 1812. whose doctrines we reprobate, as contrary to reason and scripture; and to

Report of the Committee of Religion. be punished and disgraced for our dis

The Committee of Religion to whom was sent, by being excluded from the dis

referred the petitions of sundry persons re

specting the people called SHAKERS, have, charge of civil offices, is no longer to

according to order, had the subjects of the be borne.

same under consideration, and beg leave to Let every congregation then be re

reportquired only to support its own minis Without regard to religious persuasions, ter, as is the case in America, and sects or faith, of any particular denominaelsewhere - particularly in Prussia; tion whatever, your committee recommend and let not one sect be obliged to saps to the consideration and adoption of the port another, by a tax levied upon the house,

house, the following Resolutions : community at large.

1st. Resolved That an open renuricia, The beneficial effects of such an ar

tion of the marriage vow and contract and

total abstinence from sexual and connubial rangement, in whatever light we view

intercourse, agreeably to the intentions and them, are greater than many persons

objects of matrimony, ought to be provided are aware of. One in particular would against by law. be, the abolition of religious distinc- 2nd. Resolved - That provision ought to tions, and the restoration of Dissenters be made by law, for the competent support

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