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Augustines (Bristol) over against the high altar, in a monck's cowle, an usual fashion for great peeres in those tymes, esteemed as an amulet, or defensative to the soule, and as a scala cœli, a ladder of life eternal." In Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare, and of Ancient Manners, i. 493, are woodengravings of several Roman amulets; these were intended against fascination in general, but more particularly against that of the evil eye. Such, he observes, p. 497, are still used in Spain by women and children, precisely in the same manner as formerly among the Romans.
Lupton, in his fourth book of Notable Things (edit. 8vo. 1660, p. 92), 41, says: "A piece of a child's navell string, borne in a ring, is good against the falling sickness, the pain of the head, and the collick.-Miz."
Park, in his Travels in the Interior of Africa, speaking of a Mahometan Negro, who, with the ceremonial part of that religion, retained all his ancient superstition, says that "in the midst of a dark wood he made a sign for the company to stop, and, taking hold of an hollow piece of bamboo that hung as an amulet round his neck, whistled very loud three times; this, he said, was to ascertain what success would attend the journey. He then dismounted, laid his spear across the road, and having said a short number of prayers, concluded with three loud whistles; after which he listened for some time, as if in expectation of an answer, and, receiving none, said the company might proceed without fear, as there was no danger."
Gaule, in his Mag-astromancers Posed and Puzzel'd, p. 192, inquires "whether pericepts, amulets, præfiscinals, phylacteries, niceteries, ligatures, suspensions, charms, and spells, had ever been used, applyed, or carryed about, but for magick and astrologie? Their supposed efficacy (in curing diseases and preventing of perils) being taught from their fabrication, configuration, and confection, under such and such sydereal aspects, conjunctions, constellations." His preceding observations upon alchemy are too pointed and sensible not to be retained: "Whether alchymie (that enticing yet nice harlot) had made so many fooles and beggars, had she not clothed or painted herself with such astrological phrases and magical practises? But I let this kitchen magick or chimney astrology passe. The sweltering drudges and smoaky scullions of it (if they may not bring in new fuel to the fire) are soon taught (by their past observed folly) to cminate their own late repentance. But if they will obstinately persist, in hope to sell their smoak, let others beware how they buy it too dear."
THE LEE-PENNY, OR LEE-STONE.
[THE Lee-penny, or Lee-stone, is a curious piece of antiquity belonging to the family of Lee in Scotland.
It is a stone, of a dark red colour and triangular shape, and its size about half an inch on each side. It is set in a piece of silver coin, which, though much defaced, by some letters still remaining, it is supposed to be a shilling of Edward the First, the cross being very plain, as it is on his shillings. It has been, by tradition, in the Lee family since the year 1320; that is, a little after the death of King Robert Bruce, who having ordered his heart to be carried to the Holy Land, there to be buried, one of the noble family of Douglas was sent with it, and it is said got the crowned heart in his arms from that circumstance; but the person who carried the heart was Simon Locard of Lee, who just about this time borrowed a large sum of money from Sir William de Lindsay, a prior of Ayr, for which he granted a bond of annuity of ten pounds. of silver, during the life of the said Sir William de Lindsay, out of his lands of Lee and Cartland. The original bond, dated 1323, and witnessed by the principal nobility of the country, is still remaining among the family papers.
As this was a great sum in those days, it is thought it was borrowed for that expedition; and from his being the person who carried the royal heart, he changed his name to Lockheart, as it is sometimes spelt, or Lockhart, and got a heart within a lock for part of his arms, with the motto Corda serata pando. This Simon Lockhart having taken prisoner a Saracen prince or chief, his wife came to ransom him, and on counting out the money or jewels, this stone fell out of her purse, which she hastily snatched up; which Simon Lockhart observing, insisted to have it, else he would not give up his prisoner. Upon this the lady gave it him, and told him its many virtues, viz. that it cured all diseases in cattle, and the bite of a mad dog both in man and beast. It is used by dipping the stone in water, which is given to the diseased cattle to drink; and the person who has been bit, and the wound or part infected, is washed with the water. There are no words used in the dipping of the stone, nor any money taken by the servants, without incurring the owner's displeasure. Many are
the cures said to be performed by it; and people come from all parts of Scotland, and even as far up in England as Yorkshire, to get the water in which the stone is dipped, to give their cattle, when ill of the murrain especially, and black leg. A great many years ago, a complaint was made to the ecclesiastical courts, against the Laird of Lee, then Sir James Lockhart, for using witchcraft. It is said, when the plague was last at Newcastle, the inhabitants sent for the Lee-penny, and gave a bond for a large sum in trust for the loan; and that they thought it did so much good, that they offered to pay the money, and keep the Lee-penny; but the gentleman would not part with it. A copy of this bond is very well attested to have been among the family papers, but supposed to have been spoiled along with many more valuable ones, about fifty years ago, by rain getting into the charter-room, during a long minority, and no family residing at Lee.
The most remarkable cure performed upon any person, was that of Lady Baird, of Sauchton Hall, near Edinburgh; who having been bit by a mad dog, was come the length of hydrophobia; upon which, having sent to beg the Lee-penny might be sent to her house, she used it for some weeks, drinking and bathing in the water it was dipped in, and was quite recovered. This happened above eighty years ago; but it is very well attested, having been told by the lady of the then Laird of Lee, and who died within these thirty years. She also told, that her husband, Mr. Lockhart, and she were entertained at Sauchton Hall, by Sir Robert Baird and his lady, for several days, in the most sumptuous manner, on account of the lady's recovery, and in gratitude for the loan of the Lee-penny so long, as it was never allowed to be carried from the house of Lee.
N.B. It was tried by a lapidary, and found to be a stone; but of what kind he could not tell.]
"Tu ne quæsieris scire (nefas) quem mihi, quem tibi
Since 'tis impiety to pry
Into the rolls of destiny,
Hor. Carm. lib. i. Od. 11.
Heed not the secrets they impart
DIVINATIONS differ from omens in this, that the omen is an indication of something that is to come to pass, which happens to a person, as it were by accident, without his seeking for it; whereas divination is the obtaining of a knowledge of something future, by some endeavour of his own, or means which he himself designedly makes use of for that end.
Gaule, in his Mag-astromancers Posed and Puzzel'd, p. 165, enumerates as follows the several species of divination: "Stareomancy, or divining by the elements; Aeromancy, or divining by the ayr; Pyromancy, by fire; Hydromancy, by water; Geomancy, by earth; Theomancy, pretending to divine by the revelation of the Spirit, and by the Scriptures, or word of God; Dæmonomancy, by the suggestions of evill dæmons or devils; Idolomancy, by idolls, images, figures; Psychomancy, by men's souls, affections, wills, religious or morall dispositions; Antinopomancy, by the entrails of men, women, and children; Theriomancy, by beasts; Ornithomancy, by birds; Ichthyomancy, by fishes; Botanomancy, by herbs; Lithomancy, by stones; Cleromancy, by lotts; Oniromancy, by dreams: Onomatomancy, by names; Arithmancy, by numbers; Logarithmancy, by logarithmes; Sternomancy, from the breast to the belly; Gastromancy, by the sound of, or signes upon the belly; Omphelomancy, by the navel; Chiromancy, by the hands; Pedomancy, by the feet; Onychomancy, by the nayles; Cephaleonomancy, by brayling of an asses head; Tuphramancy, by ashes; Capnomancy, by smoak; Livanomancy, by burning of frankincense; Carramancy, by melting of wax; Lecanomancy, by a basin of water; Catoxtromancy, by lookingglasses; Chartomancy, by writing in papers (this is retained in choosing Valentines, &c.); Macharomancy, by knives or swords; Chrystallomancy, by glasses; Dactalomancy, by rings; Coseinomancy, by sieves; Axinomancy, by sawes; Cattabo
mancy, by vessels of brasse or other metall; Roadomancy, by starres; Spatalamancy, by skins, bones, excrements; Scyomancy, by shadows; Astragalomancy, by dice; Oinomancy, by wine; Sycomancy, by figgs; Typomancy, by the coagulation of cheese; Alphitomancy, by meal, flower, or branne; Crithomancy, by grain or corn; Alectromancy, by cocks or pullen; Gyromancy, by rounds or circles; Lampadomancy, by candles and lamps; and in one word for all, Nagomancy, or Necromancy, by inspecting, consulting, and divining by, with, or from the dead." In Holiday's Marriage of the Arts, 4to., is introduced a species of divination not in the above ample list of them, entitled Anthropomancie.
There were among the ancients divinations by water, fire, earth, air; by the flight of birds, by lots, by dreams, by the wind, &c. I suppose the following species of divination must be considered as a vestige of the ancient hydromancy. An essayist in the Gent. Mag. for March, 1731, i. 110, introduces "a person surprising a lady and her company in close cabal over their coffee; the rest very intent upon one, who by her dress and intelligence he guessed was a tire-woman; to which she added the secret of divining by coffee-grounds; she was then in full inspiration, aud with much solemnity observing the atoms round the cup; on one hand sat a widow, on the other a married lady, both attentive to the predictions to be given of their future fate. The lady (his acquaintance), though marryed, was no less earnest in contemplating her cup than the other two. They assured him that every cast of the cup is a picture of all one's life to come; and every transaction and circumstance is delineated with the exactest certainty." From the Weekly Register, March 20, No. xc. The same practice is noticed in the Connoisseur, No. 56, where a girl is represented divining to find out of what rank her husband shall be: "I have seen him several times in coffee-grounds, with a sword by his side; and he was once at the bottom of a teacup in a coach and six, with two footmen behind it."
To the divination' by water also must be referred the following passage in a list of superstitious practices preserved in the Life of Harvey, the famous Conjurer of Dublin, 8vo, Dubl. 1728, p. 58: "Immersion of wooden bowls in water, sinking
See a prodigious variety of these divinations, alphabetically enumerated and explained, in Fabricii Bibliographia Antiquaria, cap. xxi. Consult also Potter's Greek Antiq. vol. i. pp. 348 et seq.