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8. - 1. A Treatise on the Tactical Use of the Three Arms, Infantry,
Artillery, and Cavalry. By FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, late Colonel
Volunteers. New York : D. Van Nostrand. 1865. 12mo.
Second California Infantry, and Brevet Brigadier-General U. S.
Volunteers. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 1866. 12mo. 3. The Special Operations of War, comprising the Forcing and Defence of Defiles ; the Forcing and Defence of Rivers, and the Passage of Rivers in Retreat ; the Attack and Defence of Open Towns and Villages ; the Conduct of Detachments for Special Purposes ; and Notes on Tactical Operations in Sieges. By Francis J. LIPPITT, late Colonel Second California Infantry, and Brevet BrigadierGeneral U. S. Volunteers. Providence: Sydney S. Rider and Brother. 1868. 12mo.
THESE Treatises are well printed, and are uniform in size and binding. They are not too large for the pocket, and their contents fit them well to be companions of those who have any taste for the subjects of which they treat, or who desire to learn something of the profession of the soldier. The work of preparing them has been extremely well done, so well, indeed, that one is not surprised to learn from the dedication of one of the volumes that the author was once a pupil of the accomplished Professor Mahan, of West Point. Their merit has been readily recognized in high quarters in this country, and they have been sold to some extent in England.
They were composed in the second and third years of our late war, in the form of lectures for the instruction of the regimental officers under the command of the author. The second Treatise is an improvement upon the first, though that is good, and the third, without being, perhaps, a better piece of work than the second, is much more interesting and attractive, as a text-book on astronomy is more agreeable reading than one on algebra.
There are two classes of persons who ought to read these books. The officers of the Regular Army constitute the first class. It would probably do no harm to the graduates of West Point now serving in the cavalry and infantry to revive the knowledge they acquired at that institution by an occasional resort to General Lippite's Treatises. But the army of the United States is not now officered exclusively, or even mainly, by graduates of West Point. A glance at the Army Register is sufficient to show that more than half of the line officers of artillery, and more than nine tenths of the line officers of cavalry and
infantry, now in service, have been appointed from civil life. Most of them are assigned to duty at such posts that they have no inconsiderable amount of leisure at their disposal. They could hardly do better than to devote a portion of it to making themselves familiar with the contents of these books. As a rule, they owe their appointments to good service performed by them as volunteers. With the practical knowledge thus acquired, they would find it easy to master all that General Lippitt has set down, and with such additions to their attainments they would take a long step from the rank of efficient soldiers to that of accomplished officers.
The second class is composed of that considerable portion of the community which is made up of those who, whether they have served or not, have been led by the late war to take an interest in the principles of the military art and the application of those principles. Few of those who belong to this class are so well instructed that they would derive no profit from reading these volumes. The great majority would do well to read them carefully and consult them frequently. Newspapers and books have made them familiar with the principal erents of our campaigns, and perhaps their reading has extended so far as to embrace the campaigns of Napoleon, or even those of Marlborough and Frederick the Great. From such reading they acquire a large knowledge of facts with but little knowledge of principles, They know that this or that battle was won or lost, that this or that place was besieged and taken or besieged in vain, and that so many men, under such and such generals, were engaged on each side, and they know little more. By an attentive reading of General Lippitt's concise, well-written, well-arranged books, they may acquire a clear insight into the unsuspected causes and reasons of many events with which they are perfectly well acquainted. By drawing his illustrations freely and aptly from the history of the late war of secession, the author has invested them, and especially the Treatise on Intrenchments and that on the Special Operations of the Art of War, with a peculiar freshness and interest for American students and readers. There is no padding in his books, they are thoroughly compact and business-like, and a familiarity with their contents tends directly to produce clear ideas and correct views. They deserve a cordial welcome, and it is to be hoped that they will receive it.
9.--A Half-Century with Juvenile Delinquents; or, the New York
House of Refuge and its Times. By B. K. Peirce, D. D., Chaplain of the House of Refuge. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1869.
DR. Peirce is a kindly and eloquent preacher of the Methodist Church, who, after acting for some years as head of the State Industrial School for Girls at Lancaster in Massachusetts, became chaplain of the great reformatory of the city of New York, of which he has now written the history. It is the largest establishment of its class in the country, which is as much as to say, in the world ; for, in reality, the American reformatories supported by cities and States make a distinct class among institutions of this kind. They are not prisons; yet they receive all their inmates by sentence from some court or magistrate, and they are a part of the recognized penal system of the community
which they are established. They are supported wholly or mainly by public funds, and are managed in part by public officers; yet they are generally private corporations in their form of organization, and have as yet been kept clear of the political influences which have corrupted the management of many of our prisons. This is true even in New York, where political corruption has reached its highest development; and nothing is more striking in the history of this House of Refuge, as Dr. Peirce relates it, than the high character and excellent motives of its managers from first to last. Among its founders, fifty years ago, were Dr. John Griscom, Rev. Dr. Stanford, Joseph Curtis, and James W. Gerard, and the line of succession has been kept up by good men ever since.
There is no danger, in a book such as this, that these men and their coadjutors will not receive praise enough ; but there is some risk that their faults and errors of judgment may not be so clearly seen as their wise measures and the general good result of them. There is little in Dr. Peirce's book to indicate that the New York House of Refuge has any faults at all: praise is bestowed without stint; the bright side of the enterprise is the only one much considered, and the reader may easily be led to suppose that there is no other. This is natural, and, in one sense, it is commendable; for, beyond doubt, the general drift of all such enterprises is for good, and even for inestimable good. But, on the other hand, a mistake or a false principle inwrought in the structure of a benevolent establishment does all the more harm the older and stronger it grows.
Such a mistake we believe the system of congregation, as practişed at Randall's Island, to be; and all the piety, benevolence, wisdom, and vigilance of the men and women in authority there cannot prevent it from having hurtful results, - at any rate,
when compared with the working of a more natural system. If the managers had long ago resolved that they would never have more than two hundred children in one establishment, nor half so many when they could help it; and if they had early begun to throw off colonies and swarms from their great hive, placing them in country scenes, and where the children could readily have found homes in the families of well-to-do farmers, mechanics, clergymen, schoolmasters, and other good people, - the blessing upon their labors would be now, we believe, much greater than it is. The evil which they seek to cure springs in great part from the crowding of people in cities: the remedy for it must be sought in rustication, as far as possible; and it is possible to secure the remedy in much larger measure in a half-dozen colonies of young delinquents in the country than in one great receptacle in the city of New York. Would Dewetz ever have built his Mettroy in a suburb of Paris ?
Yet we find this volume one of great interest and value. It aims at being a history, not only of the establishment to which it relates, but of the whole modern movement for the reformation of young delinquents, upon which it does, in fact, throw much light. There is a lack of method and of chronological order, and too great an infusion of mere didactical and hortatory writing, as is common with clergymen; and more prominence is given to the commonplace remarks or the excellent character of Hon. A. B., Rev. C. D., E. F., Esq., &c., than the subject seems to require. But this fault is inseparable from a work prepared as this bas been, and, like the other defects of which we have spoken, indicates an amiable spirit in the author. He deserves thanks for what he has done, both as chaplain and as author.
10.- Familiar Quotations, being an Attempt to trace to their Source
Passages and Phrases in Common Use. By John BARTLETT. 5th Edition. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co. 1868. 12mo. pp. xii., 778.
We are glad to see that the appreciation of Mr. Bartlett's taste and diligence has forced him pleasantly to a fifth edition, for with every revisal his collection gains in completeness and accuracy. This is a kind of work which to do well demands time and pains, nor has the author stinted either. The very index has more honest labor in it than is shown by many volumes of more pretension; and, though the substance of the book be in one sense second-hand, yet the plan of it is original, and the execution demanded research and judgment. Mr. Bartlett's object has not been to supply us with ready-made learning and impromptu felicity of allusion, but to restore the estrays of literature to their rightful owners. While he was thus in some sort acting as a detective of plagiaries, it is rather amusing that an Englishman named Friswell should have been quietly plagiarizing him.
In a work of this kind approximative exactness is all that can be fairly expected. Every one of these needles of wit must be hunted through the whole hay-mow of literature. To satisfy all demands, the author of a dictionary of quotations should have everything that has ever been written anywhere at the tip of his memory. And this might almost have been possible before printing had made mediocrity and dulness impervious to decay. Paper and types cheaply furnish that antiseptic which erewhile the memory of mankind secreted, drop by "drop, for the royal race alone. Obscurity may now insure itself against “envious and calumniating Time” on as easy terms as genius. Mr. Bartlett often finds in forgotten books the germs of phrases which have become popular and current on the authority of some famous
As in the Roman Carnival, some taller or more active fellow will light his taper at another, and in doing so contrive to extinguish the source of his own lustre.
“Così ha tolto l'uno all'altro Guido
La gloria della lingua, e forse è nato
Take, for example, the saying that language was given us to conceal our thoughts. Talleyrand commonly gets the credit of it, under that rule of giving unto him that hath which men are more apt to apply in the case of wit than elsewhere. Mr. Bartlett traces this bit of stolen property through half a dozen hands up to Jeremy Taylor. We shall be surprised if in some future edition he do not find the bishop's title precarious. The sentence certainly has the true Macchiavellian flavor. But whoever shall turn out to be the true owner, the excommunicated bishop of Autun will prevail, we suspect, against his saintly brother of Down and Connor. Habent sua fata errea Trepóevra, and this is a kind of thing Talleyrand ought to have said. So he will probably keep it for this generation at least, and then it will be re-fathered on the likeliest wit of the next. In such cases Coleridge's plea,
“'T is mine and it is likewise yours,
But, an if this will not do,
Am the poorer of the two," is of no avail, for it is the richer man who is apt to carry the day. Among those whom Mr. Bartlett brings into court as concerned in the